Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (2 Volumes)

Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (2 Volumes)

Antonio Cartelli (University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy) and Marco Palma (University of Cassino, Italy)
Release Date: July, 2008|Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 926
ISBN13: 9781599048451|ISBN10: 1599048450|EISBN13: 9781599048468|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-845-1
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NetLibrary named the Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology as their September 2008 e-book of the month!

The Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is a comprehensive resource describing the influence of information communication technology in scientific knowledge construction, with emphasis on the roles of product technologies, process technologies, and context technologies. Through 111 authoritative contributions by 93 of the world's leading experts this reference covers the materials and instruments of information technology: from ICT in education to software engineering; the influence of ICT on different environments, including e-commerce, decision support systems, knowledge management, and more; and the most pervasive presence of information technology, including studies and research on knowledge management, the human side of ICT, ICT in healthcare, and virtual organizations, among many others. Addressing many of the fundamental issues of information communication technology, the Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technology will be a top-shelf resource for any reference library.

Topics Covered

  • Cultural changes influenced by ICT
  • Evolution of human/scientific knowledge
  • ICT environments for learning
  • ICT in science and education
  • ICT influence on scientific knowledge construction and evolution
  • ICT influence on scientific revolution
  • Impact of technology on society
  • Information processes technologies
  • Information systems for research/teaching improvement
  • Instruments and processes of knowledge construction
  • Product and service development with ICT
  • Scientific and didactic communication
  • Scientific knowledge theories
  • Technology planning, marketing, and management
  • Technology Tools for Education
  • Theories and models of ICT design
  • Virtual Communities

Reviews and Testimonials

This book provides a valuable collection of articles, each written by experts in their areas. It offers both a breadth and depth of coverage in issues linking ICT, e-learning, and instructional design that cannot be easily found elsewhere. This encyclopedia should be included in any library.

– Athanassios Jimoyiannis, University of Peloponnese, Greece

Each article concludes with a list of reference and a helpful list of keywords and their definitions.

– Book News Inc. (December 2008)

Nice summaries of current technology.

– American Reference Books Annual, Vol. 40 (2009)

