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Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches

Release Date: December, 2011. Copyright © 2012. 366 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-495-6, ISBN13: 9781613504956, ISBN10: 1613504950, EISBN13: 9781613504963
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MLA

Faulkner, Julie. "Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches." IGI Global, 2012. 1-366. Web. 21 Sep. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-495-6

APA

Faulkner, J. (2012). Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches (pp. 1-366). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-495-6

Chicago

Faulkner, Julie. "Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches." 1-366 (2012), accessed September 21, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61350-495-6

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Description

Although classrooms are thought of as places where skills are learned and knowledge gained, they are also defined by norms and the need to conform. As a result they often reproduce, rather than interrogate, power and cultural relations.

Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches examines a range of ‘disruptive’ approaches, exploring how challenge, dissonance, and discomfort might be mobilized in educational contexts in order to shift taken-for-granted attitudes and beliefs held by both educators and learners. As digital technologies transform both social norms and political resistance, and the imperative to think critically and disruptively is now more urgent than ever.

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Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Megan Boler
Chapter 1
Suzanne Knight
In this chapter the author takes up the use of narrative inquiry within a secondary English language arts methods course. She focuses on two... Sample PDF
Locating and Loving the Personal: Risk and Vulnerability in a Secondary English Language Arts Methods Course
$37.50
Chapter 2
Vicki Stieha, Miriam Raider-Roth
Can the disruption of teachers’ relationships with themselves, as both teachers and learners, be a source for professional growth? In this chapter... Sample PDF
Disrupting Relationships: A Catalyst for Growth
$37.50
Chapter 3
Susan R. Adams, Ross Peterson-Veatch
The central focus of this chapter will be to describe the theory and practice of critical friendship in teacher professional development, paying... Sample PDF
“Critical Friendship” and Sustainable Change: Creating Liminal Spaces to Experience Discomfort Together
$37.50
Chapter 4
Edith A. Rusch
This chapter highlights instructional practices informed by an Interactive Learning Model (Johnston & Dainton, 1996) that fosters retrospective... Sample PDF
Smart People Learning: Self-Knowledge that Disrupts Practice in Meaningful Ways
$37.50
Chapter 5
Erik Ellis
In The Philosophy of Literary Form, Kenneth Burke compares scholars to the participants in an unending conversation in a parlor. Although the famous... Sample PDF
Shushes in the Parlor: Reclaiming the “Conversation” Metaphor
$37.50
Chapter 6
Julie Myatt Barger
Transformation, or change on the part of the student, is the intended outcome of all learning situations, but at times this trope is taken too far.... Sample PDF
Tracing the Trope of Teaching as Transformation
$37.50
Chapter 7
Heidi Skurat Harris
This chapter introduces multiliteracy as an extension of traditional notions of critical pedagogy that uphold student reflection in and about their... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and Conscientização: Digital Students and Critical Reflection on and in Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 8
Julie Faulkner, Bronwyn T. Williams
Humor in popular culture plays with our perceptions and sense of dislocation. The inherently ambiguous logic of humor allows for multiple... Sample PDF
“I’m not Always Laughing at the Jokes”: Humor as a Force for Disruption
$37.50
Chapter 9
A. Abby Knoblauch
As educators look for productive ways to encourage students to disrupt their deeply held beliefs, they often turn toward liberatory pedagogies. Such... Sample PDF
Disrupting Disruption: Invitational Pedagogy as a Response to Student Resistance
$37.50
Chapter 10
Jennifer Elsden-Clifton
The visual arts has a long tradition of providing a space for artists to take up disruptive practices such a, challenging what is known, questioning... Sample PDF
Negotiating Disruption in Visual Arts Education
$37.50
Chapter 11
Lynn Hanson, Meredith A. Love
This chapter discusses the problem of professional writing students transitioning from an academic environment to a work environment. Even the best... Sample PDF
Setting the Stage for Professionalism: Disrupting the Student Identity
$37.50
Chapter 12
Mia O’Brien, Shelley Dole
