Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Second Edition (2 Volumes)
Release Date: July, 2010. Copyright © 2011. 1730 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-931-1, ISBN13: 9781599049311, ISBN10: 1599049317, EISBN13: 9781599049328
Knowledge Management has evolved into one of the most important streams of management research, affecting organizations of all types at many different levels.
The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Second Edition provides a compendium of terms, definitions and explanations of concepts, processes and acronyms addressing the challenges of knowledge management. This two-volume collection covers all aspects of this critical discipline, which range from knowledge identification and representation, to the impact of Knowledge Management Systems on organizational culture, to the significant integration and cost issues being faced by Human Resources, MIS/IT, and production departments.
Table of Contents and List of Contributors
Search this Book:
Keith L. Lindsey
Barriers to knowledge sharing continue to thwart organizational efforts to identify knowledge, manage its flow, and effectively integrate its use in...
Sueh Ing Su, Raymond Chiong
With the rapid advancement of both business techniques and technologies in recent years, knowledge has become an important and strategic asset that...
Alfs T. Berztiss
The dependence of any organization on knowledge management is clearly understood. Actually, we should distinguish between knowledge management (KM)...
Kevin R. Parker, Philip S. Nitse
Knowledge management (KM) is the process through which organizational performance is improved through better management of corporate knowledge. Its...
Viviane Cunha Farias da Costa, Jonice Oliveira, Jano Moreira de Souza
In today’s corporate surroundings, business organizations are facing increasingly complex and volatile circumstances, characterized by rapid change....
Syed Z. Shariq, Morten Thanning Vendelo
When people solve complex problems they bring knowledge and experience to the situation, and they create, use and share tacit knowledge. Knowing how...
An organization is made up of people interacting for common objectives, in a given structure (may be rather formal in the case of a company, an...
As companies begin to develop competence in managing internal knowledge and applying it towards achieving organizational goals, they are setting...
Simona Colucci, Tommaso Di Noia, Eugenio Di Sciascio, Francesco M. Donini, Marina Mongiello
Resource retrieval addresses the problem of finding best matches to a request among available resources, with both the request and the resources...
Roberta Cuel, Paolo Bouquet, Matteo Bonifacio
In dynamic markets (characterized by the specialization of work, outsourcing processes, just-in-time and distributed productions, etc.), firms have...
Karen L. Corral, Ryan C. LaBrie, Robert D. St. Louis
A large portion of the knowledge of most organizations is contained in electronic documents. For users to get pertinent information from the...
Matteo Cristani, Roberta Cuel
In conceptual modeling we need to consider a general level of abstraction where the domain of interest is formalized in an independent way with...
Giovanni M. Sacco
End-user interactive access to complex information is one of the key functionalities of knowledge management systems. Traditionally, access...
Shyamala C. Sivakumar
Today, most organizations need to extend lifelong learning opportunities to their employees in order to be successful in an increasingly competitive...
This article surveys and explores the relationship between epistemology and knowledge management (KM). Epistemology is the branch of philosophy...
Forrest Shull, Raimund Feldmann, Michelle Shaw, Michelle Lambert
For capturing and transferring knowledge between different projects and organizations, the concept of a Best Practice is commonly used. A similar...
Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, Fons Wijnhoven
As an academic field, knowledge management has concentrated on the creation, storage, retrieval, transfer, and application of knowledge within...
Christie M. Fuller, Rick L. Wilson
Neural networks (NN) as classifier systems have shown great promise in many problem domains in empirical studies over the past two decades. Using...
A natural consequence of the advance of human knowledge is an increase in the complexity of business, government and social organisations, supported...
Susan Imberman, Abdullah Uz Uz Tansel
With the advent of mass storage devices, databases have become larger and larger. Point-of-sale data, patient medical data, scientific data, and...
Despite the more than 25 years since Nonaka wrote the Knowledge Creating Company in the Harvard Business Review (1991) there are still many barriers...
The healthcare environment is changing rapidly, and effective management of the knowledge base in this area is an integral part of delivering...
Dianne Hall, David Croasdell
In order to manage knowledge and operate successfully in today’s information-intensive business environments, various organizational forms have...
Thomas Hadrich, Ronald Maier
Modeling is a key task in order to analyze, understand, and improve business processes and organizational structures, and to support the design...