– Featured Title on University & College Library News, 2014

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Editorial Advisory Board
Contents by Volume
Contents by Topic
Antonio Cartelli, Marco Palma
Antonio Cartelli, Marco Palma
Chapter 1
Luca Vanin, Stefano Castelli, Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando
This chapter begins with an analysis of a distance degree in psychological sciences. The structure of the course includes a national centre... Sample PDF
An Academic Guidance Model to Orient Distance Students
Chapter 2
Chua Fang Fang
out by the evaluators to consider the behavior of the mobile interface, its impact on the user, and judge whether the user would be able to perform... Sample PDF
Adaptation of Cognitive Walkthrough in Response to the Mobile Challenge
Chapter 3
Y. Inoue
Cognitive walkthrough (CWT) is a usability inspection method which allows users to learn a system by using it to achieve tasks rather than studying... Sample PDF
Adult Education and Adult Learning Processes with ICT
Chapter 4
Eugenia M.W. Ng
The Internet was initially set up in the 1960s and 1970s for supporting research in the military. It was then developed in 1981 in the academic... Sample PDF
An Alternative Learning Platform to Facilitate Usability and Synchronization of Learning Resources
Chapter 5
Ambient Intelligence  (pages 32-39)
Fortunato Sorrentino
“Ambient intelligence” (AmI) refers to both a theoretical and a practical orientation of technology, involving the most innovative areas of the ICT... Sample PDF
Ambient Intelligence
Chapter 6
Yuk Kuen Wong, Donald Vance Kerr
Universities face the challenge to ensure that quality teaching meets the needs of the students and satisfies their learning requirements (Beller &... Sample PDF
Applying Constructivist Self-Regulating Learning Approach for ICT Students
Chapter 7
Dimitris K. Kardaras
There is a revolution transforming the global economy. Web technology is transforming all business activities into information-based. The rate of... Sample PDF
B2B E-Commerce Development in Syria and Sudan
Chapter 8
BISER  (pages 66-68)
Dimitar Christozov
The Simon’s model of the decision-making process includes the phase of choosing among alternatives or options, designed for solving the given... Sample PDF
Chapter 9
Hanafizan Hussain
The use of educational technology at university and college campuses has grown and changed substantially in the last decades. The province of... Sample PDF
Blended Approach Environment Shift in Higher Education
Chapter 10
Children and Computers  (pages 75-83)
Paolo Ferri
The basic assumption of our research is that in order for teachers and parents to promote an effective and critical use of new technologies in the... Sample PDF
Children and Computers
Chapter 11
Annarella Perra
Some European Classics Teachers, moved by the same passion for Classics and together for Information and Communication Technology so that from long... Sample PDF
Classics Teaching Through ICT Experience to ICT Manual for Classics Teachers
Chapter 12
David G. Vequist IV
This article will describe the background, basic infrastructure, and future trends of collaborative knowledge management (CKM) and enterprise... Sample PDF
Collaborative Knowledge Management (CKM) and Enterprise Knowledge Management
Chapter 13
Giorgio Poletti
Making an effective presentation of the scientific activity that took place in the context of the E-Learning Expo, through a significant analysis... Sample PDF
Comparison of Technologies and Methodologies in the E-Learning EXPO Experience
Chapter 14
Nwachukwu Prince Ololube
This study integrates literature on computer anxiety and communication apprehension to determine their joint impact upon individual attitudes toward... Sample PDF
Computer Communication and ICT Attitude and Anxiety Among Higher Education Students
Chapter 15
Athanassios Jimoyiannis
In this article, the basic characteristics of scientific and educational simulations are discussed. Research findings which support their... Sample PDF
Computer Simulations and Scientific Knowledge Construction
Chapter 16
Stefania Manca
The social, relational, and affective dynamics are receiving more and more attention in the study of learning processes, as cognitive, affective... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Communication Learning Environments: The Social Dimension
Chapter 17
I. A. Ajayi, O. B. Ajayi
Cooperative learning involves students working in groups on problems or projects such that it fosters positive interdependence, individual... Sample PDF
Cooperative Learning Strategies for Effective Teaching and Learning Science Courses in Large Classes
Chapter 18
Maria Ranieri
During the last years the issue of digital divide has received particular attention from international bodies like the UN, UNESCO, OECD (Bindé... Sample PDF
Cyberspace's Ethical and Social Challenges in Knowledge Society
Chapter 19
Data Caching Patterns  (pages 139-149)
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
As information technology (IT) has become part of business in today’s globalized economy, increasingly higher performance of information systems is... Sample PDF
Data Caching Patterns
Chapter 20
Jens Mende
Yourdon and Constantine (1979), De Marco (1979), and Gane and Sarson (1979) introduced the data flow diagram (DFD) more than a quarter of a century... Sample PDF
Data Flow Diagram Use to Plan Empirical Research Projects
Chapter 21
Emilio Lastrucci, Debora Infante, Angela Pascale
In the last few years, the methods for the delivery of professional and educational training have radically changed. More knowledge and information... Sample PDF
From Distance Education to E-Learning as Integrated Training
Chapter 22
Paolo Frignani
Distance learning (DL) is not, and must not become, a surrogate for traditional learning with the teacher (Trentin, 1998). For this reason... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Techniques in University Courses
Chapter 23
Marco Pedroni
Within the e-learning context, the importance of developing concept maps—and, therefore, of developing software tools that support their design and... Sample PDF
Dynamic Reconstruction of Concept Maps
Chapter 24
Konstantinos Markellos, Penelope Markellou, Aristotelis Mertis, Angeliki Panayiotaki
In the last decade electronic and wireless technologies have changed the way companies do business forever. E-commerce (electronic commerce) and... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Recommendation Systems
Chapter 25
Emilio Lastrucci, Debora Infante, Angela Pascale
The assessment of e-learning shares most of the needs and requirements of face-to-face teaching, including clarity of the main objective, needs... Sample PDF
Education and E-Learning Evaluation and Assessment
Chapter 26
Corrado Petrucco
The Web is going to produce a revolution in learning and teaching: the debate on the role of ICT in educational processes leads to a reconsideration... Sample PDF
EduOntoWiki Project for Supporting Social, Educational, and Knowledge Construction Processes with Semantic Web Paradigm
Chapter 27
Zarina Che Embe, Hanafizan Hussain