The application of ‘identity’ to analyses of teaching is not new. However in this chapter, the authors propose that the construct has as yet... Sample PDF
Pre-Service Learning and the (Gentle) Disruption of Emerging Teaching Identity
$37.50
Chapter 13
Elizabeth de Freitas
The concept of emotional resistance is often used to describe student reluctance to grapple with difficult facts regarding inequity and injustice... Sample PDF
The Emotional Labor of Imagining Otherwise: Undoing the Mastery Model of Mathematics Teacher Identity
$37.50
Chapter 14
Greg Curran
Within the adult English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom, heterosexuality is presumed perhaps more so than in other formal education settings.... Sample PDF
“Are you Married?”: Exploring the Boundaries of Sexual Taboos in the ESL Classroom
$37.50
Chapter 15
Rick Carpenter
Historically, Western culture has maintained lines of strict demarcation between what is deemed personal and social, often with one eschewed and the... Sample PDF
Disruptive Relation(ship)s: Romantic Love as Critical Praxis
$37.50
Chapter 16
Kaitlin A. Briggs
Theoretically informed by Julia Kristeva’s linkage of political dissidence with thinking, this chapter explores a deconstructive tool used to... Sample PDF
Performing Dissident Thinking through Writing: Using the Proprioceptive Question to Break out of the Classroom
$37.50
Chapter 17
Drew Kopp
In this chapter, the author provides a theoretical outline for a practice of rhetorical inquiry in the college writing classroom, and focuses on... Sample PDF
The Risk of Rhetorical Inquiry: Practical Conditions for a Disruptive Pedagogy
$37.50
Chapter 18
Susan Matoba Adler, Jeanne Marie Iorio
This chapter illustrates how an online early childhood teacher education program using Socratic inquiry methods inspires students to challenge... Sample PDF
Teachers of Young Children: Moving Students from Agents of Surveillance to Agents of Change
$37.50
Chapter 19
Gloria Latham
This chapter will critically examine the disruptive pedagogies being employed during the initiation, transition, and extension phases of a virtual... Sample PDF
Creating Tension: Orchestrating Disruptive Pedagogies in a Virtual School Environment
$37.50
Chapter 20
Susie Costello
The resulting exchanges of knowledge laid the ground for knowledge and cultural exchanges in interactive, unexpected educational processes. Sample PDF
Coevolving through Disrupted Discussions on Critical Thinking, Human Rights and Empathy
$37.50
Chapter 21
Heather Brunskell-Evans
This chapter explores the possibilities of Michel Foucault’s philosophical-political writings for practicing a “pedagogy of discomfort” in Higher... Sample PDF
The New Public Management of Higher Education: Teaching and Learning
$37.50
Chapter 22
Pamela Bolotin Joseph
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the importance of curriculum inquiry for teacher change and the development of curriculum leaders. The... Sample PDF
Disrupting the Utilitarian Paradigm: Teachers Doing Curriculum Inquiry
$37.50
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Reviews and Testimonials

This book offers a range of philosophical and strategic approaches to explore dimensions of belief systems and their relationships to social hierarchies and technologies. It explores articulations and change within feelings of entrenchment and vulnerability. The authors scrutinize the social and political relations in which individuals are positioned, asking how such relations influence values and practices. The contributors speculate on the boundaries between risk taking and the need to conform, framed by inevitable complications of culture and power.

– Julie Faulkner, RMIT University, Australia
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Topics Covered

  • Curriculum Inquiry
  • Digital Students
  • Disrupting Relationships
  • Disruption in the Visual Arts
  • Disruptive Pedagogies
  • Dissident Thinking through Writing
  • Pre-Service Training
  • Public Management of Higher Education
  • Rhetorical Inquiry
  • Self-Knowledge
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Preface

Schools  and  universities  are  traditionally  spaces  where  skills  are  learned  and,  in  some  cases,  knowledge  gained.  However,  they  are  also  places  defined  by  norms  and  the  need  to  conform.  As  a  result  they  often  reproduce,  rather  than  interrogate  those  power  and  cultural  relations.  Risk  taking  in  classrooms  is  increasingly  curtailed  by  emphasis  on  high  stakes  testing  and  policy  pressures.  Habituated  practices,  combined  with  ‘common  sense’  approaches,  have  tended  to  reinforce  outmoded  beliefs  and  assumptions,  with  such  beliefs  being  deeply  connected  to  identity  formations  around  teaching  and  learning.  