Today’s economy is characterized by a rapid rate of change, globalization, and knowledge-intensive products. This makes knowledge management (KM)...
Elayne Coakes, Steve Clarke
This article looks at the concept of communities of practice (CoPs) in the workplace. The theories surrounding these types of communities are still...
Ronald E. Goldsmith, Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai
The purpose of this article is to describe the concept of knowledge calibration within the context of knowledge management. Knowledge calibration is...
Communicating professional knowledge is a key activity for today’s specialized workforce. The efficient and effective transfer of experiences...
Knowledge management (KM) is a newly emerging approach aimed at addressing today’s business challenges to increase efficiency and efficacy of core...
Steven Woods, Stephen R. Poteet, Anne Kao, Lesley Quach
While there are many aspects to managing corporate knowledge, one key issue is how to disseminate corporate documents with appropriate context. Upon...
Vincent M. Ribière, Juan A. Román
Various models and frameworks have been used to represent the flows of knowledge in an organization. The first and most popular of these remains the...
All organizations depend on communication, namely the exchange of information with the sender’s intent that the message be understood and considered...
Marco Paukert, Claudia Niederée, Matthias Hemmje
The success of industrial and scientific research has always been dependent on new discoveries and innovations, but tighter budgets and increasing...
Hans Berends, Hans van der Bij, Mathieu Weggeman
In most organizations, specialized knowledge is dispersed over organization members (Tsoukas, 1996). Organization members have different educational...
Enrico Scarso, Ettore Bolisani
Since knowledge is increasingly regarded as the central source of competitive advantage, a “cognitive” interpretation of business activities becomes...
Eduardo Rodriguez, John S. Edwards
This article takes the perspective that risk knowledge and the activities related to RM practice can benefit from the implementation of KM processes...
Kathleen E. Greenaway, David C.H. Vuong
Charities, also called voluntary-service not-forprofit organizations (VSNFP), play a vital role in modern societies by addressing needs and...
Panjak Kamthan, Terrill Fancott
The reliance on the knowledge garnered from past experience can be crucial for solving problems that occur in any development (Pólya, 1945). A...
Clyde W. Holsapple, K. D. Joshi
Many definitions of ontology are posited in the literature (see Guarino, 2004). Here, we adopt Gruber’s (1995) view which defines ontologies as...
Frank Land, Urooj Amjad, Sevasti-Melissa Nolas
Knowledge management (KM), as a topic for academic research and practical implementation, has had a short history dating back only to the early...
Rodrigo Baroni de Carvalho, Marta Arau´jo Tavares Ferreira
Due to the vagueness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for knowledge management (KM) seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors...
Clyde W. Holsapple, Kiku Jones
Knowledge-based organizations (Holsapple & Whinston, 1987; Paradice & Courtney, 1989; Bennet & Bennet, 2003) are intentionally concerned with making...
Murray E. Jennex
Alavi and Leidner (2001, p. 114) defined knowledge management systems (KMSs) as “IT-based systems developed to support and enhance the...
Ronald Maier, Thomas Hadrich
Knowledge management systems (KMSs) are seen as enabling technologies for an effective and efficient knowledge management (KM). However, up to date...
Daniel L. Davenport, Clyde W. Hosapple
An important endeavor within the field of knowledge management (KM) is to better understand the nature of knowledge organizations. These are...
Jörg Rech, Raimund L. Feldmann, Eric Ras
Knowledge patterns are one way to formalize and describe lessons learned and best practices (i.e., proven experiences) about structuring knowledge...
Rajesh Natarajan, B. Shekar
Knowledge management (KM) transforms a firm’s knowledge-based resources into a source of competitive advantage. Knowledge creation, a KM process...
Knowledge is defined in many different ways in different cultures (Nonaka, 1994, Burrows et al., 2005), and the question is whether knowledge should...
Atreyi Kankanhalli, Bernard C.Y. Tan, Kwok-Kee Wei
In a knowledge-based economy, organizations find it difficult to compete based upon the individual knowledge of a few organizational members. This...
Gian Piero Zarri
In 1982, Allen Newell introduced the “knowledge level” principle (Newell, 1982) and revolutionized the traditional way of conceiving the...
Knowledge reuse is the process through which knowledge is captured, validated, stored, and retrieved. Through the reuse of knowledge, organizations...