The convergence of information technology, particularly multimedia applications, has made it possible to create electronic games with characters... Sample PDF
An Edutainment Framework Implementation Case Study
Chapter 28
Princely Ifinedo
E-government, as described by the World Bank, is the use of information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform government by making it... Sample PDF
E-Government Growth Barriers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 29
E-Knowledge  (pages 215-221)
Fortunato Sorrentino
Change is driving the new millennium along many paths. There is one particular place where the change is especially deep, and that is the path in... Sample PDF
Chapter 30
Marco Pedroni
The aim of the Corona project, which was launched in 2003 in the context of methodological-technological research on the subject of e-learning... Sample PDF
E-Learning Function Integration with Corona 2
Chapter 31
Charilaos A. Karampotsios, Dimitris K. Kardaras, Eleutherios A. Papathanassiou
This article reports on a survey that investigates the role of e-learning in improving the communication in learning environments. The results are... Sample PDF
Does E-Learning Improve the Communication Among Students and Lecturers?
Chapter 32
Flavia Santoianni
The knowledge society has reinterpreted the concept of knowledge, shifting from the idea of philosophical argument to an epistemological meaning... Sample PDF
E-Learning is What Kind of Learning?
Chapter 33
Maria Ranieri
This article aims to examine these different e-learning models and discuss some recent evolutions in this field due to the development of online... Sample PDF
E-Learning Methodological Models and Typologies
Chapter 34
Anna Torriero, Immacolata Scancarello
This article provides an evaluation of the impact of a specific e-learning platform (www.blackboard.com) upon pass rates, in particular on the... Sample PDF
An E-Learning Project for a Basic Mathematics Course at the University
Chapter 35
Thomas M. Connolly, Mark Stansfield
The emergence of the Internet has had a significant impact on higher education where we have seen elearning evolve from a marginal form of education... Sample PDF
From E-Learning to Games-Based E-Learning
Chapter 36
Roberto Cuccu
The introduction of interactive television offers new potentialities to the television medium with the possibility of including e-commerce, programs... Sample PDF
From E-Learning to T-Learning
Chapter 37
Franco Frabboni
With the third millennium a new and attractive scenario has opened up, giving voice to an old face of culture: knowledge. Its “new”... Sample PDF
Is Electronic Knowledge a Plural Thought?
Chapter 38
Yasin Ozcelik
Loyalty is defined as the repeated satisfaction of a customer with purchases of products from a specific firm or brand. Firms have been developing... Sample PDF
Electronic Loyalty Programs Comparative Survey
Chapter 39
Feng Jin, Farook Sattar
Pulmonary auscultation has been the key method to detect and evaluate respiratory dysfunctions for many years. However, auscultation with a... Sample PDF
Enhancement of Recorded Respiratory Sound Using Signal Processing Techniques
Chapter 40
Jaideep Motwani, Asli Y. Akbulut
help improve their productivity and customer service while lowering costs and inventory levels. The inherent appeal of ERP has not gone unnoticed in... Sample PDF
ERP Integration into Existing Courses: A Three-Step Approach
Chapter 41
E-Tutor  (pages 308-314)
Maria Ranieri
In recent years, there have been extensive discussions in the information system (IS) community on how to best respond to developments in the... Sample PDF
Chapter 42
Emilio Lastrucci, Debora Infante, Angela Pascale
The history of usability began almost 20 years ago when computers were about to be used outside the designer and programmer environment. Until the... Sample PDF
Evaluating Usability to Improve Efficiency in E-Learning Programs
Chapter 43
Athanassios Jimoyiannis
In this article the factors involved in the uptake of ICT by the teachers and the schools are examined. The focus of our argumentation is that... Sample PDF
Factors Determining Teachers' Beliefs and Perceptions of ICT in Education
Chapter 44
Donatella Persico, Francesca Pozzi, Luigi Sarti
Some collaborative learning strategies widely used in face-to-face settings can also be adapted to online contexts. They allow us to master the... Sample PDF
Fostering Collaboration in CSCL
Chapter 45
Cristina Corsi
Information technologies (ITs) entered and irreversibly changed the discipline of archaeology during the last 20 years of the second millennium. The... Sample PDF
GIS Use in Landscape Archaeology
Chapter 46
Antonio Cartelli
Technologies entered in education since their first appearance and were used both for improving the efficacy and efficiency of traditional teaching... Sample PDF
Higher Education's New Frontier for the E-University and Virtual Campus
Chapter 47
Laura Corazza
In Italy, as in other European countries such as Germany and France, the words “multicultural” and “intercultural” have distinct meanings1. In some... Sample PDF
ICT and Interculture Opportunities Offered by the Web
Chapter 48
Carmen de Pablos Heredero
The need to be adapted to the changes in the environment, to improve the operational efficiency, and to increase the level of satisfaction in... Sample PDF
ICT and the Virtual Organisation
Chapter 49
Chad Lin, Yu-An Huang
Business-to-business electronic commerce (B2BEC) represents the largest growth sector, that is, 80% of revenues—in e-commerce (Pires & Aisbett... Sample PDF
ICT Investment Evaluation Practices in Large Organizations
Chapter 50
Ritchie Macefield
The development of homosapien man can be classified into ages. These ages fundamentally affect the patterns of how humans work, play and interact.... Sample PDF
ICT Literacy in the Information Age
Chapter 51
ICT Policies in Africa  (pages 384-389)
Esharenana E. Adomi, Stella E. Igun
During the last 20 years, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have greatly provided a wealth of new technological opportunities, with... Sample PDF
ICT Policies in Africa
Chapter 52
Jason S. Lecoure, Wendy R. Carroll
The purpose of this chapter is to bring these smaller self-forming, informal academic research teams into focus to understand the effects of ICT and... Sample PDF
ICT Processes for Virtual Academic Research Teams (VART) in Academia
Chapter 53
Nwachukwu Prince Ololube, Andrew Egba Ubogu
Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) have posed complex problem for colleges and universities in Nigeria especially in... Sample PDF
ICTs and Distance Education in Nigeria
Chapter 54
Chun-Tsung Chen
This article intended to explore technological frames held by organisational group members that implicitly served to shape their interpretations of... Sample PDF
The Impact of Technological Frames on Knowledge Management Procedures
Chapter 55
Antonio Cartelli
Information and communication technology (ICT) is today influencing many aspects of our lives from administration to economy from culture and... Sample PDF
The Implementation of Practices with ICT as a New Teaching-Learning Paradigm
Chapter 56
Jens Mende