To  animate  change  in  ways  that  we  can  reconfigure  what  we  know,  there  is  a  need  to  critically  reflect  on  personal  and  cultural  identities  built  up  over  time.  Such  an  interrogation  may  lead  to  disruption,  and  disruption  may  produce  a  sense  of   unease.  Learners  often  resist  tension  and  discomfort  which  might  emerge  from  confrontation  with  the  unknown,  and  the  fallout  from  this  can  land  heavily  on  teachers.  Ethical  questions  arise  around  responsibility  for  shaking  presumptions  learners  hold  dear,  and  educators  need  to  become  mindful  of  the  complex  power  relationships  in  and  outside  the  classroom.  Nevertheless,  failing  to  interrogate  routine  or  habituated  thinking  leads  to  no  change  at  all.  In  times  of  increasing  governmental  control  and  regulatory  compliance,  critical  exploration  of  ‘new  paradigms’  is  now  a  pressing  educational  issue.  In  some  cases,  pushing  boundaries  and  agitating  for  change  are  essential  to  challenge  questionable  policy  and  argue  future  directions.  Moreover,  robust  debate  serves  also  to  enlarge  and  enrich  the  cultural  contexts  in  which  we people work.

In  Feeling  Power  (1999),  Megan  Boler  coined  the  phrase  “‘pedagogy  of  discomfort’,”  or  critical  enquiry  into  one’s  own  values  and  beliefs  by  recognizing  how  thinking  and  seeing  is  culturally  constructed.  Disruptive  pedagogies  enable  educators  and  students  to  understand  their  own  reflexivity  more  deeply,  “‘learn[ing]  to  trace  how  one’s  subjectivities  are  shifting  and  contingent’”  (Zembylas  &  Boler  2002,  p.  3).  The  chapters  in  this  book  examine  a  range  of  ‘disruptivee’  approaches;:  attempts  to  shift  taken-for-granted  attitudes  and  beliefs  held  by  both  educators  and  learners  to  redesign  current  practices.  Australian  and  international  contributors  investigate  the  origins  and  frameworks  of  such  initiatives,  seeking  to  understand  how  they  are  realized  across  various  learning  settings.  

The  questions  for  critical  educators  centre  on  how  challenge,  dissonance,  and  disruption  might  be  mobilized  in  educational  contexts  to  bring  about  constructive  change.  Educators  might  value  resistant  thinking  but  often  the  concept  remains  elusive,  an  abstraction,  perhaps  even  an  impossibility  to  teach  and  enact.  However,  the  writers  in  this  collection  have  entered  the  debate  with  philosophical  and  strategic  deliberation.  They  consider  the  nature  of  disruption  and  wrestle  with  questions  interrogating  the  rationale,  ethics  and  responsibilities  of  implementing  related  pedagogies.  How  might  disruption  be  defined  and  negotiated?  How  might  disruption  break  habitual  cycles  and  foster  the  unlearning  of  conservative  norms?  What  forms  might  such  pedagogies  take  and  among  what  kinds  of  disciplinary  areas?  Can  disruption  become  synonymous  with  indoctrination,  or  develop  its  own  orthodoxy?  

