Consortium on Climate Change & Population Health The Consortium on Climate Change & Population Health Blog Feed http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium.aspx http://backend.userland.com/rss South Africa 2010-2011 Fame & Fortune - Expectations & Epidemics <div style="text-align: right;"></div> <p style="text-align: center;">&nbsp;<a href="http://www.fifa.com/"><img src="http://www.igi-global.com/Libraries/Blog_Post_Images/logo.sflb.ashx" alt="2010 World Cup" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> What do the World Cup and the United Nations Climate Change Meetings have in common? For one thing, the final day of the intersession climate talks was also the kickoff for the 2010 World Cup. To mark the auspicious coincidence, outgoing head of the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat, Yvo de Boer, appeared at the final plenary wearing a South African football shirt sporting ‘De Boer’ and the number 17– in reference to the COP171 climate change meetings which South Africa hosts in 2011. <br /> <p>(COP” is the United Nations acronym for “Council of Parties” and serves as shorthand for the climate change related meetings now held each year as global negotiations continue.) </p> <h5> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.igi-global.com/Libraries/Blog_Post_Images/director.sflb.ashx" alt="Yvo de Boer, appeared at the final plenary wearing a South African football shirt sporting ‘De Boer’ and the number 17– in reference to the COP171 climate change meetings which South Africa hosts in 2011" /></p> </h5> <br /> The timing only hints at connections between the two events. Both are what social scientists refer to as “mass gatherings” and both are occurring in South Africa less than 2 years apart. For the first time in the 101 year history of the World Cup, Africa is playing host to the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) June11-July 11, 2010. Then in December of 2011, South Africa will be the venue for COP17, the United Nations Climate Change meetings which are considered to be the next likely opportunity for reaching international climate agreements. Both events will bring large numbers of people and significant public attention to South Africa. <p>&nbsp;</p> South Africa will experience ecological, economic, social and health impacts during and after these major influxes of visitors. While some definitions of mass gatherings target numbers as low as 5,000, a 2007 Australian study focusing on emergency response and public health issues associated with gatherings sets the bar at 25,000 or more people gathered over a protracted period of time <a href="http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN029409.pdf">http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN029409.pdf</a>. Visitor numbers at the World Cup hover around 350,000 while more than 100,000 people are expected to visit South Africa in activities related to COP17. <br /> <br /> Host regions emphasize perceived benefits from such events through economic stimuli, prestige and infrastructure improvements. For the World Cup, BBC news cites statements from the UNDP’s lead technical adviser for climate change mitigation about leaving a legacy of improved public transportation system in South Africa’s cities <a href="http://worldbbnews.com/2010/06/world-cup-2010-climate-change-fouls-and-goals/">http://worldbbnews.com/2010/06/world-cup-2010-climate-change-fouls-and-goals/</a>. Cleaning up the cities, creating a rapid transit system of buses and the improvement of infrastructure for pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths benefit host communities in a country with 50% of its population living in poverty and an unemployment rate of 24%. <br /> <br /> Upfront costs of hosting these events, beginning with bidding expenses, are substantial. Although international investment helps to offset some costs, in a country with GDP per capita of about $10,000 per year, money doesn’t grow on marula fruit trees <a href="www.krugerpark.co.za/africa_marula.html">www.krugerpark.co.za/africa_marula.html</a>. Forbes reports that that the South African government spent $1.48 billion on stadium construction and renovation for the World Cup in order to meet FIFA facilities requirements <a href="http://www.forbes.com/2010/06/15/world-cup-economics-south-africa-opinions-contributors-brad-humphreys.html">http://www.forbes.com/2010/06/15/world-cup-economics-south-africa-opinions-contributors-brad-humphreys.html</a>. <br /> <br /> Less obvious costs are also attached to these events. Stadium construction and increased energy use associated with the football matches and visitor accommodations are predicted to be responsible for emissions of nearly 900,000 tons of carbon dioxide. And these figures do not include the largest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the games: “a predicted 1.9m tones” (2.09 U.S. tons) of CO2 according to the BBC report. These emissions are from international travel to and from the event because by far the largest number of visitors come from the U.S. and Europe. Similar travel scenarios are expected for the COP17 gathering because South Africa is a remote destination for most country and civil society delegates and ancillary participants. <br /> <br /> <strong>HEALTH, CLIMATE AND SOUTH AFRICAN MASS GATHERINGS </strong><br /> It is winter in South Africa during the 2010 World Cup. Climate variability has a significant impact on the incidence of human and animal diseases. A major health concern is pandemic influenza (H1N1). Two Canadian researchers are tracking infectious diseases associated with the World Cup using a system developed for the BIO.DIASPORA Project that accurately predicted the 2009 global spread of H1N1 <a href="http://www.physorg.com/news195392620.html">http://www.physorg.com/news195392620.html</a> and through mapping that shows real-time disease data at the games <a href="http://www.healthmap.org/fifa/">http://www.healthmap.org/fifa/</a>. By watching for diseases brought into Africa and taken back to London, Harare, Windhoek, Lusaka, Luanda, Dubai, Mauritius, Amsterdam, New York, Singapore, Lagos, Sydney and Sao Paulo, the researchers are conducting important infectious disease surveillance. The project also provides opportunities to continue disease surveillance in South Africa and to explicitly incorporate the data into discussions at COP17. <br /> <br /> The relationship between climate change and health is particularly pronounced in fragile economies located in regions most