When they write essays, many students merely attempt ‘to fill pages with material gathered from sources’ (Erion, 2000). Consequently, they produce... Sample PDF
Inference Tree Use to Design Arguments in Expository Reports
Chapter 57
Yuk Kuen Wong
While information communication technology (ICT) can be considered a well-established discipline, software development projects are still prone to... Sample PDF
Information Communication Technology Tools for Software Review and Verification
Chapter 58
Juha Kettunen, Jouni Hautala, Mauri Kantola
The importance of middle managers is frequently noted in the context of strategic management and other key decisions (Floyd & Wooldridge, 1996;... Sample PDF
Information Environments of Middle Managers in Higher Education
Chapter 59
Roy Gelbard, Jeffrey Kantor, Liran Edelist
This study proposes and prototypes a model that integrates these three aspects of software projects by automatically mapping SE objects and... Sample PDF
Integrating Software Engineering and Costing Aspects within Project Management Tools
Chapter 60
Vanja Kljajevic
As we are witnessing an increase in multifunctionality of interactive devices, two problems are taking shape in user interface (UI) design: first... Sample PDF
An Integrative Approach to User Interface Design
Chapter 61
Uros Krcadinac, Milan Stankovic, Vitomir Kovanovic, Jelena Jovanovic
Since the AAAI (http://www.aaai.org) Spring Symposium in 1994, intelligent software agents and agentbased systems became one of the most significant... Sample PDF
Intelligent Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 62
Sheng-Uei Guan, Ping Cheng Tan
A business-to-consumer environment can be developed through software agents (Guan, Zhu, & Maung, 2004; Maes, 1994; Nwana & Ndumu, 1996; Wang, Guan... Sample PDF
Intelligent User Preference Mining
Chapter 63
Roberto Cuccu
Today, there are more than 70 million people aged 60 and above in the European Union. According to Eurostat, over the next 15 years, the population... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Accessibility and Usability
Chapter 64
Terry T. Kidd
The rapid expansion and dramatic advances in information technology in recent years have without question generated tremendous benefits to business... Sample PDF
Introduction to Computer Forensics in the Age of Information Warfare
Chapter 65
Yasin Ozcelik
In this article, we first discuss the effects of ITenabled BPR on firm productivity by providing both empirical and theoretical evidence from the... Sample PDF
IT-Enabled Reengineering: Productivity Impacts
Chapter 66
Juha Kettunen, Jouni Hautala, Mauri Kantola
The purpose of this article is to analyse the interaction between the dynamic information environment (IE) and the operational environment to... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management with Partners in a Dynamic Information Environment
Chapter 67
Fortunato Sorrentino
Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a conceptual framework applicable to personal knowledge. It is about taking an individual responsibility... Sample PDF
From Knowledge to Personal Knowledge Management
Chapter 68
Manuela Gallerani
Confronting with the educational emergences defined— in the white paper presented in 1995 by the European commission with the title “Teaching and... Sample PDF
Learning Processes and ITC
Chapter 69
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these... Sample PDF
Leveraging Supply Chain Management in the Digital Economy
Chapter 70
Kar-Tin Lee, Hitendra Pillay, Vinesh Chandra
This article will examine the development and implementation of two information and communications technology (ICT) e-assessment tools—a diagnostic... Sample PDF
Linking E-Assessment to Student's Use of Online Learning Content
Chapter 71
Juha Kettunen
The communication and implementation of a strategic plan is typically based on various measures in educational institutions. The balanced scorecard... Sample PDF
Management Information System in Higher Education
Chapter 72
Michelle Pieri, Davide Diamantini
Pownell and Bailey (2001) identify four “technological trends” in the relationship between Information and Communication Technologies and... Sample PDF
Mobile Learning and an Experience with Blended Mobile Learning
Chapter 73
Modeling Business Actions  (pages 554-562)
Peter Rittgen
The effective use of information and communication technology, or ICT (Barua, Kriebel, & Mukhopadhyay, 1995; Burn & Szeto, 2000; Mahmood & Mann... Sample PDF
Modeling Business Actions
Chapter 74
Ossi Väänänen
This article is partly based on the research being done by Turku University of Applied Sciences in Turku, Finland. The research was started in... Sample PDF
Modelling Wireless Local Area Networking in Higher Education Institutes
Chapter 75
Holim Song, Terry T. Kidd
The terms distance learning, online learning, and Webbased instruction have become buzzwords and catch phrases for the new phenomenon of learning.... Sample PDF
Multimedia Integration in Active Online Learning Environments
Chapter 76
Giuliana Dettori
Narrative, in the form of stories and narrations, is a natural mode of communication and expression, familiar to children from a very early age and... Sample PDF
Narrative Learning Environments
Chapter 77
Mihály Orosz, Dávid Tegze, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
The article presents a proposed method to select an optimal set of the multicast protocol parameters, which are linearly independent from each... Sample PDF
NETRIC: A Proposed System for Synthesis of Multicast Transport Protocols
Chapter 78
Colin Pattinson
The reliance on computer communications networks for business and commerce, education, entertainment and many other applications demands these... Sample PDF
Network Management Resource Costs
Chapter 79
Yangjun Chen
XML employs a tree-structured model for representing data. Queries in XML query languages, for example, XPath (World Wide Web Consortium, 1999)... Sample PDF
A New Algorithm for Minimizing Tree Pattern Queries
Chapter 80
Yangjun Chen
In computer engineering, a number of programming tasks involve a special problem, the so-called tree matching problem (Cole & Hariharan, 1997), as a... Sample PDF
A New Algorithm for Subset Matching Problem Based on Set-String Transformation
Chapter 81
Zoltán Czirkos, Gábor Hosszú
The importance of the network security problems come into prominence by the growth of the Internet. This article presents a new kind of software... Sample PDF
A Novel Application of the P2P Technology for Intrusion Detection
Chapter 82
Zoltán Czirkos, Gábor Hosszú
Communication in computer networks can be organized in two different ways, according to the client/ server model and the peer-to-peer model... Sample PDF
On the Stability of Peer-to-Peer Networks in Real-World Environments
Chapter 83
Barbara Vanin
In 2003 the Veneto Regional Council set up a project to catalog all manuscript holdings in libraries in the Veneto region, in order to provide a... Sample PDF
Online Catalogue of Manuscripts Conserved in Libraries in the Veneto Region
Chapter 84
Katherine Ira, Zane Berge
Augmented reality is a technology system that enhances one’s perceptions and experiences by overlaying digitized images onto real world... Sample PDF