Critical  responses  range  across  sites  such  as  college  composition  courses,  a  virtual  school,  and  the  Thailand  Burmese  border.  Concepts  such  as  humor,  heteronormativity,  and  feminism  are  interrogated,  while  romantic  love  is  positioned  as  a  site  for  critical  praxis.  Mathematics,  art,  traditional  Jewish  text  study,  ESL,  and  digital  classrooms  are  examined  for  their  potential  to  shift  traditional  thinking.  Gentle  approaches  sit  beside  more  deliberate  ruptures  in  contested  ideological  and  political  contexts.  Inhabiting  different  roles,  learners  and  teachers  occupy  dialogical  spaces  of  possibility  for  change.  Although  all  contributions  are  from  English-speaking  countries,  they  range  across  three  continents,  and  early  childhood,  secondary,  tertiary,  and  adult  learners  are  considered,  as  writers  question  their  own  practices,  asking  how  learning  and  teaching  might  be  challenged  and  reinvigorated.

To  theorize  disruptive  pedagogies,  critical  literacy  traditions   have  been  drawn  upon  from  the  work  of  Foucault,  Freire,  Habermas,  and  Giroux.  Resisting  dominant  ideologies  to  liberate  thinking  from  hegemonic  structures  has  long  been  a  feature  of  critical,  radical  liberatory  pedagogies.  Foucault’s  (1980)  concept  of  ‘governmentality’  explains  how  we  are  produced  by  power  even  as  we  resist  it;  power  and  resistance  are  mutually  constituted.  Freire’s  (1970)  emphasis  on  dialogue  as  a  way  of  learning  and  knowing  emerges  in  this  collection  as  significant  to  the  role  of  collegial  encounters  with  critical  thinking.  Reflection  and  disruption  are  linked  by  Habermas  in  relation  to  reflection  as  a  form  of  self  construction  that  emancipates  as  it  releases  the  subject  from  dysfunctional  beliefs  (Habermas  cited  in  Mezirow,  2000).  Moreover,  self-understanding  enables  “‘full  potential  as  active,  reflective  scholars  and  practitioners”’  for  Giroux  (1985/2010,  p.  202),  while  critical  reflection  around  liminal  spaces  and  praxis  disrupt  the  “‘quest  for  certainty”’  (Dewey,  1929).  Zembylas  and  Boler  (2002),;  meanwhile,  in  their  study  of  disruptive  pedagogy  as  a  methodology  to  reframe  post  9/11  patriotism,  they emphasize  the  power  and  complexity  of  emotional  investments  in  critiquing  ideology.  Their  recognition  of  emotions  as  discursive  practices  differentiates  pedagogies  of  discomfort  from  critical  media  literacy,  as  they  argue  for  “‘a  collectivized  engagement  in  learning  to  see,  feel,  and  act  differently”’  (p.  4).

Adding  their  voices  to  Zembylas  and  Boler  are  a  number  of  writers  who  examine  disruption  in  the  context  of  research-based  diverse  practices  of  community  building.  Assumptions  inherent  in  teaching  and  learning  practice  that  remain  unexamined  are  highlighted  in  Suzanne  Knight’s  chapter , “L‘Locating  and  loving  the  personal:  Risk  and  vulnerability  in  a  secondary  English  language  and  Arts  methods  course’.”  Exploring  vulnerability  and  risk  taking  as  disruptive  behaviour,  Knight  looks  into  competing  expectations  on  the  part  of  teachers  and  students  through  narrative  analyses  and  affirms  the  value  of  building  a  connected  knowing  group.  

Also  supporting  collective  ways  of  knowing,  Vicki  Stieha  and  Miriam  Raider-Roth  examine  partnered  teacher  work  through  “‘relational  rupture’.”  Examining  the  complex  development  procedure  of  ‘unlearning’  through  Hevruta,  or  traditional  Jewish  text  study,  they  observe  how  shared  exploration  strengthens  deeper  understanding  in  “‘Disrupting  relationships:  A  catalyst  for  growth’.”  It  is  in  the  ‘liminal  spaces’  where  collegial  questioning  can  function  to  move  educators  to  more  transformative  possibilities,  claim  Susan  Adams  and  Ross  Peterson-Veatch  in  “‘‘Critical  friendship’  and  sustainable  change:  Creating  liminal  spaces  to  experience  discomfort  together’.”  The  authors  underline  the  value  of  willing  professional  learning  communities,  suggesting  protocols  to  maintain  a  critical  focus.  