William R. King
Knowledge sharing (KS) is critical to organizations that wish to use their knowledge as an asset to achieve competitive advantage. Knowledge...
Carolyn McKinnell Jacobson
As Peter Drucker (2000) has pointed out, the foundation of the 21st century organization is no longer money or capital or even technology; it is...
Given the reliance on knowledge-based resources over traditional assets, the professional context serves as a heightened environment in which to...
Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi
Considerable research has been done in the recent past that compares the performance of different data mining techniques on various data sets (e.g....
Kam Hou Vat
The last decade of the 20th century saw explosive growth in discussions about knowledge—knowledge work, knowledge management, knowledge-based...
William R. King
The term knowledge transfer (KT) is often used in a generic sense to include any exchange of knowledge between or among individuals, teams, groups...
Martin J. Eppler, Remo A. Burkhard
Making knowledge visible so that it can be better accessed, discussed, valued, or generally managed is a longstanding objective in knowledge...
Irena Ali, Leoni Warne, Celina Pascoe
In work life, socially based learning occurs all the time. We learn from interactions between peers, genders, functional groups, and across...
J. Grant, J. Minker
Knowledge bases (KBs) must be able to capture a wide range of situations. One must be able to represent and answer questions regarding indefinite...
Legal practice is primarily concerned with the transfer of legal knowledge from practitioners or clients. Whilst lawyers may draft contracts and...
During group meetings it is often difficult for participants to effectively: share their knowledge to inform the outcome; acquire new knowledge from...
William M. Farmer
Mathematical knowledge is significantly different from other kinds of knowledge. It is abstract, universal, highly structured, extraordinarily...
Uday Kulkarni, Ronald Freeze
As business professionals know, creating awareness of a problem and its impact is a critical first step toward the resolution of the problem. That...
Ciara Heavin, Karen Neville
In an economic environment where organizations have been forced to take a step back and reevaluate their core competencies and ability to innovate...
Knowledge management is about the management of knowledge. Therefore many texts on knowledge management (KM) start with trying to explain or define...
R. William Maule
Knowledge is a critical component of military operations, and the military has been an early adopter of knowledge management (KM) technologies....
Volker Derballa, Key Pousttchi
Whereas knowledge management (KM) has gained much attention in the field of management science and practice as the eminent source of competitive...
Volker Derballa, Key Pousttchi
IT support for knowledge management (KM) is a widely discussed issue. Whereas an overemphasis on technology is often criticized, the general...
Paul H.J. Hendriks, Ce´lio A.A. Sousa
The importance of motivation in knowledge management (KM) debates is now generally acknowledged. Motivation affects the overall quality of knowledge...
Patrick S.W. Fong
Knowledge in designing a product or rendering a service does not form a complete and coherent body of knowledge that can be precisely documented or...
Narrative or the use of stories is an ancient discipline. Our ancestors evolved the ability to see the world through a set of abstractions, and...
Capturing the knowledge about existing systems and analysis and design of conceived systems requires an adequate methodology, which should be both...
An ontology comprises the explicitly articulated and shared concepts of a knowledge community or domain. These concepts are arranged formally in a...
The differences between the paradigms of knowledge management (KM) and operations management are huge. Whereas KM is rooted in the disciplines of...
N. A.D. Connell
In this article we consider some of the ways in which narrative approaches might contribute towards a better understanding of organisational...
Eyal Yaniv, David G. Schwartz
Attention is a term commonly used in education, psychiatry, and psychology. Attention can be defined as an internal cognitive process by which one...
Jean-Yves Fortier, Gilles Kassel
The main subject tackled in this article is the use of knowledge technologies to develop corporate memories or (stated more generally)...
Paul H.J. Hendriks
For many decades, organization scientists have paid considerable attention to the link between knowledge and organization structure. An early...
Postmortem reviews are collective learning activities which can be organized for projects either when they end a phase or are terminated. The main...
For organisations, the tension between integration and specialisation has become a key issue as the knowledge of work is becoming increasingly...
G. Scott Erickson, Helen N. Rothberg
In tandem with the growth in knowledge management (KM) interest and practice over the past twenty years, competitive intelligence (CI) activities...
Gian Piero Zarri
As Web-based content becomes an increasingly important knowledge management resource, Webbased technologies are developing to help harness that...
Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi
Knowledge management (KM) systems are quite diverse, but all provide increased access to organizational knowledge, which helps the enterprise to be...
S. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, G. Padmanabhan
As the world is getting more and more technology savvy, the collection and distribution of information and knowledge need special attention....
Daniel L. Davenport, Clyde W. Hosapple
Organizations have capabilities for creating and sharing knowledge (intellectual capital) that give them their distinctive advantage over other...
David J. Dekker, Paul H.J. Hendriks
In knowledge management (KM), one perspective is that knowledge resides in individuals who interact in groups. Concepts as communities-of-practice...
Frada Burstein, Henry Linger
In modern organizations, the major role of knowledge management is supporting knowledge work. The concept of knowledge work assumes not only task...
Knowledge management has become a major application of information technology (IT) and a major focus of IT research. Thus, it becomes increasingly...
Daniel W. Gillman, Frank Farance
Almost every organization, public or private, for profit or non-profit, manages data in some way. Data is a major corporate resource. It is...
As the world becomes a globalised economic network, cross-country knowledge transfer is an emerging phenomenon. It happens not only through...
Knowledge integration is a process whereby several individuals share and combine their information to collectively create new knowledge (Okhuysen &...
Sajjad M. Jasimuddin, N.A.D. Connell, Jonathan H. Klein
It is generally recognized that Walsh and Ungson (1991) “provided the first integrative framework for thinking about organizational memory”...
David Croasdell, Y. Ken Wang
David Skyrme (1999) has observed that knowledge workers exploit knowledge generated from business activities and turn it into business...
Tom Butler, Ciaran Murphy
It is widely believed that knowledge work is a relatively new phenomenon and that it constitutes the main form of activity in post-industrial...
Reviews and Testimonials
"Chapters are generally clear and insightful" [...] "both interesting and informative and bear readings by experts in the field.." [...] "Tables and figures are used to good effort, sparingly and very readable. There is much to learn here by both students and academics."
– G. E. Gorman, University of Malaya, Online Information Review, Vol. 36, No. 4
- Application-specific knowledge management issues
- Communities of practice and knowledge management
- Creating tools for knowledge management
- Knowledge management and virtual organizations
- Managing organizational knowledge
- Organizational learning and knowledge
- Organizing knowledge management in distributed organizations
- Processes of knowledge management
- Successful knowledge management systems implementation
- Theoretical aspects of knowledge management
The Knowledge Management Pyramid:
a Complex Discipline
A Preface to the Encyclopedia of Knowledge
Management, 2nd Edition
David G. Schwartz and
Much has happened since the 1st edition of the Encyclopedia
of Knowledge Management appeared in 2006. There has been an explosion of
social computing applications, huge strides taken in knowledge categorization
through automated methods and human tagging, and the continued growth of the
knowledge-as-an-asset view of organization theory.
The storehouse of journals dedicated to the exploration of
knowledge management continues to grow and now numbers well over 30 (see Table 1).
Table 1. KM-focused
and Knowledge Engineering
Mining and Knowledge Discovery
Journal of Knowledge Management
Academic Conferences Limited
Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
IEEE Computer Society
J. of Info. and Knowledge Management
Informing Science Institute
J. of Applied Knowledge Management
J. of Intellectual Property Management
J. of Knowledge, Culture, and Change Management
Common Ground Publishers
J. of Knowledge and Learning
of Knowledge Management
Idea Group Publishing
of Knowledge Management Studies
of Learning and Intellectual Capital
of Nuclear Knowledge Management
of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering
of Information and Knowledge Management
of Intellectual Capital
of Knowledge Acquisition
of Knowledge Management
of Knowledge Management Practice
of Universal Knowledge Management
Know-Center and Graz
University of Technology
and Innovation: J. of the KMCI
Technology, and Policy
Management for Development J.
Taylor & Francis
Journal of Knowledge Management
Knowledge Engineering Review
Cambridge University Press
Management Research and Practice
Journal of Knowledge Management
of Knowledge Management Studies
Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems
Burden’s (2000) KM bibliography, which encompasses both
research and industry/trade publications, cites over 900 books and a whopping
8000 articles devoted to the field. In Rollett’s (2003) KM bibliography we are
treated to over 1000 academic research articles on KM. Gu’s (2004) compendium
finds 2,727 unique authors contributing KM articles within the ISI Web of
Science database. More recently, Serenko et al. (2010) has enumerated 2,175
articles published between 1994-2008 across 11 key KM/IC publications.