Online Learning's Future in the Workplace with Augmented Reality
Chapter 85
Yuk Kuen Wong, C. J. Hsu
The aim of this study focuses solely on the customer’s perceptions of the m-commerce environment, rather than on trust in intermediaries or in third... Sample PDF
Online Trust in Mobile Commerce
Chapter 86
A. Cartelli, A. Daltri, P. Errani, M. Palma, P. Zanfini
Many experiences laying on the Internet use have been carried out in Paleography during last years and radical changes in the methods usually... Sample PDF
The Open Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Malatestiana Library
Chapter 87
Omer Mahmood
This chapter identifies various individual and collective online trust transferring techniques that e-merchants can employ for their business... Sample PDF
An Overview of Online Trust Derivatives for E-Commerce Adoption
Chapter 88
Ursula Hyrkkänen, Juha Kettunen, Ari Putkonen
The purpose of this article is to describe and assess the participatory development process of a palm computer with special software from the work... Sample PDF
A Participatory Design Project on Mobile ICT
Chapter 89
Gábor Richly, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
This article presents a novel approach to search in shared audio file storages such as P2P based systems. The proposed method is based on the... Sample PDF
Pattern-Based Identification in P2P Systems
Chapter 90
Sheng-Uei Guan
Despite the rapid growth of e-commerce and the hype surrounding it, the potential of the Internet for truly transforming commerce is largely... Sample PDF
Product Evaluation Services for E-Commerce
Chapter 91
Juha Kettunen, Ismo Kantola
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the management information system (MIS) which integrates strategic management and quality assurance.... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance View of a Management Information System
Chapter 92
Serena Alvino, Donatella Persico
In the educational field, evaluation is a very complex activity due to the intrinsically multidimensional nature of the processes to be evaluated.... Sample PDF
The Relationship Between Assessment and Evaluation in CSCL
Chapter 93
Semantic Web Adaptation  (pages 704-712)
Alexander Mikroyannidis, Babis Theodoulidis
The Semantic Web is an ambitious initiative aiming to transform the Web to a well-organized source of information. In particular, apart from the... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Adaptation
Chapter 94
Antonio Fini
In social studies a social network is the set of relations that links people, through their interactions and familiarity of various kind. Today... Sample PDF
Social Networking and Personal Learning Environment
Chapter 95
David G. Vequist IV, Mark S. Teachout
This article describes a training innovation that combines research on advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) and leading-edge... Sample PDF
‘Stream of Training' Approach in Project Management Training
Chapter 96
Tan Yigitcanlar, Koray Velibeyoglu
The chapter sets out to explain the KBD processes and challenges and opportunities in information acceptance and use in urban policy making. This... Sample PDF
Strengthening the Knowledge-Base of Cities Through ICT Strategies
Chapter 97
Giuliana Dettori, Donatella Persico
In this chapter we investigate whether ICT tools can support the practice and development of SRL and, if so, under what conditions. More... Sample PDF
Supporting Self-Regulated Learning with ICT
Chapter 98
Guglielmo Trentin
The traditional training programs will be increasingly intended as the early stages of a learning process designed to last over time under the... Sample PDF
Technology Enhanced Learning in Continuing Medical Education
Chapter 99
Maria Ranieri
E-learning has become an area of increasing interest for academics, consultants, and practitioners. Notwithstanding, it seems that in current... Sample PDF
Theories and Principles for E-Learning Practices with Instructional Design
Chapter 100
Hitendra Pillay, John A. Clarke
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) present interesting challenges for educators and ICT designers, not the least of which is the... Sample PDF
Towards a Framework for Evaluating ICT-Based Materials
Chapter 101
Antonio Cartelli
The 20th century has marked the transformation of the philosophical definition of knowledge into a new and different one. The new idea of knowledge... Sample PDF
Towards a New Model for Knowledge Construction and Evolution
Chapter 102
Dávid Tegze, Gábor Hosszú
This article presents the comparison of different transport level congestion control schemes, including variants of the TCP (Postel, 1981). The... Sample PDF
The Transport-Level Requirements of the Internet-Based Streaming
Chapter 103
Susan A. Vowels
RFID, also known as radio frequency identification, is a form of Auto ID (automatic identification). Auto ID is defined as “the identification of an... Sample PDF
Understanding RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
Chapter 104
Giuditta Alessandrini, Giovanni Rosso
The term communities of practice (CoPs) has been coined by Lave and Wenger (1991) during their quests on apprenticeship from 1988. They considered... Sample PDF
University Training on Communities of Practice
Chapter 105
Joan Bellou
According to the literature, the problems that appear in Physical Geography teaching and learning can be classified in the following five... Sample PDF
Using Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Learning in Physical Geography
Chapter 106
Video Object Segmentation  (pages 809-816)
Ee Ping Ong, Weisi Lin
Video object segmentation aims to extract different video objects from a video (i.e., a sequence of consecutive images). It has attracted vast... Sample PDF
Video Object Segmentation
Chapter 107
Maria Ranieri
In this chapter I will discuss some of the main issues arising from online collaboration, through the presentation of a methodological model of a... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities and Collaborative Learning in a Post-Graduate Course
Chapter 108
Fortunato Sorrentino
Since cyberspace appeared (Gibson, 1984), our existence has been endowed of a new dimension: “the virtual”. This new “space”, open to many... Sample PDF
The Virtual Identity, Digital Identity, and Virtual Residence of the Digital Citizen
Chapter 109
Nicoletta Sala
Virtual reality (2007), or VR, is defined in the Encyclopædia Britannica as: the use of computer modeling and simulation that enables a person to... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments in Education
Chapter 110
Princely Ifinedo
The objective of this article is to present the results of a study that investigates the acceptance of WCMS among college students in Estonia. The... Sample PDF
Web-Based Course Management Systems (WCMS) Acceptance with College Students in Estonia
Chapter 111
Terry T. Kidd
The current wireless revolution in our society is increasing the impending need to be able to facilitate communication and have the availability of... Sample PDF
The Wireless Revolution and Schools
About the Editors