Also  investigating  the  role  of  collaborative  learning  in  supporting  change,  Edith  Rusch  describes  her  work  with  educational  leaders.  “‘Smart  people  learning:  Self-knowledge  that  disrupts  practice  in  meaningful  ways’”  uses  the  Interactive  Learning  Model  to  examine  the  role  of  retrospective  sense  making  to  enable  more  effective  learning.  

Rhetoric  and  composition  studies  prove  a  rich  area  for  contributions  to  the  disruptive  pedagogies  conversation.  Erik  Ellis  deconstructs  the  power  of  metaphor  in  shaping  rhetoric  in  university  composition  courses.  Examining  the  agendas  and  tropes  of  scholarly  writing,  “‘Shushes  in  the  parlor:  Reclaiming  the  ‘“conversation”’  metaphor””  argues  for  more  diverse  forms  of  inquiry  and  writing  to  embrace,  rather  than  fear,  the  irreducibility  of  the  conversation  metaphor.    In  “‘Tracing  the  trope  of  teaching  as  transformation’,”  Julie  Myatt  Barger  also  examines  composition’s  dependence  on  critical  pedagogies.  Constructing  students  as  incomplete  and  in  need  of  transformation,  a  trope  which she  argues  can  be  taken  too  far,  teachers  concerned  with  social  change  represent  students  as  “‘other’,”  thus   limiting  agency  and  complexity  in  student  identity.  

Heidi  Skurat  Harris  takes  the  Freirean  concept  conscientizaçao,  consciousness  of  consciousness.  Linking  discomfort  of  aporia,  she  argues  in  “‘Web  2.0  and  conscientizaçao:  Digital  students  and  critical  reflection  on  and  in  multimedia’”  that  educators  can  longer  continue  to  privilege  print-based  texts  in  the  face  of  a  generation  who  work  differently.  We Educators need  to  teach  critical  thinking  within  digital  contexts.  Also  exploring  young  people’s  preferred  media  modes  and  texts,  Julie  Faulkner  and  Bronwyn  Williams  collaborate  on  a  cross-cultural  project  involving  Australian  and  American  students  exploring  a  satirical  television  series.  In  the  case  of  “‘‘I’m  not  always  laughing  at  the  jokes’:  Humor  as  a  force  for  disruption’,”  parody  is  the  vehicle  for  demonstrating  that  normative  cultural  patterns  have  no  necessity;  we people are  amused  partly  because  their our culture  has  taught  us them how  to  laugh.    

Abby  Knoblauch 
notes  that  disruptive  pedagogies  could  spark  resistance  in  students  who  might  well  feel  protective  over  family  and  community  loyalties.  “‘Disrupting  disruption:  Invitational  pedagogy  as  a  response  to  student  resistance’”  looks  carefully  at  students  leaving  behind  comforting  certainties  and  asks  whether  they  might  see  disruptive  approaches  as  a  form  of  indoctrination  to  liberal  politics.  Knoblauch  builds  a  case  for  invitational  rhetoric  to  encourage  stronger  questioning  students’  deeply  held  beliefs,  especially  when  those  students  find  themselves  distanced  from  supportive  contexts.

Jennifer  Elsden-Clifton’s 
“‘Negotiating  disruption  in  visual  arts  education’”  also  focuses  on  art,  particularly  the  visual  arts,  an  area  which  can  offer  fertile  spaces  for  moving  away  from  ‘safe’  thinking  in  schools.  She  asks  how  students  use  bodies  and  sexualities  as  a  medium  for  disruption,  and  what  kinds  of  emotions  are  evoked  around  this  process.    Her  chapter  picks  up  Zembylas  and  Boler’s  argument  that  paraphrase  ‘effective  analysis  of  ideology  requires  not  only  rational  inquiry  and  dialogue,  but  also  excavation  of  emotional  investments  (2002,  p.  2)

“‘Setting  the  stage  for  professionalism:  Disrupting  the  student  identity’”  by  Lynn  Hanson  and  Meredith  Love  brings  drama  techniques  into  the  professional  writing  classroom.  Compressing  the  space  between  the  workplace  and  classroom,  students  are  required  to  resist  familiar  patterns  of  learner  interaction  and  assume  professional  identities.

