Environmental Modeling for Sustainable Regional Development: System Approaches and Advanced Methods

Environmental Modeling for Sustainable Regional Development: System Approaches and Advanced Methods

Vladimír Olej (University of Pardubice, Czech Republic), Ilona Obršálová (University of Pardubice, Czech Republic) and Jirí Krupka (University of Pardubice, Czech Republic)
Release Date: November, 2010|Copyright: © 2011 |Pages: 492
ISBN13: 9781609601560|ISBN10: 1609601564|EISBN13: 9781609601584|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-156-0

Description

Understanding the advancement of sustainable development is critical to managing human activities to avoid the overexploitation of resources and pollution of the environment beyond tolerable levels. Sustainable development involves not only preservation and care of the environment, but also recognition of the complex relations between economic, social and living systems.

Environmental Modeling for Sustainable Regional Development: System Approaches and Advanced Methods presents processing methods and their applications, which are practical for decision making and task management at the regional level as well as for scientific studies in sustainable development assessment. This book serves as a reference guide for post-graduate students in the field of management as well as a critical guide for managers, government officials, and information professionals.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Air quality assessment
  • Air quality modeling approaches
  • Data envelopment analysis in environmental technologies
  • Evolutionary computation and machine learning models
  • Irrigation water demand
  • Modeling regional economic development
  • Quality of life modeling at the regional level
  • Regional economic performance and environmental quality
  • Regional risks assessment
  • Wastewater systems management

Reviews and Testimonials

This book may serve as a reference guide for post-graduate students in the field of management as well as, a critical guide for managers, government officials, and information professionals. Each chapter provides references to the cited literature along with suggestions for further reading. The described methods and case studies may be particularly useful for policy makers searching for alternative solutions for problems in regional sustainable development, taking into account socio-economic and environmental dimensions in a system integrated approach. The text is also suitable for use by educators as comprehensive tutorial literature or as complementary material for associated professionals and researchers.

– Vladimír Olej, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic; Ilona Obršálová, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic; and Jirí Krupka, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Preface

In an often-quoted definition by the Brundtland Commission, sustainable development is understood as fulfilling the basic living needs of contemporary society “without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Since the commission’s report in 1987, there have been dozens of definitions for the term. Research findings, science, and scientific cognition greatly contribute to the balance in sustainable development strategies. Decision-making is currently based on a large number of inter-dependant factors that are rapidly changing. Decisions are made with uncertain and sometimes conflicting findings and data, reflecting the evolving human understanding of the environment around them. Indeed, one of the approaches, in the analysis and synthesis of decision processes, is the usage of methods involving uncertainty.

Understanding the advancement of the principles of sustainable development is a fundamental goal in managing human activities in such a way as to avoid the overexploitation of resources and the pollution of the environment beyond tolerable levels. Sustainable development means not only the preservation and care for environment, but also respecting a number of complex relations between economic, social and living systems.

The goal of this book is to present processing methods and their applications. These, are practical for decision making and task management at the regional level (strategies and plans for development, assessing regional sustainability, etc.) as well as for scientific studies in sustainable development assessment. 

Research conducted worldwide has concentrated on creating indicator sets, a large number of which are currently available. Most of these evaluate the pillars of sustainable development separately, without the use of multi-dimensional assessment. Despite the vagueness of the term sustainable development, and the complexity of quantification, there great potential to identify and measure levels of sustainability. Parallel to the three dimensions of sustainable development, these may be classified as sensitive, valid, and representative, in various aggregations.

A general solution is difficult to find concerning the development of a framework of procedures and mechanisms for the integration process in decision making. This is; due to the immense differences among regions in regard to prevailing conditions and, needs as well as, national plans, policies, and programmes. Therefore, specific regional sustainable development frameworks might be more appropriate to meet local needs and expectations on important, diverse issues such as pollution, energy consumption, natural resource consumption, waste management, health, crime, employment, poverty, education, and social justice.

The modeling of sustainable development involves the following processes: decision-making and management; support, participation and consensus building; and research and analysis. This type of modeling activity might take the form of a decision-support system (linking empirical data and statistical methods with expert knowledge), an optimization model (optimizing simultaneously economic, social, and environmental objectives), a simulation model, or a general equilibrium model supported by empirical data. 

Today sustainable development models are, realized as decision-making systems, optimization models, simulation models, or general equilibrium models. These models allow governments and other organizations to examine the current status of sustainability, to suggest recommendations for decision-making, and to predict the impact of these decisions on the individual components of sustainable development. The complexity of such decision-making processes, including inaccuracy and uncertainty caused by vague or non-existent definitions of component’s, requires new methods based on artificial and computational intelligence.

