Computer-Mediated Communication across Cultures: International Interactions in Online Environments

Computer-Mediated Communication across Cultures: International Interactions in Online Environments

Kirk St.Amant (East Carolina University, USA) and Sigrid Kelsey (Louisiana State University, USA)
Release Date: July, 2011|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 542
ISBN13: 9781609608330|ISBN10: 160960833X|EISBN13: 9781609608347|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-833-0
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Over one billion people access the Internet worldwide, and new problems of language, security, and culture accompany this new excess in access.

Computer-Mediated Communication across Cultures: International Interactions in Online Environments provides readers with the foundational knowledge needed to communicate safely and effectively with individuals from other countries and cultures via online media. Through a closer examination of the expanded global access to the Web, this book discusses the use and design of cross-cultural digital media and the future of the field for executives, marketers, researchers, educators, and the average user.

Topics Covered

  • Culture in Online Communication
  • E-Marketing to the Global Community
  • Expanding Education to Underserved Areas Online
  • Global digital divide
  • Global Standards for Online Discourse
  • Globalization of Online Environments
  • Growth of Global Online Access
  • Language in Online Communication
  • Law and Policy for International Internet Access
  • Markets, Economics, and International E-Commerce
  • The Future of Global Cyberspace

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Pavel Zemliansky
Kirk St.Amant
Kirk St.Amant, Sigrid Kelsey
Chapter 1
Sejung Marina Choi, Shu-Chuan Chu, Yoojung Kim
In today’s online environment, social networking sites (SNSs) flourish across the globe as an effective venue for social engagement. The objective... Sample PDF
Culture-Laden Social Engagement: A Comparative Study of Social Relationships in Social Networking Sites among American, Chinese and Korean Users
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 2
Archana Krishnan
Indians use the Internet for a host of applications, and some of these uses are culture-specific, like formalized matrimonial searches. This chapter... Sample PDF
e-Matchmaker, e-Matchmaker, Make Me a Match: Indian Matrimonial Services in the Internet Age
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 3
Melinda Jacobs
Within the Internet, a range of international and multicultural communities abound, especially within the context of interactive online games known... Sample PDF
Playing “Nice”: What Online Gaming Can Teach Us about Multiculturalism
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Chapter 4
Bolanle A. Olaniran, Natasha Rodriguez, Indi M. Williams
The Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT) proposes that given time and opportunity to interact, relationships between individuals can form in... Sample PDF
Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT): A Cultural Perspective for International Online Communication Environments
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Chapter 5
Jyh-An Lee
This chapter focuses on the Internet filtering mechanism the Chinese government adopted in order to prevent individual users from accessing foreign... Sample PDF
Filtering Online Content in China
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Chapter 6
Marc Hermeking
The global diffusion of technology is increasingly accompanied by both computer-mediated and online communication. Several empirical examples for... Sample PDF
Culture, Online Technology and Computer-Mediated Technical Documentation: Contributions from the field of Intercultural Communication
List Price: $37.50
Chapter 7
Tanfer Emin Tunc, Esin Sultan Oguz
This qualitative study examines the current status of Web 2.0 technologies in Turkey and focuses specifically on the use of such technologies by... Sample PDF
Communicating in the Age of Web 2.0: Social Networking Use among Academics in Turkey
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Chapter 8
Ping Yang
This chapter reports the results of a study that employed phenomenological and dialectical perspectives to explore cultural differences in... Sample PDF
Knowing Through Asynchronous Time and Space: A Phenomenological Study of Cultural Differences in Online Interaction
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Chapter 9
Sara Kamal, Shu-Chuan Chu
Social media use is quickly integrating into the daily lives of consumers in the Middle East, where a large number of users represent a variety of... Sample PDF
Cultural Differences in Social Media Usage and Beliefs and Attitudes towards Advertising on Social Media: Findings from Dubai, United Arab Emirates
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Chapter 10
Rotimi Taiwo
This chapter examines how online fraudsters explore the experiential, interpersonal, and textual language metafunctions in the crafting of their... Sample PDF
Discursive Manipulation Strategies in Virtual Scams in Global Contexts
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Chapter 11
Wengao Gong
In the last 15 years, China has witnessed the world’s fastest growth in terms of Internet infrastructure construction and number of Internet users.... Sample PDF
Government Monitoring of Online Media and its Influence on Netizens’ Language Use in China
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Chapter 12
Andrew Mara, Miriam Mara
To address some of the technical writing pressures concomitant with globalization, this chapter investigates documentation solutions implemented by... Sample PDF