The information and communication technology revolution can be easily recognized as the latest revolution in the history of mankind, impacting every facet of business, society, and life worldwide with a speed beyond imagination. The last centuries have seen a continuous evolution process which started with the industrial revolution at the end of eighteenth century. This revolution has its roots in the invention of the first electronic computers in the 1940s, continued with the development of information technology during the following decades and exploded in the early ’90s. In the 1960s and ’70s, computer technology was mainly utilized in business data processing and scientific applications of a mostly number crunching nature. As a result, the use of this technology was limited to those who had a good command of these systems and computer programming languages. With the invention of microprocessors a new idea of distributed information established itself and computers became available on a personal basis. The contemporary development of networking both on a local and a wide area (LAN and WAN) merged computer and information technology with telecommunication. In the 1980s the matching of the two technologies led to the information communication technology, with a strong focus on the management and dissemination of information by both providers and users.

The most noticeable explosion in the information and communication technology revolution was the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) and its potential in the early 1990s. During the past two decades, WWW technologies have become the driving force in allowing people worldwide to communicate and exchange information in ways that have created a totally new dimension for mankind, at such a point that “global village” are the words today better describing our planet. In recent years, through the use of web-enabled technologies, organizations of all types and sizes around the world have managed to utilize these technologies to conduct both information processing and dissemination with their prospective customers, suppliers, students, and governments. These technologies, now allowing readily available information for everyone regardless of their geographic location, bring the true meaning of the information age to its full realization and prepare a new era for mankind: the knowledge society.