at risk from escalating global temperatures. Both conditions exist in many African countries. Health data from the World Cup event could be used to help catalyze an international discussion on a topic at COP17 that concerns all negotiating parties – human health. Associate professor of global health and population at the Harvard School of Public Health Dr. Mary Wilson says, "It's really complicated to sort out how much is attributable to climate change," [but] "many infections are very sensitive to climate and to temperature, humidity and rainfall." She favors investing in regional surveillance networks of climatologists, entomologists and disease experts <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=climate-change-disease-peru ">http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=climate-change-disease-peru</a>. Real-time disease monitoring at the World Cup is an excellent opportunity to develop processes and demonstrate benefits from forecasting systems and to extend that knowledge into the 2011 climate negotiations for improving understanding of climate triggers for disease. <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Another disease of interest to the researchers and to the international community with World Cup connections is the continuing outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in South Africa that began in February, 2010. A recent edition of <a href="http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(10)70110-9/fulltext?">The Lancet</a> cites 174 human cases of the viral disease and 15 deaths from Rift Valley Fever. While humans usually contract the disease by direct contact with infected animals, one affected German tourist had merely visited a South African game park. The Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture substantiates claims that zoonotic diseases (diseases transmitted from animals to humans) including avian influenza, Lyme disease and Rift Valley Fever are considered likely to spread as the global climate warms <a href="http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/stories/2010-climate-change.html">http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/stories/2010-climate-change.html</a>. Rift Valley Fever cases escalate during periods of heavy rain when mosquitoes flourish and lay their eggs. However, during the dry season cattle are kept closer to the villages where unexpected rains create conditions in which mosquitoes can infect animals at water troughs making Rift Valley Fever a year-round threat in South Africa.</p> <br /> Opportunities to spread diseases abound at mass gatherings, particularly at events with wide international representation. In addition to increased exposure to and from foreign visitors, food safety and sanitation, particularly for street vendors, are more difficult to control. Regional travel to parks and other destinations can expose visitors to vectors and diseases well beyond the event venues. <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Other health issues also become more acute during mass events including increased severity of air pollution from transportation and other spikes in energy use; demands made on clean water and waste systems; and increased exposure to heat or cold. These exacerbate existing pressures on an already stressed, understaffed, underfunded health system. Locals are often displaced to accommodate visitors in event locales; many local people are pushed out of sight to shantytowns that lack clean water and basic sanitation. This amplifies the health burden. An unusual potential method of disease transmission was mentioned in passing by the FIFA itself: the spread of droplets and disease from Vuvuzela horns (which at 127 decibels are louder than air-horns– providing another potential health issue). “Is FIFA going to ban these horns? Definitely no, as its part of local culture at football games” <a href="http://www.fifa.com/index.html">http://www.fifa.com/index.html</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p> Disease concerns extend well beyond developing countries hosting large events. Experts are unsure what the effects of a warming climate will be on disease transmissions, including diseases like malaria that were considered to be eradicated in the post World War II developed world through wholesale improvements in sanitation and water systems. In 2009, Virginia Tech published a study predicting that the 1 degree Celsius temperature rise predicted under one of the most conservative scenarios presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change would bring carriers of new infectious diseases such as Chagas disease into the central United States <a href="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29599786/">http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29599786/</a> . Climate change is the new wild card: for new diseases to successfully spread, insect carriers will need to thrive in new locations. Unfortunately, past predictions are not always reliable indicators. In the middle of a 2007 drought that should have prevented large-scale mosquito breeding, Kern County, California became the national epicenter of West Nile viral disease. West Nile disease emerged in Africa and is spread by mosquitoes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Although outbreaks of diseases during mass gatherings have been anecdotally described, insufficient epidemiologic and pathogen-related data is available from which to characterize outbreaks, measure wider community impacts, or inform planning and management decisions <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/5/809.htm#1">http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/5/809.htm#1</a> . However, worldwide observations consistentlyAlthough outbreaks of diseases during mass gatherings have been anecdotally described, insufficient epidemiologic and pathogen-related data is available from which to characterize outbreaks, measure wider community impacts, or inform planning and management decisions <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/5/809.htm#1">http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/5/809.htm#1</a> . However, worldwide observations consistently correlate rising temperatures with the spread and intensity of infectious diseases. Therefore both mitigation and adaptation outcomes of climate change negotiations carry increasing importance to public health as specific diseases are linked with temperature increases. #17 Yvo de Boer was one of the 53.6% of the intersession climate meeting participants to vote that the best chance for reaching a climate agreement rests with the South African meetings. (This year’s COP16 in Cancun is being considered as a strategy and alliance development precursor to COP17.)