Mia  O’Brien  and  Shelley  Dole 
further  explore  questions  of  identity  in  the  process  of  becoming  a  teacher  in  “‘Pre-service  learning  and  the  (gentle)  disruption  of  emerging  teacher  identity’.”  In  the  conceivably  daunting  areas  of  mathematics  and  the  arts,  they  look  at  how  student  discomfort  might  be  managed  by  experiential  learning  and  specifically  designed  assessment.  Their  focus  is  on  teacher  education  pedagogies  in  conjunction  with  pre-service  learning,  and  the  relationship  of  these  processes  to  teacher  identity  formation.

In  “‘The  emotional  labor  of  imagining  otherwise:  Undoing  the  mastery  model  of  mathematics  teacher  identity,”’  Elizabeth  de  Freitas  also  examines  how  mathematics  positions  pre-service  teachers.    Arguing  that  the  language  of  mathematics  is  neither  context-free  nor  ahistorical,  she  analyses  ways  that  language  connects  to  power  in  the  classroom.  Teachers  of  mathematics  need  to  experience  more  ambiguity  and  understand  the  microdynamics  of  the  classroom,  she  argues,  in  order  to  more  deeply  control  learning  and  teaching  processes.

Greg  Curran 
writes  from  an  ESL  context  where  heterosexuality  is  presumed  as  part  of  the  normative  expectations  of  classrooms.  Conscious  and  respectful  of  cultural  difference,  “‘Are  you  married:  Exploring  the  boundaries  of  sexual  taboos  in  the  ESL  classroom”’  examines  sensitive  issues  around  sexuality,  and  explores  ways  that  disruption  might  productively  play  out  when  supported  by  an  aware  and  reflective  teacher.  Also  exploring  boundaries  between  the  personal  and  social,  Rick  Carpenter  in  “‘Disruptive  Relation(ship)s:  Romantic  love  as  critical  praxis’”  problematizes  romantic  love.  He  provides  a  critical  methodology  to  interrogate  received  notions  of  self,  opening  avenues  of  inquiry  and  transformation.  Challenging  binary  thinking  complicates  either/or  approaches,  enabling  expanded  ways  of  knowing  and  being  in  the  world.

Kaitlin  Briggs
’  chapter  disrupts  the  very  form  of  the  conventional  academic  chapter.  She  asks  “‘proprioceptive”’  questions  to  challenge  taken-for-granted  ways  of  thinking  and  writing.  Highlighting  and  calling  into  question  one’s  own  words,  phrases,  and  images,  this  kind  of  question  breaks  up  the  rhythm  of  the  writing,  by  asking  “‘what  do  I  mean  by  ...?’,”  thus  calling  attention  to  language  and  meaning.  “’Performing  dissident  thinking  through  writing:  Using  the  proprioceptive  question  to  break  out  of  the  classroom”’  explores  this  method  of  unpacking  thinking  as  a  political  intervention.

Drew  Kopp 
begins  with  a  theoretical  exploration  of  the  concept  and  process  of  disruption.  Also  focussing  on  rhetorical  inquiry  processes,  Drew  Kopp’s  detailed  analysis  in  “‘The  risk  of  rhetorical  Inquiry:  Practical  conditions  for  a  disruptive  pedagogy’”  critiques  the  teacher’s  role.  He  examines  the  increasing  complexity  of  performative  and  dialogic  encounters  within  increasingly  unfamiliar  and  complex  contexts  in  order  to  ‘willingly  embrace’  discomfort  and  enrich  our people’s experience  of  the  world.