In recent years, the science of understanding the nature of information processing and management combined with computer and telecommunication technologies to process, disseminate, and manage information has become known as “Information and Communication Science and Technology.” It has many resources and components and originated many new disciplines but, what’s more, it intervened in changing the mankind’s habits and lifestyle.

As information and communication science and technology have profoundly impacted science, business, society, and every other aspect of life on our planet, numerous researchers around the world have focused on accumulating knowledge on this discipline and its effects and influences. The volume and intensity of research in the field of information and communication science and technology and the study of its implications on human and social behavior has by far exceeded many other fields of science, and the sheer impact of research discoveries in this area has become the driving force of many emerging studies, technologies and applications. No longer is this discipline limited to a few technology-related areas, but, as for many other modern fields of knowledge, information and communication science and technology are today a collection of a great variety of specific disciplines. This collection process has been accomplished by producing research results to understand the potentials, problems, and challenges of each individual discipline, analyzing the cross-fertilization on neighboring fields of knowledge and trying to expand the body of literature related to the topics of that discipline. As a result we can today use the words of D. de Kerchkove (1995) who stated that a technology enters human culture when it disappears or, to be more precise, when it becomes transparent.

To access the latest research related to the many disciplines of the information and communication science and technology field, we decided to launch an encyclopedia project where researchers from all over the world would assist us in providing the necessary coverage of each respective discipline in information and communication science and technology and in the fields affected from its influence and application. The primary objective of this project was to assemble research coverage related to the disciplines selected for this encyclopedia by defining the technologies, terms, and acronyms related to each discipline, and providing the most comprehensive list of research references related to each discipline.