</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.igi-global.com/Libraries/Blog_Post_Images/ball.sflb.ashx" alt="sOccet 2.0 power-generating soccer ball" /><br /> sOccet 2.0 power-generating soccer ball</p> <br /> Thousands of mass gathering events are held each year, including major sporting events, festivals, conferences, demonstrations, and pilgrimages. These are attractive events, especially for countries that see the potential for economic relief coupled with increased political presence and power. For South Africa, a rationale for hosting both the World Cup and COP17 lies in economic benefits for the country and for what an article in Soccer and Society calls “the African Renaissance agenda” to help the continent escape the “quagmire of poverty” <a href="http://links.org.au/node/1738">http://links.org.au/node/1738</a>. Whether the average South African citizen will benefit or be further burdened from displacement, resource deprivation and other accumulated environmental, health and social stressors remains to be seen. <br /> <br /> Large international gatherings, whether political or recreational, offer special opportunities for fame and fortune and for diseases to spread quickly within and beyond host regions. Other considerations exist for the rest of the world whether traveling to a sporting event or to a political one: the burden of travel costs on organizational and country economies and escalating pressures on the global environment. Athletes, delegates, spectators and civil society are all vital elements in these events which advance relationships, learning, understanding, economics, political agreements and knowledge building. Virtual participation, while sometimes viable, is often no substitute for attending in person. It is a conundrum. Although there appears to be no one, best answer in all cases, increased knowledge about human and environmental health issues associated with these mass gatherings may contribute to country and individual -level participant decisions when weighing alternatives since, like Vuvuzela horns, these events are unlikely to be discontinued.<br /> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-06-25/South_Africa_2010-2011_Fame_Fortune_-_Expectations_Epidemics.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-06-25/South_Africa_2010-2011_Fame_Fortune_-_Expectations_Epidemics.aspx 4308466a-b4ef-4c1c-89ac-d885415e084e Fri, 25 Jun 2010 17:01:37 GMT Climate Change and the Gulf Oil Spill <em> <p><em>IGI Global would like to thank Dr Lynn Wilson, for this contribution on Consortium on Climate Change &amp; Population Health Blog.</em> </p> </em> <p style="text-align: center;"><em></em> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>"The time has come," the Walrus said,<br /> "To talk of many things:<br /> Of shoes--and ships--and sealing-wax--<br /> Of cabbages--and kings--<br /> And why the sea is boiling hot--<br /> And whether pigs have wings."</em></p> <p style="text-align: center;"> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em></em></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>-Lewis Carroll, “The Walrus and the Carpenter” from</em> Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1872</p> <p style="text-align: center;"> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="300" height="188" alt="The Deepwater Horizon on Fire" src="http://www.igi-global.com/Libraries/Blog_Post_Images/pic1.sflb.ashx" /></p> <p style="text-align: center;">                                 <span style="font-family: 'times new roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Photo: AP/US Coast Guard </span></p> <p style="text-align: center;">   </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    The explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon off the Gulf Coast is a hot topic for industry, for scientists, and for the general public. Perhaps it is an even “hotter” topic than many people realize. It is interconnected in several ways that relate to climate change and choices about whether to consider current options for responding a warming world or wait and respond to disasters as they occur.  </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    In what ways is the event politically “hot?” Many analysts predict that a counterintuitive effect of this recent disaster may be that by taking offshore drilling off the table, insufficient Republican support now exists to pass any meaningful U.S. climate legislation. We expect our political system to react to a discrete disaster like the explosion; and react it does, but by political rules that focus on current negotiations, deals and pressures. It is as yet undetermined whether the reported elevated voter awareness of environmental disasters or the current deal-making will prevail. Society sees and reacts primarily to the surface effects – the tar balls washing up on beaches, oiled birds and dead and dying sea animals. Damage to fishing and shrimping grounds and oyster beds are catching the public’s attention. These are the visible here-and-now effects to local economies and ways of life for those depending on fishing and tourism. But climate change is a more like growing older: as you view yourself day to day, the cumulative changes are not so readily apparent. It is only human to see ourselves (and our society) from the perspective of an idealized past. We make constant, small adjustments to our personal appearance comparable to political reactions to crisis events. But compare a photo of yourself 20 or even 10 years ago to that face in today’s mirror and the difference is dramatic. The day comes when you pass the mirror and glimpse yourself as others now see you. “Who is that person?” or “what happened to our world while we were busy reacting to disasters in political real-time?” </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    Internationally, the U.S. inability to act on climate legislation seriously threatens the next round of U.N. Climate Change negotiations slated for November of this year. The Santa Barbara platform blowout 41 years ago may have kick-started the resistance to offshore drilling on the Pacific coast and the Exxon Valdez disaster 20 years later reinforced that disposition. But another 20 years passed and political realities just last month opened up vast