In  Early  Childhood  Education,  Susan  Matoba  Adler  and  Jeanne  Marie  Iorio  demonstrate  how  Socratic  questioning  can  serve  as  a  pedagogy  to  create  new  perspectives.  Through  blogs  and  discussion  board  postings,  pre-service  teachers  move  toward  more  critical  positions  in  relation  to  young  learners.  “‘Teachers  of  young  children:  Moving  students  from  agents  of  surveillance  to  agents  of  change’”  asks  how  students  can  question  and  resist  habituated  assumptions  around  issues  of  academic  pushdown,  teacher  identity,  standardization,  and  developmentally  appropriate  practice.

A  virtual  school  is  the  site  for  Gloria  Latham’s  provocation  in  “‘Creating  tension:  Orchestrating  disruptive  pedagogies  in  a  virtual  school  environment’.”  Pre-service  teachers  placed  in  this  school  experience  surprise  and  dislocation  as  they  attempt  to  negotiate  the  environment  without  a  site  map.  The  process  invites  critical  reflection  of  normative  school  practices,  practices  strongly  embedded  in  students’  schooled  pasts,  and  which  constrain  ways  beginning  teachers  might  imagine  the  future.

Working  within  a  real  and  already  disrupted  environment,  cross-cultural  (mis)understandings  provide  the  impetus  for  Susie  Costello  in  “‘Coevolving  through  disrupted  discussions  on  critical  thinking,  human  rights  and  empathy’.”  Building  social  work  curriculum  with  health  care  refugee  workers  on  the  Thailand -Burmese  border,  she  encounters  a  range  of  unshared  cultural  concepts.  Her  chapter  narrates  six  stories  from  her  research  which  discuss  the  impact  of  Boal’s  theatre  of  the  oppressed  strategies  to  promote  alternative  thinking.

Theorising  disruption  in  terms  of  current  political  ideologies,  Heather  Brunskell-Evans  examines  the  New  Public  Management  in  the  United  Kingdom  (“‘The  new  public  management  of  higher  education:  Teaching  and  Learning”’).  Using  Foucault’s  concept  of  genealogy,  Brunskell-Evans  invites  readers  to  critically  examine  new  university  pedagogies’  claims  to  grant  learners  agency  within  the  ‘normalizing’  powers  of  the  knowledge  economy.  Similarly  exploring  tensions  linked  to  disruption  and  contemporary  political  conditions,  Pamela  Bolotin  Joseph  analyses  the  power  of  utilitarian  discourse  to  enculturate  educational  thinking.  Her  chapter,  “‘Disrupting  the  utilitarian  paradigm:  Teachers  doing  curriculum  inquiry’,”  calls  for  teachers  to  become  ‘curriculum  workers’  in  challenging  top  down  curriculum  planning  and  standardized  testing.  Identifying  reflection,  transformative  learning,  and  affect  as  pathways  for  teacher  change,  Joseph’s  curriculum  workers  question  and  modify  mandated  curriculum.  

At  the  time  of  writing  (March,  2011),  significant  political  shifts  are  occurring  in  the  Middle  East.  Hosni  Mubarak’s  thirty-  nine  year  dictatorship  in  Egypt  has  ended  relatively  peacefully,  while  Libya’s  political  control  is  in  turmoil.  China  has  blocked  Twitter  and  Linkedin  because  of  their  role  in  organizing  anti-government  demonstrations.  Digital  technologies  and  social  networking  have  changed  the  face  of  political  resistance,  and  the  imperative  to  think  critically  is  now  more  urgent  than  ever.  This  book  offers  a  range  of  philosophical  and  strategic  approaches  to  explore  dimensions  of  belief  systems  and  their  relationships  to  social  hierarchies  and  technologies.  It  explores  articulations  and  change  within  feelings  of  entrenchment  and  vulnerability.  The  authors  scrutinize  the  social  and  political  relations  in  which  individuals  are  positioned,  asking  how  such  relations  influence  values  and  practices.  The  contributors  speculate  on  the  boundaries  between  risk  taking  and  the  need  to  conform,  framed  by  inevitable  complications  of  culture  and  power.  