All this in addition to the established
list of more general Information Systems and Information Science journals and
conference venues that serve as a forum for knowledge management research. And
of course an abundance of industry magazines and newsletters dedicated to the
understanding, development, and adoption of organizational knowledge
As the discipline of knowledge management (Jasimuddin 2006,
Croadsell & Jennex 2005, Schwartz 2005) continues to develop and expand the
need to summarize, categorize, organize, and analyze the myriad contributions
and directions being taken grows paramount. This 2nd edition
continues toward our goal of creating an authoritative repository of knowledge
management concepts, issues, and techniques; keeping in mind the ever-present
need to create a logical structure that maps out the field of knowledge
management across its diverse disciplines.
The Significance of Articles in the Volume
How does this differ from a traditional encyclopedia? Every
scientific and intellectual pursuit presents a spectrum of knowledge ranging
from the speculative to the experimental to the proven to the well-established.
An encyclopedia traditionally presents definitive articles that describe
well-established and accepted concepts or events. While we have avoided the
speculative extreme, we continue to encourage and attempt to attract entries
that may be closer to the ‘experimental’ end of the spectrum than the
‘well-established’ end. The need to do so is driven by the youth of the
discipline and the desire to not only document the established, but to provide
a resource for those who are pursuing the experimental.
Alavi and Leidner, in their oft-cited Review of Knowledge
Management and Knowledge Management Systems (2001) bring three pointed
conclusions to the fore:
There is no single clear
approach to the development of knowledge management systems – it is a
Knowledge management is a
dynamic, continuous organizational phenomenon of interdependent processes with
varying scope and changing characteristics
Information technology can be
used to extend knowledge management beyond traditional storage and retrieval of
Not only does this Encyclopedia reinforce those conclusions,
it relishes and thrives in the complexity and diversity to which they allude. The
systems and technology perspective is but one of many that have been dealt with
in this volume. While we do not wish to lose focus on our main goal of managing
knowledge in organizations, in order to better achieve that goal it is
necessary to look at areas of study as diverse as epistemology and anthropology
in order to map the future directions of knowledge management.
With that goal in mind, once again a wide net was cast in
the Call for Papers (CFP) in an attempt to attract researchers from many
relevant disciples. This edition, as well, includes a number of invited
articles where the Editorial Advisory Board found it desirable to fill in gaps
that were not covered by the response to the CFP. Aside from those invited
contributions, the resulting articles that appear in this volume were selected
through a double-blind review process followed by one or more rounds of
revision prior to acceptance. Treatment
of certain topics is not exclusive according to a given school or approach, and
you will find a number of topics tackled from different perspectives with
differing approaches. A field as dynamic as KM needs discussion, disagreement,
contradiction - and wherever possible, consensus. But we must not sacrifice any
of the former on the altar of the latter.
To that end, each author has provided a list of terms and
definitions deemed essential to the topic of his or her article. Rather than
aggregate and filter these terms to produce a single “encyclopedic” definition,
we have preferred instead to let the authors stand by their definition and
allow each reader to interpret and understand each article according to the
specific terminological twist taken by its author(s). The comprehensive Index
provided at the back of this volume provides pointers to each concept and term
in its multiple incarnations.
Printing the 149 articles of this edition in alphabetical
order was a decision made based on the overall requirements of IGI’s complete
series of Reference Encyclopedias. Following the very positive feedback received
from the 1st edition, we once again provide a content-oriented
logical map to the articles that are printed in alphabetical order by title. We
trust that as an increasing number of our readers turn to the online digital
versions of these articles, this logical categorization will ease the
The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is divided into
seven logical sections:
Foundations of Knowledge Management (15)
of Knowledge Management (34)
for Knowledge Management (20)
Knowledge Management (17)
Aspects of Knowledge Management (35)
Aspects of Knowledge Management (11)
Aspects of Knowledge Management (17)
A change here from the 1st edition is the split
of Organizational and Social aspects into two distinct categories – a testament
to the growing importance of social network related research to the field of
knowledge management. Given that some of the modern roots of knowledge
management lay in the early work of Egan and Shera (1952) and Shera (1961) on
Social Epistemology, this development is most welcome.