areas off the East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico to oil companies. After all, even Hurricane Katrina had not precipitated a major oil rig disaster. Then came the Deepwater Horizon. Most projections agree that if the U.S. does not act on climate change, for whatever reason, the international negotiating process will suffer. </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    But there is another way in which the situation in the Gulf of Mexico is “hot:” physically and chemically. The “ice” we hear about that impeded efforts to contain the leak is not really ice at all. Water is fluid at that depth. The hydrocarbons spewing through the leak are not solid, and the methane that caused the original explosion remains gaseous down to -161°C. The culprit is most likely methane clathrate, sometimes called “fire ice” because of methane’s flammability. BP’s Chief Operating Officer told news reporters on May 8, 2010 that frozen hydrates blocked the pipe opening of the containment structure temporarily rendering the dome unusable <a href="http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/09/nation/la-na-oil-spill-20100509">http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/09/nation/la-na-oil-spill-20100509</a> .  These clathrates result from a progressive reaction occurring at the nascent liquid water/methane gas interface under specific heating and pressure conditions. Under these conditions, water forms a cage-like structure around the smaller methane molecules, encasing them in an ice-like formation that is a weak solid. Methane is non-polar and as such does not mix well with polar water molecules; energetics do not favor this hydrogen-bonding “caging” effect except under specific combinations of temperature and pressure. If the pressure is too low the gas is energized. Conditions that are too warm energize the water and it will not form the cages. However, optimum conditions for clathrate formation exist in many parts of the oceans. When broken, these weak cages release the methane into the ocean and the atmosphere. </p> <p style="text-align: left;"><strong><em>What are the links between clathrates and climate change?</em></strong></p> <p style="text-align: left;">    Clathrates occur naturally from the methane produced primarily by decaying organic material that sinks to the ocean floor, creating large concentrations of the gas in ocean sediments. The stability zone is shallow, making them vulnerable to surface disturbances. Their depth below the ocean floor is influenced by both surface temperature and by the geothermal gradient. While growing ice caps stabilize clathrates, warming either through ocean intrusion into permafrost or by pressure changes at depth can destabilize clathrates. The changes in sediment conditions required for clathrate release naturally occur over periods of thousands of years; fixing the methane into clathrates may take ten times as long. Methane clathrate releases have large implications for a changing climate when they do occur. Because methane and carbon dioxide absorb significant infrared radiation, trapping and releasing methane through clathrates are strong feedback mechanisms to the radiative forcing of climate change. Many studies indicate that methane release and subsequent oxidation to carbon dioxide may have significantly contributed to the observed swings in atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide concentrations surrounding the glacial periods. Methane clathrates are present in deep Antarctic ice core samples showing atmospheric methane concentrations dating up to 800,000 years ago. The ice-core methane clathrate record, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide, is a primary data source for global climate change research. The 2008 studies in the Siberian Arctic show that millions of tons of methane are being released with concentrations in some regions exceeding 100 times the normal levels. In 2010, escalating destabilization and venting of the Siberian field was reported in the journal Science. The National Science Foundation reported on March 4 that “Release of even a fraction of the methane stored in the shelf could trigger abrupt climate warming” <a href="http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=116532">http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=116532</a>. </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    The Deepwater Horizon disaster is an opportunity to observe and consider implications for both natural and anthropogenic contributions to the changing climate. It can provide a focus for considering what choices we still have and what options among those available we wish to exercise in dealing with the observed, escalating changes in the global climate.  This event has challenged some beliefs about our ability to control even what we have participated in creating: an explosion in a deep water oil well. We have just passed the mirror and are asking just who IS that person we see in the reflection? These current events bring into question the commonly held beliefs that our political system functions well when reacting to a discrete disaster such as an energy-related explosion (even if we acknowledge that the system is less able to confront a slow-motion catastrophe like climate change). </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    When beliefs break down in the face of empirical evidence, it is a signal that it is time to learn something new: new information, methods, responses or a combination of these.  Specific disasters give us a window on the effects of larger, slower processes.  Climate change doesn't create the same reaction as a disaster like the Gulf oil rig explosion because most people don't see what is happening until long after the damage has occurred. Perhaps we should pay closer attention and learn all we can. Without an understanding of what is happening, what it means, and even how to frame new questions, we may be waiting “until pigs fly” for a political solution and find that, as Lewis Carroll concludes:</p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>Now if you're ready, Oysters dear,<br /> We can begin to feed."…<br /> "But not on us!" the Oysters cried,<br /> Turning a little blue.<br /> "After such kindness, that would be<br /> A dismal thing to do!" . . . <br /> "O Oysters," said the Carpenter,<br /> "You've had a pleasant run!<br /> Shall we be trotting home again?'<br /> But answer came there none--<br /> And this was scarcely odd, because<br /> They'd eaten every one.