Robert A. Schultz

Robert A. Schultz received his PhD in philosophy from Harvard University (1971). His dissertation in ethics was under the direction of John Rawls. He was a member of the philosophy faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, Cornell University, and the University of Southern California, and taught courses and published articles and reviews in the fields of ethics, logic, and aesthetics. In 1980 he assumed the position of data processing manager at A-Mark Precious Metals, a Forbes 500 company, then in Beverly Hills, CA. From 1989 through 2007, he was professor and chair of computer information systems and director of academic computing at Woodbury University (Burbank, CA). He regularly taught courses in database applications and design, systems development tools, and the management of information technology. He has numerous publications and presentations in the areas of database design, IT education, and the philosophy of technology. His previous book, Contemporary Issues in Ethics and Information Technology, was published by IRM Press (an imprint of IGI Global) in 2006. He retired and was awarded an emeritus professorship at Woodbury University in 2008. He continues to teach and publish in the areas of IT and ethics and taught an online course on this topic in the Applied Information Management Program at the University of Oregon in early 2009.

Publications

Analysis of Risk and Reliability in Project Delivery Methods
Robert Schultz, Ahmad Sarfaraz, Kouroush Jenab. © 2015. 11 pages.
Risk and reliability are two main factors that must be studied in order to measure the successful rate of a project. As a result, innovative project delivery...
Technology versus Ecology: Human Superiority and the Ongoing Conflict with Nature
Robert A. Schultz. © 2014. 347 pages.
Although human beings are technically part of the ecosystem, there still remains a conceptual conflict between technology and nature. These concerns highlight the...
Information Technology and the Ethics of Globalization: Transnational Issues and Implications
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 272 pages.
As technologies advance and become social norms worldwide, certain ethical considerations must be examined and reflected upon due to their various cultural...
IT-Enabled Global Ethical Problems
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 15 pages.
Problems of IT-enabled globalization are a new kind of ethical problem and require new ethical principles for their solution. I will first discuss two examples to...
Current Ethically Globalized Institutions
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 15 pages.
As I noted in the previous chapter, the world is currently not organized into a single economy sharing benefits and burdens. But at the same time, institutions...
IT's Contribution to Globalization
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 14 pages.
In this chapter we will consider this question: To what extent is IT responsible for globalization? But before we can address this question, we need more clarity...
The Basis of Ethical Principles
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 14 pages.
My aim in Section 1 was to locate and describe areas of ethical concern in IT-enabled globalization. Yet in doing so, I was not ethically neutral in my judgements....
Domestic Theories of Justice
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 18 pages.
In this chapter I will deal primarily with principles of justice for a particular society, a society whose members share benefits and burdens and regard themselves...
Political Realism and the Society of Societies
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 13 pages.
In this chapter, I examine two theories of transnational ethics: Political Realism and the Society of Societies. The first theory, Political Realism, denies the...
Cosmopolitanism
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 18 pages.
Cosmopolitanism is the view that the relevant ethical community is all of humanity. In this chapter, I will examine three somewhat different cosmopolitan theories...
The Ethical Status of Globalized Institutions
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 21 pages.
The purpose of this chapter is to determine where ethically globalized institutions need ethical principles and what kind of ethical principles are needed. Two...
IT and Globalized Ethics
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 11 pages.
In this chapter I will first discuss the individual ethical principles an IT professional is likely to encounter. Then I will consider the impact of the ethics of...
Elements of a Global Contract
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 18 pages.
We saw in Section 2, Theories of Globalized Ethics, that there is a need for institutions with transnational ethical authority. Such authority would be needed for...
Globalized Ethics and Current Institutions
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 20 pages.
In this chapter, I will examine the extent to which current institutions might be able to implement the principles of global justice. I will begin with a few...
New Global Institutions
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 18 pages.
How do we decide which new global institutions should be created to implement the Global Economy Principles of Justice? It would be tempting to create authorities...
Ethical Implications for IT
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 12 pages.
In this chapter, I will examine the ethical consequences for IT of the International Social Contract and the Global Economy Social Contract. I began considering...
IT-Enabled Globalization and the Environment
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 17 pages.
Problems of environmental ethics transcend global justice. We can behave ethically and justly toward each other across the globe, but at the same time let the...
The Value of IT-Enabled Globalization
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 20 pages.
This chapter, like the previous one, also deals with issues that go beyond ethics as principles for social cooperation. We just saw that the environment raises...
Conclusion
Robert A. Schultz. © 2010. 6 pages.
My original project was to determine ethical principles for ethically globalized institutions. I also wanted to determine the role of IT in the ethics of...
Ethical Issues in Information Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2008. 8 pages.
Most discussions of ethics and information technology focus on issues of professional ethics and issues of privacy and security.1 Certainly these are important...
Contemporary Issues in Ethics and Information Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 208 pages.
Information technology has produced new ethical challenges and concerns in dealing with issues about privacy, security, piracy and professional ethics....
Ethical Issues in Information Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 11 pages.
Most discussions of ethics and information technology focus on issues of professional ethics and issues of privacy and security.1 Certainly these are important...
A Backgroun in Ethical Theory
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 21 pages.
In this book, “ethics” is a general term for concerns about what people should do. The term “ethics” comes from the Greek word ethike, which means “character.”...
The Context of IT Ethical Issues
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 11 pages.
A few other background issues deserve clarification before I examine specific ethical problems of information technology. IT always appears in the context of an...
Professional Duties
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 16 pages.
It is perhaps easiest to begin the application of ethics to information technology with the ethical responsibilities of IT professionals. Several ethical codes...
Justice in a Market Economy
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 17 pages.
As we saw from the last two chapters, the ethical IT professional is embedded in contexts of management, organization, and society. Ethical behavior for the IT...
Trust Issues in a Market Economy
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 12 pages.
In a competitive market economy, one is required to serve the interests of one’s employer or corporation. As we saw in Chapter IV, Professional Duties, one can do...
Offshoring as an Ethical Issue
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 18 pages.
Removal of jobs from one country to another to exploit lower paid workers tends to raise objections from those whose jobs are removed. However, historically, such...
Privacy and Security
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 12 pages.
Privacy and security are the first topics involving the interface of the individual with information technology. The two topics of privacy and security are...
Copyright and Piracy
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 14 pages.
As I noted in Chapter II, information technology’s basic feature of easy reproduction of digital information gives rise both to new benefits and to new ethical...
E-Problems
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 11 pages.
In Chapter I, I observed that new uses of IT will be built on four basic features of information technology: • Speed of information processing • Unlimited size of...
Valuing Information Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 14 pages.
Besides being of interest in its own right, the question of the value of information technology (IT) has ethical implications, primarily for policymakers and...
The Ultimate Value of Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 22 pages.
In the previous chapter, we saw how difficult it was to determine the value of information technology, even with a clearly defined point of view from which to...
The Ultimate Value of Information Technology
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 16 pages.
In order to conclude our discussion of the value of information technology, we need to answer these questions: What characteristics does IT share with modern...
Conclusion
Robert A. Schultz. © 2006. 5 pages.
Writing this book was very much a learning process for me. I began with the idea that the theories of John Rawls might be able to illuminate ethical problems...
Functional Dependency and Other Related Dependencies
Robert A. Schultz. © 2005. 5 pages.
The invention and rise of the relational database starting in the 1960s was accompanied by the remarkable development of canonical design techniques, making it...
Understanding Functional Dependency
Robert A. Schultz. © 2003. 10 pages.
In explaining functional dependency to students, I have noticed in texts a mixture of two types of elements: intensional (or psychological or meaning) and...