Irish Identification as Exigence: A Self-Service Case Study for Producing User Documentation in Online Contexts
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Chapter 13
Kathryn Stam, Indira R. Guzman, Dennis Thoryk
Some websites, and the specific Web pages within them, are designed specifically to facilitate online communication across countries and cultures.... Sample PDF
Studying Online Communication Features on International and Cross-Cultural Web Pages Using Websphere Analysis Methodology
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Chapter 14
Myongho Yi
Effective global information access is more critical now than ever before. The digital world where users have diverse languages and diverse cultural... Sample PDF
Minimizing Cultural Differences Using Ontology-Based Information Retrieval System
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Chapter 15
Reinhard Schäler
Access to information and knowledge in one’s native language is a fundamental human right. It is a right deeply rooted in the legal systems of many... Sample PDF
Information Sharing Across Languages
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Chapter 16
Jaffer Sheyholislami
This chapter presents the results of an empirical study (done using online ethnography and discourse analysis) of how the Kurds use the Internet. In... Sample PDF
Linguistic Minorities on the Internet
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Chapter 17
Nicole St. Germaine-McDaniel
As health-information websites become more popular, healthcare corporations have worked quickly to create Spanish-language sites to reach the... Sample PDF
The Emerging Hispanic Use of Online Health Information in the United States: Cultural Convergence or Dissociation?
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Chapter 18
Elaine J. Yuan
This chapter presents a discourse analysis of two bulletin board systems (BBS). The analysis was done to identify online linguistic practices within... Sample PDF
Language as Social Practice on the Chinese Internet
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Chapter 19
Judith N. Martin, Pauline Hope Cheong
This chapter provides readers with foundational knowledge of how cultural factors mediate online learning and instruction in global education-based... Sample PDF
Cultural Considerations of Online Pedagogy
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Chapter 20
Birthe Mousten, John Humbley, Bruce Maylath, Sonia Vandepitte
This chapter examines the interactive communications of geographically distant virtual classrooms, connected via virtual aids ranging from e-mails... Sample PDF
Communicating Pragmatics About Content and Culture in Virtually Mediated Educational Environments
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Chapter 21
Madelyn Flammia
Global citizens are those individuals who understand the complex and interdependent nature of the world and who take action to address global issues... Sample PDF
Using the Cultural Challenges of Virtual Team Projects to Prepare Students for Global Citizenship
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Chapter 22
Angela T. Ragusa, Emma Steinke
The general trend towards freely circulating capital, goods and services, coupled with changes in the openness of labour markets, has translated... Sample PDF
Studying Locally, Interacting Globally: Demographic Change and International Students in Australian Higher Education
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Chapter 23
William Klein, Bernard E. La Berge
This chapter describes a case of Internet-mediated collaboration between writing classes in the U.S. and in Oman. In the chapter, the authors... Sample PDF
Computer Mediated Cross-Cultural Communication: Creating Cultural Exchange through Articulated Studies
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Chapter 24
Chun-Min Wang, Jinn-Wei Tsao, Gretchen Bourdeau Thomas
The purpose of this chapter is to share a cross-cultural project between Taiwan and the United States for educational practitioners. Taking... Sample PDF
New Era, New Media, and New Strategies for Cross-Cultural Collaborative Learning
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Chapter 25
Aimee L. Whiteside, Amy Garrett Dikkers
This chapter presents Whiteside’s (2007) Social Presence Model, course examples, and specific strategies and explains how such factors help... Sample PDF
Maximizing Multicultural Online Learning Experiences with the Social Presence Model, Course Examples, and Specific Strategies
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Chapter 26
Anna M. Harrington
An increasing number of ESL/EFL students are expected to enroll in hybrid (i.e., mixed on-site and online) mainstream courses populated by a... Sample PDF
Language Abilities and Culture Clashes in Cyberspace: Potential Problems for ESL/EFL Students in Hybrid Mainstream Classes
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Chapter 27
Pete Rive, Aukje Thomassen
Second Life is a popular virtual world that can provide us with valuable lessons about international collaboration and design innovation. This... Sample PDF
International Collaboration and Design Innovation in Virtual Worlds: Lessons from Second Life
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Chapter 28
Barbara Heifferon
This chapter focuses on the theoretical preparation of students who design digital media for other cultural groups. Some designers of cross-cultural... Sample PDF
Immigration Reform: Re[forming] Theories and Cyber-Designs
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About the Contributors

Reviews and Testimonials

"The entries in this collection can provide readers with the foundation needed to understand some of the aspects affecting computer-mediated communication across cultures."