</em></p> <p style="text-align: center;"> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img width="300" height="208" alt="Lewis Carroll" src="http://www.igi-global.com/Libraries/Blog_Post_Images/pic2.sflb.ashx" /></p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-05-18/Climate_Change_and_the_Gulf_Oil_Spill.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-05-18/Climate_Change_and_the_Gulf_Oil_Spill.aspx e91ee88f-aff5-42ca-935b-5e3a840eb0de Tue, 18 May 2010 14:30:28 GMT Is Climate Change Getting You Down? <div><table class="MsoNormalTable" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding-top: 0.75pt; padding-right: 0.75pt; padding-bottom: 0.75pt; padding-left: 0.75pt; ;"> <p>Dr. Courtney Howard, a Canadian  MD who has agreed to offer her viewpoint to the Consortium on Climate Change and Population Health, is working on the front lines of environmental disaster.  She leaves May 1 for <a href="http://www.msf.ca/news-media/news/2010/04/haiti-healing-a-wounded-country/">Haiti to assist in the medical relief effort as part of Doctors Without Borders</a> . The following was originally posted on the David Suzuki Foundation website as part of the "DocsTalk Blog" about links between health and the environment series at <a href="http://beta.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/docs-talk/2010/03/is-climate-change-getting-you-down/">http://beta.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/docs-talk/2010/03/is-climate-change-getting-you-down/</a>.<o:p></o:p></p> <p>By Dr. Courtney Howard<o:p></o:p></p> <p>Mosquitoes. Mosquitoes will like climate change. As things get warmer and weather patterns change, they will spread and take their biting, whining, malaria, dengue and yellow-fever-containing selves to new altitudes and territories. We will hate them more than ever before, and they will likely kill more of us than before. Oceans will rise, displacing populations, resulting in social disruption, lack of shelter, food, and sanitation services. Think of refugee camps now. You get the idea. With dwindling resources, people will get mad. And scared. They will fight. Fighting yields injury and anguish, and we will see those things too. Kids will wheeze from asthma and older people have heart attacks from the heat. There will be floods in some places and droughts in others. As summarized in a recent article in the medical journal, <a href="http://www.lancet.com/climate-change">The Lancet</a>, "The rich will be more uncomfortable...the poor will die." The authors went on to call climate change the biggest global health threat of the twenty-first century.<o:p></o:p></p> <p> How does that make you feel?<o:p></o:p></p> <p>If you are like most people, this is the kind of news that makes you want to cuddle your kids close, or escape to an episode of "So You Think You Can Dance", perhaps while opening that bottle of wine or raiding the cookie-jar. It is the kind of news that can lead to poor sleep, feelings of hopelessness, and an eventual slumping in your chair at as you find yourself unable to concentrate on anything except our collective doom. In my case, while on a health-related environmental-learning binge one chilly Arctic December in Inuvik, I ended up looking so rough that a concerned nurse at the hospital where I work asked sympathetically whether the night shift had been tough. Just as I was, in fact, starting the day shift. <o:p></o:p></p> <p>Ironically, for something so grounded in the physical, the first health crisis related to climate change may be one of <a href="http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/mental-health-and-climate-change.html">mental health</a>. It might also turn out to be a game-changing factor — saving our physical skins will depend on our ability to absorb distressing news and enter neither into denial nor catatonia, but continue on to productive action. In forming a prescription for our survival, we need to take our emotional state into account, or we're very likely to continue in the same patterns. Here is one idea for an approach.<o:p></o:p></p> <p>Step 1: Figure yourself out. How are you reacting to this pessimistic diagnosis? To borrow a schema from Cancer Care, are you an Avoider? A Denier? A Fatalist (It's out of my hands")? Are you Helpless/Hopeless? A Worrier? Or one of these people with a "Fighting Spirit", who charge forward to meet a challenge? What are the strengths and blind spots inherent in your reaction? <o:p></o:p></p> <p>Step 2: Decide—do you actually want to engage with this issue? Do you want to DO SOMETHING?<o:p></o:p></p> <p>Step 3: Anticipate an emotional reaction and create a Happiness Buffer so you don't get totally bummed if your first attempts to DO SOMETHING feel inadequate, unsuccessful, or turn up even worse news. If you develop profound symptoms of depression or anxiety you should see your doctor, but if you mostly just feel down, here are some evidence-based ideas from the psychological literature to help create a Happiness Buffer to power your climate-related efforts: <o:p></o:p></p> <ul style="list-style-type: disc; ;"> <li class="MsoNormal">Happiness Boosters: Time with friends and family, meaningful work that makes use of a particular talent, volunteering, spirituality, time engaged in activities that are so absorbing that you forget where you are, marriage, and exercise. <o:p></o:p></li> <li class="MsoNormal">Things that feel like Happiness Boosters but are really kind of short-term patchwork solutions: Pleasures. Chocolate, cheese, alcohol, and sex without attachment. <o:p></o:p></li> <li class="MsoNormal">Happiness Killers: Thinking that buying stuff is going to make you happy. <o:p></o:p></li> </ul> <p>My personal strategy includes plenty of exercise, really terrible guitar playing, and a mandatory 2 p.m. pop-music living-room dance break before any attempt to DO SOMETHING. You'll find what works for you. <o:p></o:p></p> <p>Step 4: Figure out what you want to do. Read, learn, support, donate. You probably can't plot a whole path from where you are now. Choose a first step, show up, and then look around at the new view and go from there.