Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (2 Volumes)
Release Date: July, 2008. Copyright © 2009. 926 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-845-1, ISBN13: 9781599048451, ISBN10: 1599048450, EISBN13: 9781599048468
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The Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a comprehensive resource describing the influence of information communication technology in scientific knowledge construction, with emphasis on the roles of product technologies, process technologies, and context technologies. Through 111 authoritative contributions by 93 of the world's leading experts this reference covers the materials and instruments of information technology: from ICT in education to software engineering; the influence of ICT on different environments, including e-commerce, decision support systems, knowledge management, and more; and the most pervasive presence of information technology, including studies and research on knowledge management, the human side of ICT, ICT in healthcare, and virtual organizations, among many others. Addressing many of the fundamental issues of information communication technology, the Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology will be a top-shelf resource for any reference library.
Table of Contents and List of Contributors
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“Ambient intelligence” (AmI) refers to both a theoretical and a practical orientation of technology, involving the most innovative areas of the ICT...
The Simon’s model of the decision-making process includes the phase of choosing among alternatives or options, designed for solving the given...
The basic assumption of our research is that in order for teachers and parents to promote an effective and critical use of new technologies in the...
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
As information technology (IT) has become part of business in today’s globalized economy, increasingly higher performance of information systems is...
Within the e-learning context, the importance of developing concept maps—and, therefore, of developing software tools that support their design and...
Konstantinos Markellos, Penelope Markellou, Aristotelis Mertis, Angeliki Panayiotaki
In the last decade electronic and wireless technologies have changed the way companies do business forever. E-commerce (electronic commerce) and...
Change is driving the new millennium along many paths. There is one particular place where the change is especially deep, and that is the path in...
The knowledge society has reinterpreted the concept of knowledge, shifting from the idea of philosophical argument to an epistemological meaning...
Thomas M. Connolly, Mark Stansfield
The emergence of the Internet has had a significant impact on higher education where we have seen elearning evolve from a marginal form of education...
The introduction of interactive television offers new potentialities to the television medium with the possibility of including e-commerce, programs...
In recent years, there have been extensive discussions in the information system (IS) community on how to best respond to developments in the...
Donatella Persico, Francesca Pozzi, Luigi Sarti
Some collaborative learning strategies widely used in face-to-face settings can also be adapted to online contexts. They allow us to master the...
Information technologies (ITs) entered and irreversibly changed the discipline of archaeology during the last 20 years of the second millennium. The...
Carmen de Pablos Heredero
The need to be adapted to the changes in the environment, to improve the operational efficiency, and to increase the level of satisfaction in...
The development of homosapien man can be classified into ages. These ages fundamentally affect the patterns of how humans work, play and interact....
Esharenana E. Adomi, Stella E. Igun
During the last 20 years, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have greatly provided a wealth of new technological opportunities, with...
Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Andrew Egba Ubogu
Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) have posed complex problem for colleges and universities in Nigeria especially in...
Uros Krcadinac, Milan Stankovic, Vitomir Kovanovic, Jelena Jovanovic
Since the AAAI (http://www.aaai.org) Spring Symposium in 1994, intelligent software agents and agentbased systems became one of the most significant...
Sheng-Uei Guan, Ping Cheng Tan
A business-to-consumer environment can be developed through software agents (Guan, Zhu, & Maung, 2004; Maes, 1994; Nwana & Ndumu, 1996; Wang, Guan...
Confronting with the educational emergences defined— in the white paper presented in 1995 by the European commission with the title “Teaching and...
The effective use of information and communication technology, or ICT (Barua, Kriebel, & Mukhopadhyay, 1995; Burn & Szeto, 2000; Mahmood & Mann...
Narrative, in the form of stories and narrations, is a natural mode of communication and expression, familiar to children from a very early age and...
The reliance on computer communications networks for business and commerce, education, entertainment and many other applications demands these...
Yuk Kuen Wong, C. J. Hsu
The aim of this study focuses solely on the customer’s perceptions of the m-commerce environment, rather than on trust in intermediaries or in third...
Ursula Hyrkkänen, Juha Kettunen, Ari Putkonen
The purpose of this article is to describe and assess the participatory development process of a palm computer with special software from the work...
