Collaborative Learning 2.0: Open Educational Resources
Release Date: March, 2012. Copyright © 2012. 378 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0300-4, ISBN13: 9781466603004, ISBN10: 1466603003, EISBN13: 9781466603011
Current advances and convergence trends in Web 2.0 have changed the way we communicate and collaborate, and as a result, user-controlled communities and user-generated content through Web 2.0 are expected to play an important role for collaborative learning.
Table of Contents and List of Contributors
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Lisa A. Petrides (Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education, USA), Cynthia Jimes (Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education, USA), Carol Hedgspeth (Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education, USA)
This work specifically sheds light on the ways that OER impacts teacher professional development, knowledge building, and interactive problem solving around teaching...
Giovanni Fulantelli (Consiglio Nazionale dell Richerche, Italy), Davide Taibi (Consiglio Nazionale dell Richerche, Italy), Manuel Gentile (Consiglio Nazionale dell Richerche, Italy), Mario Allegra (Consiglio Nazionale dell Richerche, Italy)
The focus of this chapter is on “key issues for fostering OER communities of practice with teachers.” It is based on the successful experiences of three European fun...
Najat Smeda (Victoria University, Australia), Eva Dakich (Victoria University, Australia), Nalin Sharda (Victoria University, Australia )
The purpose of this chapter is to present the vision of a framework for developing Web 2.0 tools for collaborative learning using digital storytelling as the underly...
Israel Gutiérrez Rojas (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain), Raquel M. Crespo (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain), Michael Totschnig (Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Austria), Derick Leony (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain), Carlos Delgado Kloos (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain)
With the introduction of the Web 2.0 philosophy in the learning arena, the way learning actors interact has changed substantially. From a collaborative perspective,...
Sibren Fetter (Open Universiteit Nederland, The Netherlands), Adriana J. Berlanga (Open Universiteit Nederland, The Netherlands), Peter B. Sloep (Open Universiteit Nederland, The Netherlands)
Traditionally, the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement has focused on the production, distribution, and retrieval of open content. There is, however, more to O...
Rebecca Ferguson (The Open University, UK), Simon Buckingham Shum (The Open University, UK)
This chapter examines the meaning of “open” in terms of tools, resources, and education, and goes on to explore the association between open approaches to education...
Martin Wolpers (Fraunhofer FIT, Germany), Martin Memmel (Deutsche Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz, Germany), Alberto Giretti (Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Italy), Miquel Casals (GRIC Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain), Katja Niemann (Fraunhofer FIT, Germany), Marcus Specht (Open Universiteit Nederland, The Netherlands)
This chapter discusses the use of technology in supporting the study of architecture and design in Higher Education. Digital (often open) educational architecture re...
Christophe Salzmann (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland), Denis Gillet (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland), Francisco Esquembre (Universidad de Murcia, Spain), Héctor Vargas (Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile), José Sánchez (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain), Sebastián Dormido (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain)
This chapter presents challenges in deploying remote and virtual laboratories as open educational resources with application to engineering education, as well as cur...
Reviews and Testimonials
An impressive array of chapter authors use case studies and analyses to dig deeply into understanding how to effectively support learners and other users as they engage in individual and collaborative development and learning using [Open Educational Resources]. [...] This book provides a powerful introduction into how ideas and activities such as these and more are changing the way that we think about schooling and learning.
– Marshall Smith, Director of AcrossWorld and former Director of International Affairs at the U.S. Department of Education.
Organized into four sections each with their own introduction, the chapters range from narratives and case studies to analytical empirical works, sharing theory and practical writings, focusing on the widening participation and open educational resource communities; the production, reuse, and recreation of open educational resources; sharing user-generated content; and social learning, rich media, and games. [...] This volume is geared for those in higher education, although some of the knowledge might also cross into lower schools such as fostering OER communities of practice with teachers, digital storytelling, peer-support, and collaborating.
– Sara Marcus, American Reference Books Annual
- Collaborative Learning
- Continuing Professional Development
- New media environments
- OER in higher education
- Open educational resources
- Personalization interfaces
- Social Media
- Social Networking
- Virtual worlds
- Web 2.0
This collection of chapters deals with a broad range of issues relating to OER, Web 2.0 tools, and collaborative learning. The approaches of the chapters are as diverse as their content, ranging from narratives to analytical empirical work. After a brief summary of each chapter and section, the editor concludes the preface with a few high level remarks.Section A: Widening Participation and OER Communities
Andy Lane writes that OER by themselves are not enough - there needs to be better collaboration between the stakeholders if OER are not to be seen as a way of simply widening the audience for Higher Education knowledge, rather than widening participation in learning more generally.
Susan D’Antoni tells the story of the UNESCO OER community, which discusses OER from a variety of perspectives and with unbridled enthusiasm. One participant commented it felt like “the whole world was around the table.” (This editor recalls this discussion with fondness, and yes, it certainly felt like the whole world was leaving messages in my Inbox.)
Lisa Petrides, Cynthia Jimes, and Carol Hedgspeth describe how knowledge sharing and collaboration can be seen as indicators of learning in OER communities.
Finally, Giovanni Fulantelli, Davide Taibi, Manuel Gentile, and Mario Allegra describe an Open Learning Object model and how it has evolved over the course of three projects, with an emphasis on teacher communities of practice in the project contexts.