<o:p></o:p></p> <p>You'll eventually come across some new people or new ideas that will get you excited. For me right now that is new research describing win-win solutions that are healthier, cleaner, and save the system money. <a href="http://activetransportation-canada.blogspot.com/">Cycle and walk</a> to where you want to go: this reduces your chances of depression, dementia, obesity, cancer and heart disease (and all the expenses associated with them), as well as greenhouse gas production, traffic accidents and breathing problems in people sensitive to smog. <a href="http://www.davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/food-and-climate-change/">Eat less meat</a> and dairy: you will use less water and energy, be less likely to get colorectal cancer and probably have fewer heart attacks.<o:p></o:p></p> <p>I like the win-wins. They're my idea of low-hanging fruit, and I'm cheerleading them at every opportunity...in between dance breaks in the living room and plotting against the mosquitoes.<o:p></o:p></p> <p>Courtney Howard is an emergency room doctor in Ottawa who does frequent locums in Canada's Arctic. She is a board member of the <a href="http://www.cape.ca/">Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment</a> and has recently completed a trial called FLOW, which compared tampons to a reusable menstrual cup. She's a half-decent dancer and a dismal guitar player, and is currently awaiting her first mission with <a href="http://www.msf.ca/">Médecins Sans Frontières</a>.<o:p></o:p></p> </td> </tr> </tbody></table></div> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-04-16/Is_Climate_Change_Getting_You_Down-848145551.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-04-16/Is_Climate_Change_Getting_You_Down-848145551.aspx 47d2ed0f-7a5f-4141-a92c-0f6a2bf5e9c1 Fri, 16 Apr 2010 10:33:00 GMT Uganda Consortium Update <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">IGI Global and SeaTrust Institute, led by Dr. Lynn Wilson, are pairing together for an online international Consortium on Climate Change and Population Health, This consortium, established to represent ways to support interdisciplinary efforts that embody sustainability, human health, climate change, and public policy perspectives, is attempting to effectively address population health concerns in the context of climate change.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">Last month, Dr. Lynn Wilson spoke with IGI Global about the importance of this consortium and what they are attempting to accomplish in the scientific research community.  This month, IGI Global and the SeaTrust Institute would like to present an exciting development in this innovative program.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">A team has formed within the consortium to investigate new approaches to human health issues brought about through increasing drought conditions. This team focuses on the research of Dr. Valerie Shean, who has been working with Christian Veterinary Mission in Uganda for over 17 years.  Throughout history, drought conditions have exacerbated violence, human displacement, hunger and disease.  For the past 13 years, Dr. Shean has lived and worked in the violence-prone Karamoja region of Northern Uganda.  Her work has involved a holistic approach to meeting the needs of the people in this troubled region, working to improve the health--physical, emotional and spiritual--of the people through a variety of unique efforts. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">Important steps have been made through livestock improvement programs and the development of native plants used in treating disease (ethnoveterinary medicine).  Over time, Dr. Shean has built up a reputation of trust, providing participatory veterinary training and service among the Karamojong tribes without regard to political or factional allegiances.  Because of this, she and her colleagues recently mediated a major peace-building effort despite ethnic violence in the area where traditional enemies came together to build a joint village where they can raise cattle in peace.  The efforts to establish Peace Villages have received international acclaim.  Dr. Shean's work has expanded into nearby countries, such as Kenya, to bring peace to a region that has known violent warfare for generations. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">By safeguarding the health of the cattle that serve as both an economic resources and food for people in drought-stricken African nations, her contribution to peace-building may be considered a novel climate adaption.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">Scientists at Kansas State University intend to travel to Uganda to study Dr. Shean's work and assess it in light of existing conflict resolution and natural resource management scholarship. They are committed to telling the inspirational story of Dr. Shean's work, while at the same time drawing implications from her research for dealing with future conflicts associated with the health and natural resource effects of climate change in East Africa.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">Dr. Lynn Wilson will be introducing the consortium at the United Nations Global Climate Change meetings in December, and in the coming months will apply what she learned from the global community to work in the research consortium.  Additionally IGI Global will be publishing her detailed analysis of the research conducted during the consortium. Please read next month's newsletter for more information about this exciting new consortium on climate change and population health as well as first hand interviews with Dr. Lynn Wilson herself. </span></p> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Uganda_Consortium_Update-1236888763.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Uganda_Consortium_Update-1236888763.aspx 983822a2-cd81-4e4f-9e78-1c49978f0056 Mon, 29 Mar 2010 14:11:32 GMT Population Health Concerns <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">SeaTrust Institute and IGI Global are working together to present an international consortium on population health concerns in the context of climate change. The consortium was established to represent methods for supporting interdisciplinary efforts that imbed sustainability, human health, climate change and public policy perspectives.  The Executive Director of SeaTrust Institute, Dr. Lynn Wilson, recently ventured to Copenhagen, Denmark for the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 15.   During her visit in Copenhagen, she documented her experiences in a blog titled, “SeaTrust Institute Live Report”.  </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">Before the commencement of the conference, Dr. Wilson wrote, “For me, this is an opportunity to work with others who seek to better understand the effects of climate change on human health and who are looking for new approaches using good science with considered policy to alleviate suffering and protect against disaster… As the representative for a research and independent non-governmental organization (RINGO), I see my business in Copenhagen as learning, analysis and offering thoughtful input in interactions with delegates, colleagues, media, advocates who agree with me and those who oppose my point of view.” To read more from about Dr. Wilson’s blog concerning her experience and the outcome of the conference, please visit </span><a href="http://seatrustinstitute.wordpress.com/page/2/" shape="rect"><span style="font-family: calibri; color: #0000ff;">http://seatrustinstitute.wordpress.com/page/2/</span></a> </p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">On January 28, 2010, Dr. Lynn Wilson presented an online talk on what is being called “the forgotten discussion” in the climate change equation: human health. Besides offering reflections as a representative for the SeaTrust Institute at the official negotiations of the </span><a href="http://seatrustinstitute.org/events.aspx" shape="rect"><span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none; text-underline: none;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">United Nations Climate Change Conference In Copenhagen: Implications for Human Health</span></span></a><span style="font-family: calibri;">, Lynn shared insights from participation in working groups on climate and health, informal discussions and side events to present a picture of international collaboration and conflict, knowledge and progress in this critical scientific and policy arena.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">The recorded online talk covers the following topics (particularly as they relate to climate change and human health):</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt 0.5in;"><span style="font-family: symbol;"><span>·<span style="font: 7pt 'times new roman';">         </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri;">Expected climate change effects on health issues throughout the world and in your backyard</span> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt 0.5in;"><span style="font-family: symbol;"><span>·<span style="font: 7pt 'times new roman';">         </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri;">How informal talks and formal negotiations in Copenhagen affect potential agreements and outcomes</span> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt 0.5in;"><span style="font-family: symbol;"><span>·<span style="font: 7pt 'times new roman';">         </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri;">The roles science plays, and does not play, in the negotiations and decisions</span> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt 0.5in;"><span style="font-family: symbol;"><span>·<span style="font: 7pt 'times new roman';">         </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri;">Ways to have an impact on the conversation as an academic researcher, a scientist or a member of civil society</span> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 10pt;"><span style="font-family: calibri;">To view this one-of-a-kind event, please click here. </span><a href="https://sas.elluminate.com/site/external/event/description?instance_id=18649" shape="rect"><span style="font-family: calibri; color: #0000ff;">https://sas.elluminate.com/site/external/event/description?instance_id=18649</span></a> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </span></p> <p> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </span></p> <p> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </span></p> <p> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Population_Health_Concerns-3894765500.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Population_Health_Concerns-3894765500.aspx 09552195-e470-46dd-a239-050896c9d6f4 Mon, 29 Mar 2010 14:01:07 GMT Consortium Announcement <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">SeaTrust Institute and IGI Global invite you to participate in the online international </span></span><i><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Consortium on Climate Change and Population Health</span></span></i><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">. Responding to the unprecedented need for collaboration between climate scientists and health professionals, this Consortium’s primary mission is to engage in meaningful research on human health and climate change that informs policy decisions. </span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Founded in 2009, the Consortium was represented at the UN Climate Change Meetings in Copenhagen and will continue participation through developing a health coalition for the 2010 meetings in Cancun, Mexico. Participants are now in the planning stages for their work groups, and the online collaborative research will begin in 2010. All projects that work at the nexus of climate and human health are invited to apply. We are especially searching for new consortium participants crossing climate and health issues related to drought, sea-level rise and ocean chemistry changes, extreme heat, food quality and quantity, and changes in vector-borne and waterborne illnesses. </span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">How does the Consortium work</span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">? </span></span></b></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Research teams consist of representatives from universities, governmental and nongovernmental organizations and private practitioners based in both developing and developed countries. Participants will develop structures and produce synergetic work dedicated to the discovery and analysis of potential solutions that link climate change </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">adaptation and population health concerns with special emphasis on populations at greatest risk</span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">, such as those in geographically vulnerable regions, children, and seniors. </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">The research teams will generate specific scenarios in small working groups representing different intellectual disciplines and regional orientations. Each group will focus on a specific issue involving climate change and population health. Through synchronous and asynchronous online discourse and GIS mapping, working groups will actively evaluate currently accepted baseline climate and health information and assumptions (e.g. WHO, ESSP, IPCC reports) as they relate to the specific issue under investigation. Participants will interconnect the scenarios and maps of their respective working groups with those of other groups, integrating the best available information on climate and medical science, social conditions and policy. Quarterly public online events will highlight progress. Each team will contribute a chapter for publication in a major IGI Global research and teaching resource for academic institutions. Consortium directors particularly encourage the development of new and future research partnerships across disciplines and cultures. The process will culminate with an in-person conference to spur further collaborations. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">What is different about this project? </span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">By addressing the thorny issues of climate change and human health collaboratively and across boundaries using the latest online technology, the Consortium will build the capacity of local, regional and global leaders to make proactive rather than reactive responses to climate change and population health through: </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Connecting climate change issues to specific at-risk population health concerns </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Creating developing country/developed country teams around key issues </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Identifying risks and opportunities for adaptation and mitigation </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Creating new policy-relevant interdisciplinary knowledge streams and questions </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: times new roman,times new roman; font-size: 18px;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times new roman; font-size: 18px;">Invitation to Participate in the Consortium on Climate Change and Population Health </span></span></b></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Identifying and prioritizing research needs to address those questions </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Disseminating results through online and traditional media </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Contributing to communications strategies for policy effectiveness </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">An important goal of the Consortium is to further interdisciplinary research efforts that inform policy decisions rather than make policy recommendations. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">What is the selection process? </span></span></b></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Participant selection will be based on content expertise, a desire to collaborate in a virtual environment, and an adherence to the social mission of this project. Consortium composition will span disciplines, geographic regions and cultures, knowledge perspectives, and a theoretical-practical application continuum. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Successful participants will demonstrate the following: </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Ph.D., M.D. and/or doctoral candidate with relevant publications or research projects; or a practitioner directly involved with clinical health or in decision-making related to climate and population health issues </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Interdisciplinary research interests </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Willingness to work in an online environment </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Interest in global implications even if work is on a local /regional scale </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">What kind of time will participation entail? </span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Throughout this two-year project, participants should expect to spend approximately two hours twice per month in online sessions with the work groups and / or contributing to the quarterly public events. We anticipate that engaging in this process will greatly enhance and promote participants’ research at an international level. At the conclusion of the project, teams will contribute a book chapter based on their collaborative work. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">How do I participate? </span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"></span></span></b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">If this opportunity excites your passion for innovative research and contribution, please follow the submission instructions below and a qualifying questionnaire will be emailed to you. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Please submit the following information to Dr. Lynn Wilson at </span></span></b><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">lwilson@nasw.org </span></span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">. </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Name </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Affiliation </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Institution </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Research Interest </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">• </span></span><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Email address </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">A short questionnaire about your specific research interests will be sent to you. Your provisional acceptable will be confirmed within two weeks of receiving the completed questionnaire. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 16px;">Thank you! We look forward to hearing from you and answering any questions you may have. Please contact Dr. Lynn Wilson at <span style="text-decoration: underline;">lwilson@nasw.org </span>or Jackie Zanghi-LaPlaca at <span style="text-decoration: underline;">jlaplaca@igi-global.com </span>for more information. </span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><b><i><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 18px;"><span style="font-family: calibri,calibri; font-size: 18px;">SeaTrust Institute and IGI Global Research Team <p> </p> </span></span></i></b></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Consortium_Announcement.aspx IGI Global http://www.igi-global.com/Blogs/ClimateChangeConsortium/10-03-29/Consortium_Announcement.aspx 81dbd81c-f3e2-4ef5-aded-499bdd542512 Mon, 29 Mar 2010 13:59:50 GMT