Gábor Richly, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
This article presents a novel approach to search in shared audio file storages such as P2P based systems. The proposed method is based on the...
Alexander Mikroyannidis, Babis Theodoulidis
The Semantic Web is an ambitious initiative aiming to transform the Web to a well-organized source of information. In particular, apart from the...
Ee Ping Ong, Weisi Lin
Video object segmentation aims to extract different video objects from a video (i.e., a sequence of consecutive images). It has attracted vast...
Terry T. Kidd
The current wireless revolution in our society is increasing the impending need to be able to facilitate communication and have the availability of...
Reviews and Testimonials
This book provides a valuable collection of articles, each written by experts in their areas. It offers both a breadth and depth of coverage in issues linking ICT, e-learning, and instructional design that cannot be easily found elsewhere. This encyclopedia should be included in any library.
– Athanassios Jimoyiannis, University of Peloponnese, Greece
Each article concludes with a list of reference and a helpful list of keywords and their definitions.
– Book News Inc. (December 2008)
Nice summaries of current technology.
– American Reference Books Annual , Vol. 40 (2009)
- Cultural changes influenced by ICT
- Evolution of human/scientific knowledge
- ICT environments for learning
- ICT in science and education
- ICT influence on scientific knowledge construction and evolution
- ICT influence on scientific revolution
- Impact of technology on society
- Information processes technologies
- Information systems for research/teaching improvement
- Instruments and processes of knowledge construction
- Product and service development with ICT
- Scientific and didactic communication
- Scientific knowledge theories
- Technology planning, marketing, and management
- Technology Tools for Education
- Theories and models of ICT design
- Virtual Communities
The information and communication technology revolution can be easily recognized as the latest revolution in the history of mankind, impacting every facet of business, society, and life worldwide with a speed beyond imagination. The last centuries have seen a continuous evolution process which started with the industrial revolution at the end of eighteenth century. This revolution has its roots in the invention of the first electronic computers in the 1940s, continued with the development of information technology during the following decades and exploded in the early ’90s. In the 1960s and ’70s, computer technology was mainly utilized in business data processing and scientific applications of a mostly number crunching nature. As a result, the use of this technology was limited to those who had a good command of these systems and computer programming languages. With the invention of microprocessors a new idea of distributed information established itself and computers became available on a personal basis. The contemporary development of networking both on a local and a wide area (LAN and WAN) merged computer and information technology with telecommunication. In the 1980s the matching of the two technologies led to the information communication technology, with a strong focus on the management and dissemination of information by both providers and users.
The most noticeable explosion in the information and communication technology revolution was the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) and its potential in the early 1990s. During the past two decades, WWW technologies have become the driving force in allowing people worldwide to communicate and exchange information in ways that have created a totally new dimension for mankind, at such a point that “global village” are the words today better describing our planet. In recent years, through the use of web-enabled technologies, organizations of all types and sizes around the world have managed to utilize these technologies to conduct both information processing and dissemination with their prospective customers, suppliers, students, and governments. These technologies, now allowing readily available information for everyone regardless of their geographic location, bring the true meaning of the information age to its full realization and prepare a new era for mankind: the knowledge society.
In recent years, the science of understanding the nature of information processing and management combined with computer and telecommunication technologies to process, disseminate, and manage information has become known as “Information and Communication Science and Technology.” It has many resources and components and originated many new disciplines but, what’s more, it intervened in changing the mankind’s habits and lifestyle.
As information and communication science and technology have profoundly impacted science, business, society, and every other aspect of life on our planet, numerous researchers around the world have focused on accumulating knowledge on this discipline and its effects and influences. The volume and intensity of research in the field of information and communication science and technology and the study of its implications on human and social behavior has by far exceeded many other fields of science, and the sheer impact of research discoveries in this area has become the driving force of many emerging studies, technologies and applications. No longer is this discipline limited to a few technology-related areas, but, as for many other modern fields of knowledge, information and communication science and technology are today a collection of a great variety of specific disciplines. This collection process has been accomplished by producing research results to understand the potentials, problems, and challenges of each individual discipline, analyzing the cross-fertilization on neighboring fields of knowledge and trying to expand the body of literature related to the topics of that discipline. As a result we can today use the words of D. de Kerchkove (1995) who stated that a technology enters human culture when it disappears or, to be more precise, when it becomes transparent.