This section posits answers to a number of questions about OER and community that are, to my mind, still open questions. Are OER produced by a community necessarily better than OER produced by an individual? Are OER produced by an individual or institution second-class citizens compared to OER developed under wiki-like community models? How many of the benefits of open source really apply to open educational resources? How much of the open source model can be applied directly to the production of educational materials (Benkler (2005) has specifically argued that critical parts cannot)?Section B: Producing, Reusing, and Recreating OER
Alexandra Okada and Scott Leslie discuss the OER Flow, an open and flexible framework, and demonstrate how helping people to create OER and, in particular Compendium maps, can aid the potential of reusability.
Ivana Marenzi and Wolfgang Nejdl present LearnWeb2.0, a searching, rating, and commenting tool used in the context of two Content and Language Integrated Learning courses, one in Germany and one in Italy.
Freda Wolfenden and Alison Buckler describe an empirically based approach to understanding and representing the OER adaptation processes as it occurs in the Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa consortium.
Najat Smeda, Eva Dakich, and Nalin Sharda describe a model for collaborative, constructivist digital storytelling using freely available Web 2.0 tools.
Alexandra Bujokas de Siqueira, Danilo Rothberg, and Martha Maria Prata-Linhares demonstrate the use of Web 2.0 tools to create open courses focused on emergent subjects of the media literacy among in-service teachers, and issues relating to assessment in these environments.
Finally, Israel Guitterz Rojas and colleagues present the design and implementation of an application prototype that permits teachers and course developers to manage and share open assessment resources.
This section discusses what is, to me, the core issue surrounding OER – reuse. It is incredibly important to clearly understand the differences between simple reuse (like embedding a verbatim copy of an OER), revising an OER (like adapting a British-made OER for reuse in Brazil), and remixing an OER (combining multiple OER in to a new OER). While they have much in common, these three activities are separate and distinct, and each has its own unique technical, pedagogical, and legal considerations.Section C: Collaborative Learning and Web 2.0
Josh McCarthy pushes the boundaries of OER by characterizing a scheme for using social networking sites to connect students with industry professionals for mentoring as an open educational resource.
Aileen McGuigan explains how traditional VLE’s like Blackboard stifle collaborative learning, and how purposefully designed environments using Web 2.0 tools like blogs effectively support collaboration.
Giselle Ferreira and Tina Wilson reinforce the importance of tutors and facilitators as distance learning students use Web 2.0 tools and OER.
Sibren Fetter, Adriana Berlanga, and Peter Sloep show the potential of Ad-Hoc Transient Groups (AHTGs) for providing peer support and facilitating the community side of formal and informal learning.
Joseph Corneli and Alexander Mikroyannidis compare crowdsourced and traditional education, observing that the crowdsourcing model has room for most of the roles found in the traditional education setting (accreditation and assessment being the open questions here).
Finally, Pradeep Kumar Misra writes about the potential power of OER to engage ageing individuals in the lifelong learning process.
This section reminds us that there is still a terrific need for humans and human interaction in the learning process. While the Internet is primarily a communications medium, Internet-based courses have historically been exercises in downloading rather than communicating. Web 2.0 tools, which are inherently social in nature, present opportunities for collaborative learning as expansive as the first generation of VLEs was restrictive. Section D: Open Tools, Rich Media, Social Learning, and Games
Rebecca Ferguson and Simon Buckingham Shum examine the meaning of open in terms of tools, resources, and education, and go on to explore the association between open approaches to education, the development of online social learning, and a tool called SocialLearn.
Martin Wolpers and colleagues demonstrate that OER are spread across numerous repositories that do not interoperate and do not support collaborative learning, and then describe a tool called MACE designed to overcome some of these challenges in the architectural domain.
Andy Lane and Andrew Law discuss the approaches and evidence required to guide the joint development of rich media in a way that both serves the BBC, the OUUK, the Higher Education sector and the wider community.
Christophe Salzmann and colleagues present the challenges in deploying remote and virtual laboratories as OER, as well as a review of trends in using Web 2.0 technologies to broader adoption and ease of development or remote labs.
Finally, Teresa Connolly and Elpida Makriyannis describe OERopoly, a board game that acquaints players with a variety of OER projects, tools, technologies, and communities of practice.
The final section of the book is a grab bag of OER, Web 2.0 tools, and collaborative learning. Ranging from remote labs to board games to online social sites, the section demonstrates the wide variety of ways OER is integrating into the broad complexity of educational research. CONCLUSION
As you enjoy the chapters in this collection, I invite the reader to carefully consider the difference between online educational resources that use a traditional copyright license (not OER) and online educational resources that are openly licensed (OER). I found that throughout the chapters several authors attribute benefits or challenges to OER that are really benefits or challenges of not OER online educational resources – that is to say, challenges or benefits that have nothing to do with being open. I believe the field will benefit significantly from greater clarity of thought regarding this difference. The following chapters provide an excellent context in which to explore this and other important issues related to OER.David WileyBrigham Young University, USAREFERENCES
Benkler, Y. (2005). Common wisdom: Peer production of educational materials
. Retrieved from http://www.benkler.org/Common_Wisdom.pdf
- Andy Lane, The Open University, UK
- Patrick McAndrew, The Open University, UK
- Vijay Kumar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
- Jutta Treviranus, University of Toronto, Canada
- Marcus Sprecht, Open Universiteit, Netherlands
- Carlos Delgado Kloos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
- Bernd Simon, Wirtschaftsuniversität, Austria
- Philip Schmidt, University of the Western Cape, South Africa