The Table of Contents appearing on page [X] will help you
find articles based on this logical section structure.
Within each of the seven major sections are one or more
articles on each of the sub-categories that comprise that section – often
multiple articles on different aspects of a given topic.
Building Upon Strong Foundations
The seven sections are the result of what we would
characterize as a multifaceted approach to the discipline of Knowledge
Management. It is this multifaceted view, as shown in Figure 1 that we have
sought to reinforce with these encyclopedic volumes.
Figure 1. The Knowledge Management Pyramid
Consider the view presented in Figure 1 giving a holistic
view of the knowledge management and its foundations. The view we have taken
combines three primary faces - Managerial, Organizational, and Social – across
four strata – Theory, Processes, Technologies, and Applications. Each primary
face has its theoretical basis, its derived processes, its choice technologies
for implementation, and its applications. The three faces, as in a pyramid,
support each other. Remove one face, and the other two fall.
The Managerial aspects of knowledge management from the left
face. The central face holds those aspects of knowledge management specific to
Organizations. The rightmost face is that of Social aspects.
At the base, running through each of the faces, is the
Theory layer. Atop the Theory layer we have placed that of Processes. The
primary processes that make up Knowledge Management in practice should ideally
derive from the core theories that are to be found in each of the faces of
Management, Social, and Organizational sciences. Without grounding our processes in theoretical
soil we run the very real risk of simply cobbling together processes on an
opportunistic basis. We must, in a disciplined manner, turn to our theoretical
core in determining the essential processes of KM. In cases where experience
begets a process that has yet to be identified with a core theory one must not
belittle the need to eventually discover that grounding. At the end of the day
this is what will help distinguish fad from enduring science. The Processes
layer presents one view of the different stages, activities, and cycles that
comprise knowledge management. Processes need to be pragmatic, in terms of our
ability to implement them, comprehensive so that we can achieve end-to-end
solutions, replicable and generalizable so they can be applied across a wide
range of organizations. The Processes Layer too cuts across through the three
faces of Organizational, Social and Managerial aspects.
As is often the case, our implementations of Knowledge
Management in practice are based to a large degree on information and
communications technologies. The Technologies layer, therefore, rests upon the
Processes and Theories that have come before it and finds its expression across
the three faces. Being driven by technology is not necessarily negative. Consider
how the development of the electron microscope led to the discovery of a
plethora of atomic and elemental behaviors. The observation of these behaviors
led to the development of new theories upon which those discoveries were
validated and new discoveries predicated. So too the computing, storage, and
communications technologies available today are enabling the implementation and
study of new types of knowledge representation, sharing, communications, and
The multiple facets of knowledge management are intertwined.
The recent advancements in social media have changed the processes of knowledge
sharing dramatically. But these changes in knowledge sharing raise theoretical
issues of the subjective and objective nature of knowledge – the personal
subjective knowledge versus the world objective knowledge. And, further,
theoretical questions arise concerning the managerial aspects of the interdependency
between knowledge sharing and relations among colleagues, as well as questions
concerning the social aspects of knowledge sharing among ‘friends’ through
social media such as the impact on trust and emotions in knowledge sharing.
Only a few chapters begin to address these emergent phenomena (e.g., the
chapters on personal knowledge and emotional capital). As Shera (1961)
recognized almost 50 years ago “From
such a discipline should emerge a new body of knowledge about, and a new
synthesis of, the interaction between knowledge and social activity”. Much more is needed.
Finally, at the apex, we reach the Applications layer. The
wide range of knowledge management applications could fill many volumes, and in
fact keep a number of annual conferences quite busy. We have brought just a few
of the potential applications to round out this volume yet each provides some
new insights into the potential of our field as a whole.
The flow of knowledge indeed can move up and down the
pyramid, and permeates each stratum as it moves between the Managerial,
Organizational, and Social aspects. As the theoreticians among us deepen their
understanding of the many diverse technologies that impact KM, they can
experimentally apply those technologies more effectively and creatively. As the
technologists among us are enriched with a solid theoretical foundation they
can focus their efforts on the most promising application areas and most
difficult theoretical challenges. And our management, social, and
organizational scientists provide us with lenses through which we can view
theory, processes, and technologies, and perhaps build the bridge between
theory and praxis. Everyone benefits from a richer more constructive research
and development environment.
to Use this Book
As a Research Reference
The primary purpose of this volume is to serve as a research
reference work. To that end extensive indexing has been undertaken to allow the
reader quick access to primary and secondary entries related to keywords and
topics. The seven logical sections and sub-categories provided for each section
will enable the reader to locate and delve deeply into any given area of
knowledge management from their desired perspective.