This book seeks to outline new trends in the modeling of several parameters of sustainable development, at the regional level. Among these are methods of artificial and computational intelligence, as well as tree and graph structures. Spheres of research in artificial intelligence (the symbolic representation of knowledge) are characterized by the theory of static systems, whereas spheres of computational intelligence (the sub-symbolic representation of knowledge) are characterized by dynamic systems theory. The basic principles of the mentioned methods are the usage of tolerance, inaccuracy, uncertainty and partial truth for robustness, as well as determining the realization price. The above-named systems are able to learn and process: uncertain, fuzzy, incomplete, and highly differently-structured data and information. Typical examples of these spheres are, fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, and rough sets. Furthermore, an important feature of these methods is, apart from assessment, the generalizing and processing of non-linear dependencies, examples of which include forward, recurrent and cellular neuron networks. A noticeable advantage of these methods is the creation of the kinds of models, methods, procedures, and algorithms which take advantage of two or more approaches. The application of these methods has great significance in the economic, social, and environmental sphere, as well as finding equilibrium among the three sustainable development pillars. 

Based on this information, posts have been selected from authors working in various geographical, political, economic and social spheres. The intent was to present the most heterogeneous view possible on the current status of sustainable development research from a regional viewpoint, using systems approach and other advanced methods.

We started with chapters which represent more complex, ultimately synthetic approaches. Chapters on the ecological footprint model, the large-scale modeling of approaches to environmental impact assessment, the modeling of integrative model stochastic system dynamics as well as regional risk assessment, are included in the first section. The next part of the book focuses on the modeling of environmental components. Uses of various methods are presented in case problems dealing with air quality in addition to, the usage of water sources and sewage water, including produced waste. In order to represent issues of efficiency evaluation, case studies involving various problems of environmental protection are included. The economic dimension of sustainable development is considered using regional and interregional economic models. Relations among the economic and environmental pillars of sustainable development are presented in the next chapters. Here, regional examples featuring relational models of the usage of resources, as well as economic issues versus risks for the environment, agriculture and forestry are highlighted. Social relations are examined in the next chapters, which present the modeling of relations between air pollution and public health along with, the usage of natural resources and related impacts on poverty levels and other inequities among citizens. A quality of life model can be selected as a synthesizing indicator.

This book may serve as a reference guide for post-graduate students in the field of management as well as, a critical guide for managers, government officials, and information professionals. Each chapter provides references to the cited literature along with suggestions for further reading. The described methods and case studies may be particularly useful for policy makers searching for alternative solutions for problems in regional sustainable development, taking into account socio-economic and environmental dimensions in a system integrated approach. The text is also suitable for use by educators as comprehensive tutorial literature or as complementary material for associated professionals and researchers.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Vladimír Olej (prof. MSc. CSc.) was born in Poprad, Slovakia, in 1954. He graduated from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava in 1979. From 1979 to 1982 he worked for the company TESLA Liptovský Hrádok in the Department of Mechanization and Automation of Production. From 1982 to 1997 he worked at the Technical University in Liptovský Mikuláš as a lecturer in computers and artificial intelligence in the Department of Informatics and Computer Sciences. There he defended his doctoral thesis in 1987 and was an Associate professor (1991) at this department. From 1997 to 2002 he worked at the Matej Bel University, Faculty of Finance and Department of Information Systems in Banská Bystrica as a lecturer of artificial intelligence. Since 2001 he has been a professor in the branch of Technical Cybernetics at Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. Since 2002 he is working as a professor with the Institute of System Engineering and Informatics at the University of Pardubice. He has published a number of papers concerning fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms and methods of analysis and synthesis of parallel computers.
Ilona Obršálova (MSc.,PhD. Institute of Chemical Technology Prague) is an Asoc. Professor of the Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Her research work is focused on environmental economics and management; especially environmental damages valuation, environmental efficiency, environmental impacts assessment and sustainable development modeling. She has been engaged in many national (currently ´Sustainable development indicators and modeling of relations among economics, environment and social connections´) and international projects. She is author and co-author of many publications in national and international journals, conference contributions and national and international textbooks.

Editorial Board

  • Peter Sincák, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia
  • Miroslav Pokorný, Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Milan Turcáni, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia
  • Iva  Ritschelová, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic
  • František Božek, University of Defense, Czech Republic
  • Nikos E. Mastorakis, Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria
  • René Pellissier, University of South Africa, South Africa
  • Peter Mikulecký, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
  • Fernando Cardoso de Sousa, University of Loulé, Portugal
  • Sergey Kostarev, Russian State University of Trade and Economics Moscow, Russia