– Kirk St.Amant, East Carolina University, USA

This work edited by two professors brings together 28 chapters authored by 46 international scholars and practitioners, providing an international coverage of both authors and topical coverage. Separated into three sections, the work addresses the changing nature of relationships, the emerging trends in representation, and the new context for education. Focusing not solely on education but rather on the use of computer-mediated communication for any purpose at any level, from matchmaking to collaborating to educating, whether textual, visual, or virtual, synchronous or asynchronous, this book is useful to all who currently use or are considering using computer-mediated communication with a diverse population. Raising awareness of cultural, geographic, and other differences that can occur in these communication settings, the editors have brought together experts in their specific areas to address these issues as related to computer-mediated communication. With the growing international trend for collaboration, this work will help alleviate miscommunications based on cultural differences.

– Sara Marcus


Considering Computer-Mediated Communication across Cultures

Kirk St.Amant, East Carolina University, USA

At present, almost 2 billion people have access to the Internet (Adair, 2010; Internet usage statistics, 2010).  Moreover, with each passing day, the number of individuals gaining online access seems to increase almost exponentially.  While the majority of the planet’s Internet users do reside in industrialized nations, online access in the developing world has risen rapidly in recent years (Whitney, 2009; High speed Internet access, 2010).  The number of citizens with online access in China, for example, has grown from 22.5 million persons to almost 420 million individuals in the last decade (Internet usage in Asia, 2010).  And as technologies such as mobile phones increasingly permit inexpensive and easy online access, the number of Internet users worldwide will only continue to expand (Mobile marvels, 2009).  These factors beg the question “How is the increasingly international and intercultural nature of the Internet affecting the ways in which individuals act and interact online?” 
Answering this question is no easy task, for doing so involves addressing a broad range of factors including culture, language, technology, law, and economics – to name but a few.  The complex nature of the question, however, does not mean it should not be asked, nor does it mean that initial initiatives cannot be undertaken to address it.  Rather, through a series of small yet focused steps, individuals can begin to unravel to complexities of computer-mediated communication across cultures.  The key to taking these first steps is participation and collaboration:  By working together across national, cultural, and linguistic lines, individuals can collectively participate in international projects that begin to reflect the scope and scale of online interactions in the modern global age. 

This collection represents an international collaborative approach to examining online interactions from different national and cultural perspectives.  To explore the topic of computer-mediated communication in global contexts, the editors have assembled the work of over 40 authors from academia, education, and industry.  These individuals represent different perspectives related to understanding the continually changing nature of today’s global Internet.  They also represent perspectives from 15 nations and from different fields of study, educational traditions, and industry sectors.  The result is a volume of 28 chapters that focus on a range of aspects affecting how individuals present ideas, exchange information, and discuss topics in international cyberspace.
The development of these chapters, moreover, represents an exercise in international collaboration via online media.  For example, several entries are co-authored pieces written by authors who were living in different nations and interacting via Web-based technologies to produce their chapters.  The process of developing each chapter, moreover, relied heavily on collaboration involving computer-mediated communication.  To begin, all of the initial manuscripts submitted for this collection were read and assessed by reviewers from over a dozen nations.  These reviewers provided authors with suggestions and comments for how to develop and organize their chapters within the context of the overall collection.  This entire process was driven by online media that were used to share materials, ideas, and opinions across a globally distributed pool of individuals.  Finally, the collection’s editors used a range of online media – involving both more conventional technologies (e.g., email and Web pages) and newer social media (e.g., Skype and Facebook) to collaborate with authors in the final stages of manuscript development. 
Interestingly, all of these interactions transcended time and space – the traditional barriers to collaboration and communication.  More importantly, these interactions also involved aspects of culture and language – the newly emerging barriers affecting collaboration in today’s online world.  Thus, the development of this edited collection represents many of the ideas explored by the contributing authors. 

The primary objective of this text is to provide readers with introductory information, initial insights, and different perspectives on linguistic, cultural, technological, legal, and other factors that affect international online exchanges.  The idea is to impart a foundational understanding of computer-mediated communication across cultures.  Readers can then use this understanding to make more effective decisions about the applications and the design of online media used in global contexts. Prospective readers might include 
•  Executives, manager, and other decision makers who need to make informed choices about how their organizations can use online media to address growing global markets
•  Marketers, service providers, and support personnel who increasingly use online media to communicate with international clients about products or services
•  Researchers (both academic and corporate) studying international or cross-cultural discourse in online environments
•  Educators who increasingly find their online courses comprised of students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds
•  Educational administrators who seek to manage the increasing number of international students participating in online programs and who seek to expand their online programs to attract more prospective students located in other nations
•  Administrators of international non-profit agencies that increasingly use online media to disseminate information to different nations or to interact with workers and service providers in different nations
•  Individuals interested in learning more about this topic area in general
What is important is readers view the overall collection and the individual essays it contains as a foundation for guiding future activities.  In this way, this collection should be considered a kind of collaborative text – one that encourages readers to learn more about the topics covered in the various chapters and to use that knowledge to continue the ongoing conversation around such topics.