As a Course Reference
The sheer comprehensiveness combined with the logical
structure of this volume also lends itself towards use as a reference for
Knowledge Management courses.
Selecting two to three articles from each of the seven section
results in many possible study sequences for a comprehensive introductory
course in Knowledge Management. Alternatively, the logical sections of this
volume can be used individually as the curricular foundation for courses in: Knowledge
Management Theory; Designing KM Processes, Technologies for Knowledge
Management, Applied KM, Organizational KM; Social KM, and Managing KM
The need for an updated Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management
is driven by the tremendous growth and diversity that has become associated
with knowledge management, and this second edition brings a number of new
perspectives to the fore. Whether treated as an emerging discipline (Jasimuddin
2006, Croadsell & Jennex 2005, Schwartz, 2005), or a possibly recycled
concept (Spiegler, 2000), knowledge management will continue to make its mark
on organizations of all forms and sizes. The need to help organizations manage
their knowledge has been extolled in nearly a quarter century worth of
management literature. In order to truly understand and appreciate what goes
into making knowledge management work, we need to approach it holistically from
social, managerial and organizational perspectives.
Even the second time round the process of editing this
encyclopedia has been enlightening. Most enjoyable has been the interaction
with the authors, some of whom have appeared from the most unexpected of
places, and others who have come forward from established bastions of knowledge
It is our sincere hope that this volume serves not only as a
reference to KM researchers, both novice and veteran, but also as a resource
for those coming from the hundreds of disciplines and organizations upon which
knowledge management has, should, and will have an long-lasting impact.
Alavi, M., & Leidner,
D.E. (2001). Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual
Foundations and Research Issues. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 107-136.
(2000). Knowledge Management: The Bibliography, Information Today Inc.
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Egan, M. E. &
Shera, J. H. (1952). Foundations of a theory of bibliography. Library
Quarterly, 22(2), 125–137.
Gu, Y. (2004).
Global knowledge management research: A bibliometric analysis. Scientometrics,
(2006) Disciplinary roots of knowledge management: a theoretical review. International
Journal of Organizational Analysis, 14(2),
Jennex, M.E., &
Croasdell, D. (2005), Is Knowledge Management a Discipline?, International
Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(1).
Rollett, H. (2003).
Knowledge Management Bibliography . Retrieved November 2004 from http://www2.iicm.edu/herwig/kmbib.html
Bontis, N., Booker, L., Sadeddin, K., & Hardie, T. (2010). A scientometric
analysis of knowledge management and intellectual capital academic literature
(1994-2008). Journal of Knowledge
Management, 14(1), 3-23
(2005). The Emerging Discipline of Knowledge Management, International
Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(2).
Shera, J. (1961).
Social epistemology, general semantics, and librarianship. Wilson Library Bulletin, 35, 767-770.
Spiegler, I. (2000). Knowledge Management: A
New Idea or a Recycled Concept? Communications of the Association for
Information Systems, 3(14).
Mark Ackerman, University of Michigan, USA
Irma Becerra-Fernandez, Florida International University, USA
Frada Burstein, Monash University, Australia
John S. Edwards, Aston University, UK
Robert Galliers, Bentley College, USA & London School of Economics, UK
Dan Holtshouse, George Washington University, USA
Murray Jennex, San Diego State University, USA
Atreyi Kankanhalli, National University of Singapore, Singapore
William R. King, University of Pittsburgh, USA
Henry Linger, Monash University, Australia
Dorothy Leidner, Baylor University, USA
Pat Molholt, Columbia University, USA
Sue Newell, University of London Royal Holloway, UK & Bentley College, USA
Laurence Prusak, Senior Advisor on Knowledge for NASA, USA
Dave Snowden, Cognitive Edge Pte, UK
Leon Sterling, University of Melbourne, Australia
Fons Wijnhoven, University of Twente, The Netherlands