In  this  collection,  these  tensions  emerge  at  different  stages  of  learning  and  teaching.  For  some  writers,  the  aim  of  shifting  learners’  beliefs  and  attitudes  is  the  motivating  force  for  pedagogical  design.  Others  begin  with  the  idea  of  disruption,  then  pause  at  points  in  the  process  to  question  the  implications  of  what  they  have  embarked  upon.  Yet  other  authors  are  almost  caught  by  surprise  by  dislocation  and  find  that  conceptualizing  practice  then  serves  to  enable  deeper  understanding.  

The  chapters  that follow  offer  a  spectrum  of  possibilities  for  practitioners  to  explore  their  capacity  to  challenge  and  transform  learner  perceptions.  These  forms  of  critical  inquiry  encourage  readers  to  explore  the  limits  and  possibilities  of  disruption,  comprehensively  examining  the  teacher’s  role  and  offering  a  range  of  creative,  philosophical,  and  social  approaches.  At  the  core  of  the  authors’  various  responses,  however,  lies  the  vital,  transformative  challenge  from  Zembylas  and  Boler.  A  pedagogy  of  discomfort  is  an  invitation  not  only  to  challenge  our  thinking,  but  to  re-invent  ourselves  (2002,  p.  14).


REFERENCES

Boler,  M.  (1999).  Feeling  power:  Emotions  and  education.  New  York, NY:  Routledge.

Dewey,  J.  (1929,  1960).  The  quest  for  certainty.  New  York, NY:  Capricorn.

Foucault,  M  (1980).  Power/knowledge:  Selected  interviews  and  other  writings,  1972-1977  (C.  Gordon.  Ed.,  &  C.  Gordon,  et  al.,  Trans.).  New  York, NY:  Pantheon  Books.

Freire,  P.  (1970).  Pedagogy  of  the  oppressed  (2008  30th  anniversary  edition ed., ). (M.  B.  Ramos,  Trans.)  New  York, NY:  The  Continuum  International  Publishing  Group.

Freire,  P.,  &  Macedo,  D.  (1995).  A  dialogue:  Culture,  language,  and  race.  Harvard  Educational  Review,  65 (3),  377-402.

Giroux,  H.  (1985/2010).  Teacher  as  transformative  intellectuals.  In  A.  Canestrari  &  B.  Marlow  (Eds.),  Education  foundations:  An  anthology  of  critical  readings  (pp.  197-204).  Thousand  Oaks,  CA:  Sage  Publications.  

Mezirow,  J.  (2000)  Learning  as  transformation:  Critical  perspectives  in  theory  as  progress  (First  edition)  San  Francisco:, CA  Jossey-Bass.

Zembylas,  M.,  &  Boler,  M.  (2002).  On  the  spirit  of  patriotisim:  Challenges  of  a  "pedagogy  of  discomfort".  Retrieved  January  6,  2010,  from  Teachers College Record: http://www.tcrecord.org/library
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Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Julie Faulkner is a senior lecturer at RMIT University, Melbourne. She writes and teaches on matters of literacy, popular culture, identity and digital reading and writing practices. She has published widely on the role of Information and Communication Technologies in curriculum innovation. Along with Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches with IGI Global, she has jointly edited Learning to Teach: New Time, New Practices (Oxford University Press), currently in its second edition.
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Indices

Australian Education Index
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Editorial Board

  • Dr. Gloria Latham, RMIT University, Australia
  • Dr. Jennifer Elsden-Clifton, RMIT University, Australia
  • Professor Catherine Beavis, Griffith University, Australia
  • Dr. Michael Crowhurst, RMIT University, Australia
  • Professor Ilana Snyder, Monash University, Australia