 To help readers examine these issues and achieve these objectives, the editors have organized the collection into three relatively broad sections.  Each section is dedicated to a general theme related to computer-mediated communication across cultures.  The chapters in each section then provide different information, ideas, and perspectives associated with that general theme.  The organization of the chapters into these three thematic sections does not, however, mean the ideas presented in a chapter only apply to one specific thematic focus.  Rather, the purpose of this organization is to help readers better understand the wealth of perspectives and the breadth of topics that can converge around certain contexts created by global cyberspace.
 In essence, online media are technologies centered on relationships (Gasner, 1999; Kalawsky, Bee, & Nee, 1999; Olaniran, 2007).  That is, these technologies focus on presenting information to others (e.g., Websites), interacting with others (e.g., email), or both (e.g., Facebook).  Thus, a study of online media is, in essence, a study of the changing nature of relationships facilitated through such media (St.Amant, 2002b). 
The book’s first section, “The Changing Nature of Relationships” provides an introduction to cultural, linguistic, technical, and legal factors that can affect how individuals use online media to engage with the greater global community.  The entries in this section explore how online media shapes the ways in which individuals in different parts of the globe create and maintain relationships.  These entries also examine how cultural perspectives on what relationships are and how relationships are created and maintained affects uses of Web-based technologies.  Finally, these entries present new perspectives on the notion of community – particularly what constitutes a community and how do individuals become part of different communities created through international online interactions.
 Online media also present interesting contexts associated with the notion of representation.  That is, the plasticity of online media can allow the users of such media to present themselves in a variety of ways when interacting with others (Hiltz & Turoff, 1993; Turkle, 1995).  As a result, online media make it very easy for the lines of truth and fiction to become blurred (St.Amant, 2002b). 
The ease with which individuals can access and can use such technologies, however, can allow smaller cultural and linguistic groups to participate on the global stage.  Such participation, moreover, would not generally have been possible in the pre-Internet age (Danet & Herring, 2007; Erikson, 2007).  Thus, online media can facilitate the representation of different cultural groups in the greater international online discussion of issues.  Addressing both aspects of representation requires an understanding of factors affecting one’s ability to participate in global online exchanges.  The book’s second section, “The Emerging Trends in Representation,” explores these aspects of presentation and participation in global cyberspace.
 Perhaps one of the most interesting and intriguing prospects of global cyberspace involves education.  The increasing use of online media in different educational contexts means it is now easier than ever before to have students in different nations collaborate in the same online class (Starke-Meyerring & Wilson, 2008; Starke-Meyerring, 2008; Flammia, Cleary, & Slattery, 2010). Such international collaborative experiences can help students develop the foundational knowledge and skills needed to interact more effectively in international online exchanges (St.Amant, 2002a; St.Amant, 2005). 
Effectively taking advantages of this situation is no easy feat.  Rather, the more guidance, insights, and cases educators have for addressing such new pedagogical situations, the more effectively they can take advantage of them.  The entries in the book’s third and final section, entitled “The New Context for Education,” provide readers such ideas and information.  The chapters here do so by focusing on available technologies, approaches to using such technologies, and the prospective students interacting in such contexts.  The entries in this section thus provide readers with practices and perspectives that can facilitate the globalization of online or hybrid classes.

 Computer-mediated communication across cultures is an inherently complex and nuanced thing.  Such aspects should not, however, dissuade individuals from examining interactions in global cyberspace.  In fact, an understanding of such interaction can be essential to effective participation in today’s global society.  By gaining a broad, foundational understanding of factors affecting international online exchanges, individuals can make better and more-informed decisions about how and when to participate in the greater global online community.
The entries in this collection can provide readers with the foundation needed to understand some of the aspects affecting computer-mediated communication across cultures.  The collection, however, should not be seen as a comprehensive reference on the topic.  Rather, readers should view this collection as a mechanism they can use to make effective and informed decisions related to using online media international contexts.  Readers are therefore encouraged to further explore the ideas and perspectives examined in this collection.  They are also encouraged to apply the concepts and test the theories, for only through such active collaboration with ideas can we further our understanding of this topic.