To access the latest research related to the many disciplines of the information and communication science and technology field, we decided to launch an encyclopedia project where researchers from all over the world would assist us in providing the necessary coverage of each respective discipline in information and communication science and technology and in the fields affected from its influence and application. The primary objective of this project was to assemble research coverage related to the disciplines selected for this encyclopedia by defining the technologies, terms, and acronyms related to each discipline, and providing the most comprehensive list of research references related to each discipline.
To provide the most comprehensive, in-depth, and recent coverage of the developments of information and communication science and technology and its application and influence, three different areas of interest were selected:
- product ICT, focusing on materials, instruments for ICT, i.e. hardware and software for information communication, including studies, hypotheses, case studies etc.
- process ICT, focusing on processes including ICT use or presence, i.e. the organization and management of processes in different environments by means of ICT (where it is used), and the planning and carrying out of experiences and projects for information and communication management and/or involving ICT use
- context ICT, focusing on the most pervasive presence of ICT, i.e. experiences, studies and researches on information and communication technologies in informal and/or not well structured contexts, otherwise said the influence of ICT on human and social phenomena (when there is no planned and structured ICT intervention but the changes inducted by ICT clearly emerge).
In order to provide the best balanced coverage of concepts and issues related to the selected topics of this encyclopedia, researchers from around the world were asked to submit proposals describing their experiences and the contribution of their work to the encyclopedia. All proposals were carefully reviewed by the editors-in-chief in light of their suitability, the authors’ records of similar work in the area of the proposed topics, and the excellence of their proposals. The goal was to assemble the best minds in the information and communication science and technology field and their use and application from all over the world to contribute entries to the encyclopedia. Each text was forwarded to at least three expert external reviewers on a double-blind, peer review basis. Only submissions with strong and favorable reviews were chosen as entries for this encyclopedia.
As a result, this encyclopedia includes more than 100 entries highlighting current concepts, issues and emerging technologies, studies and applications. All entries are written by distinguished scholars from many prominent research institutions all over the world. Thousand technical and managerial terms enhance these entries. Each of these terms has a description that allows the readers of this extensive research source to learn the language and terminology of the field. In addition, this encyclopedia offers a thorough reference section with sources of additional information for scholars, students, and researchers in the field of information science and technology.
To assist readers in navigating and identifying needed information, this encyclopedia has been organized by listing all entries in an introductive chapter to each section.
In addition, a comprehensive glossary of all terms directs readers to a short definition of the subject. A keyword index is also available, listing the most important concepts.
To keep up with emerging technologies and research discoveries, regular entry additions will be made to the online version of the encyclopedia. We are pleased to add that complimentary online access to this encyclopedia for the life of the edition will be provided to any library with the purchase of the print copy. This complimentary online availability will allow students, researchers, and corporate managers to access the latest contents of this comprehensive and in-depth encyclopedia regardless of their location. This particular feature will prove to be an extremely valuable resource for distance learning educational programs worldwide.
The diverse and comprehensive coverage of multiple disciplines in the field of information and communication of science and technology in this authoritative encyclopedia will contribute to a better understanding of all topics, researches, and discoveries in this evolving, significant field of study. Furthermore, the contributions included in this encyclopedia will be instrumental in the expansion of the body of knowledge in this vast field. The coverage of this encyclopedia provides strength to this reference resource for both information and communication science and technology researchers and also decision makers in obtaining a greater understanding of the concepts, issues, problems, trends, challenges and opportunities related to this field of study. It is our sincere hope that this publication and its vast amount of information and research will assist our colleagues, their students, and our organizational decision makers in enhancing their understanding of this discipline and its application. Perhaps this publication will even inspire its readers to contribute to the current discoveries in this immense field, which can assist the mankind in making the world a better place to live in.
University of Florence, Italy
John A. Clarke
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
University of Ferrara, Italy
University of Peloponesse, Greece
Rector of the Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland
University of Houston-Downtown, USA
University of Ferrara, Italy
University of Ferrara, Italy
University of Florence, Italy
Catholic University of Holy Heart, Italy
Robert Morris University, USA