To provide the most comprehensive, in-depth, and recent coverage of the developments of information and communication science and technology and its application and influence, three different areas of interest were selected:

  • product ICT, focusing on materials, instruments for ICT, i.e. hardware and software for information communication, including studies, hypotheses, case studies etc.
  • process ICT, focusing on processes including ICT use or presence, i.e. the organization and management of processes in different environments by means of ICT (where it is used), and the planning and carrying out of experiences and projects for information and communication management and/or involving ICT use
  • context ICT, focusing on the most pervasive presence of ICT, i.e. experiences, studies and researches on information and communication technologies in informal and/or not well structured contexts, otherwise said the influence of ICT on human and social phenomena (when there is no planned and structured ICT intervention but the changes inducted by ICT clearly emerge).

In order to provide the best balanced coverage of concepts and issues related to the selected topics of this encyclopedia, researchers from around the world were asked to submit proposals describing their experiences and the contribution of their work to the encyclopedia. All proposals were carefully reviewed by the editors-in-chief in light of their suitability, the authors’ records of similar work in the area of the proposed topics, and the excellence of their proposals. The goal was to assemble the best minds in the information and communication science and technology field and their use and application from all over the world to contribute entries to the encyclopedia. Each text was forwarded to at least three expert external reviewers on a double-blind, peer review basis. Only submissions with strong and favorable reviews were chosen as entries for this encyclopedia.

As a result, this encyclopedia includes more than 100 entries highlighting current concepts, issues and emerging technologies, studies and applications. All entries are written by distinguished scholars from many prominent research institutions all over the world. Thousand technical and managerial terms enhance these entries. Each of these terms has a description that allows the readers of this extensive research source to learn the language and terminology of the field. In addition, this encyclopedia offers a thorough reference section with sources of additional information for scholars, students, and researchers in the field of information science and technology.

To assist readers in navigating and identifying needed information, this encyclopedia has been organized by listing all entries in an introductive chapter to each section. In addition, a comprehensive glossary of all terms directs readers to a short definition of the subject. A keyword index is also available, listing the most important concepts.

To keep up with emerging technologies and research discoveries, regular entry additions will be made to the online version of the encyclopedia. We are pleased to add that complimentary online access to this encyclopedia for the life of the edition will be provided to any library with the purchase of the print copy. This complimentary online availability will allow students, researchers, and corporate managers to access the latest contents of this comprehensive and in-depth encyclopedia regardless of their location. This particular feature will prove to be an extremely valuable resource for distance learning educational programs worldwide.

The diverse and comprehensive coverage of multiple disciplines in the field of information and communication of science and technology in this authoritative encyclopedia will contribute to a better understanding of all topics, researches, and discoveries in this evolving, significant field of study. Furthermore, the contributions included in this encyclopedia will be instrumental in the expansion of the body of knowledge in this vast field. The coverage of this encyclopedia provides strength to this reference resource for both information and communication science and technology researchers and also decision makers in obtaining a greater understanding of the concepts, issues, problems, trends, challenges and opportunities related to this field of study. It is our sincere hope that this publication and its vast amount of information and research will assist our colleagues, their students, and our organizational decision makers in enhancing their understanding of this discipline and its application. Perhaps this publication will even inspire its readers to contribute to the current discoveries in this immense field, which can assist the mankind in making the world a better place to live in.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Antonio Cartelli is an associate professor in experimental pedagogy at the University of Cassino and Southern Latium (Italy). He holds degrees in mathematics and physics from “La Sapienza” University in Rome and currently teaches educational and learning technologies and ICT literacy. His main fields of interest are ICT in teaching/learning processes, ICT in knowledge management, and Web technologies in education and e-learning.


Editorial Board

Antonio Calvani
University of Florence, Italy

John A. Clarke
Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Paolo Frignani
University of Ferrara, Italy

Athanassios Jimoyiannis
University of Peloponesse, Greece

Juha Kettunen
Rector of the Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland

Terry Kidd
University of Houston-Downtown, USA

Marco Pedroni
University of Ferrara, Italy

Giorgio Poletti
University of Ferrara, Italy

Maria Ranieri
University of Florence, Italy

Piercesare Rivoltella
Catholic University of Holy Heart, Italy

Lawrence Tomei
Robert Morris University, USA