Adair, D. (2010, October 19). Internet users to surpass 2 billion. Indie Pro Pub. Retrieved October 1, 2010, from
Danet, B., & Herring, S. (2007). Multilingualism on the Internet.  In M. Hellinger and A. Pauwels (eds), Handbook of language and communication: Diversity and change (pp. 554-585). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Erikson, T. H. (2007). Nationalism and the Internet. Nations and Nationalism, 13(1), 1-17.
Flammia, M., Cleary, Y., & Slattery, D. M. (2010). Leadership roles, socioemotional communication strategies, and technology use of Irish and US students in virtual teams. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 53, 89-101.
Gasner, A.  (1999).  Globalization: The changing face of the workforce.  Business Today, 36(3), 43-44. 
High speed Internet access in Africa takes off. (2010, June 21). Stratsis Incite. Retrieved October  1, 2010, from
Hiltz, S. R. & Turoff, M. (1993). The network nation: Human communication via computer.  Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Internet usage in Asia. (2010). Internet World Stats. Retrieved October 1, 2010, from
Internet usage statistics: The Internet big picture. (2010). Internet World Stats. Retrieved 

Kalawsky, R.  S., Bee, S.  T, & Nee, S.  P.  (1999).  Human factors evaluation techniques to aid understanding of virtual interfaces.  BT Technology Journal, 17, 128-241.
Mobile marvels. (2009, September 24). The Economist. Retrieved November 25, 2010, from
Olaniran, B.  A.  (2007).  Challenges to implementing e-learning and lesser developed  countries.  In A.  L.  Edmundson (Ed.), Globalized e-learning cultural challenges.  (pp.  18-34).  Hershey, PA: Idea Group, Inc
St.Amant, K. (2005). An online approach to teaching international outsourcing in technical communication classes. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 35, 191-201.
St.Amant, K. (2002a). Integrating intercultural online learning experiences into the computer classroom. Technical Communication Quarterly, 11, 289-315.
St.Amant, K. (2002b). When cultures and computers collide. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 16, 196-214.
Starke-Meyerring, D., & Wilson, M. (2008). Globally networked learning environments: Shaping visionary futures. In D. Starke-Meyerring & M. Wilson (Eds.), Designing global learning environments: Visionary partnerships, policies, and pedagogies (pp. 218-230). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Starke-Meyerring, D. (2008). Genre, knowledge and digital code in web-based communities: An integrated theoretical framework for shaping digital discursive spaces. International Journal of Web-based Communities, 4, 398-417.
Turkle, S. (1995). Life on screen: Identity in the age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone.
Whitney, L. (2009, June 16). Global broadband access on the rise. cnetnews. Retrieved September 8,2010, from

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Kirk St.Amant is an Associate Professor of Technical and Professional Communication in the Department of English at East Carolina University. He has a background in anthropology, international government, and technical communication, and his research interests include intercultural exchanges via online media and international outsourcing. He has taught online and conventional courses in technical and professional communication and in intercultural communication for Texas Tech University, Mercer University, and James Madison University. He has also taught courses in e-commerce, distance education, and business communication in Ukraine as a part of the USAID-sponsored Consortium for the Enhancement of Ukrainian Management Education (CEUME).
Sigrid Kelsey is a Librarian at Louisiana State University. She is editor of Catholic Library World, and has co-edited several books including Best Practices for Corporate Libraries (Libraries Unlimited, 2011), and Handbook of Research on Computer Mediated Communication (Information Science Reference, 2008). She a recipient of the Baton Rouge Business Report’s Forty under 40 award (2010), the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) College Libraries Section (CLS) ProQuest Innovation in College Librarianship Award (2010), the Louisiana Library Association (LLA) Anthony H. Benoit Mid-Career Award (2010), and the ACRL-Louisiana Scholar Librarian of the Year Award (2009).



Editorial Board

• Nicole Amare, University of Southern Alabama, USA
• Menno de Jong, University of Twente, The Netherlands
• Charles Kostelnick, Iowa State University, USA
• Paul Lyddon, University of Aizu, Japan
• Bolanle Olaniran, Texas Tech University, USA
• Pete Rive, LaunchSite, New Zealand
• Charles Sides, Fitchburg State College, USA
• Catherine Smith, East Carolina University, USA
• Michaël Steehouder, University of Twente, The Netherlands
• Theodoros Tzouramanis, University of the Aegean, Greece
• Pavel Zemliansky, James Madison University, USA