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Global Strategy and Practice of E-Governance: Examples from Around the World

Release Date: April, 2011. Copyright © 2011. 564 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-489-9, ISBN13: 9781609604899, ISBN10: 160960489X, EISBN13: 9781609604905
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MLA

Piaggesi, Danilo, Kristian Sund, and Walter Castelnovo. "Global Strategy and Practice of E-Governance: Examples from Around the World." IGI Global, 2011. 1-564. Web. 20 Sep. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-489-9

APA

Piaggesi, D., Sund, K., & Castelnovo, W. (2011). Global Strategy and Practice of E-Governance: Examples from Around the World (pp. 1-564). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-489-9

Chicago

Piaggesi, Danilo, Kristian Sund, and Walter Castelnovo. "Global Strategy and Practice of E-Governance: Examples from Around the World." 1-564 (2011), accessed September 20, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-489-9

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Description

Over the past decade, there has been continual development and renewal of strategies and practices surrounding e-governance. Governments around the world have embraced new information and communication technologies to increase the efficiency of internal processes, deliver better and more integrated services to citizens and businesses, invite citizen and stakeholder participation in planning decisions, improve communication, and sometimes even enhance democratic processes.

Global Strategy and Practice of E-Governance: Examples from Around the World provides readers with an overview of relevant strategy and policy-level theoretical frameworks and examples, as well as up-to-date implementations from around the world. This book offers valuable insights into best practices, as well as some of the issues and challenges surrounding the governance of and with information and communication technologies in a globalized, knowledge-based world.

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Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Enrique V. Iglesias
Preface
Danilo Piaggesi, Kristian J. Sund, Walter Castelnovo
Chapter 1
Abdul Razak Mohamed
The fast growing information and communication technology (ICT) sector brought in the use of computers, internet and mobile phones not only by the... Sample PDF
E-Governance vs. E-Readiness in Urban Municipal Governments in Tamil Nadu, India
$37.50
Chapter 2
Rodolfo Castillo López
The Municipality of La Paz (MLP) has been a pioneer municipal institution in applying Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for its... Sample PDF
Municipal Mobile SMS Services: An E-Government Initiative of the Municipality of La Paz, Bolivia
$37.50
Chapter 3
Gianpaolo Iazzolino, Rinaldo Pietrantonio
This chapter describes a best practice of e-government and e-democracy implemented in Southern Italy, the Soveria.it project. The project was part... Sample PDF
The Soveria.it Project: A Best Practice of E-Government in Southern Italy
$37.50
Chapter 4
Chang Boon Patrick Lee, U Ian Edith Lei
To implement electronic-government (e-government) services successfully, it is important to know the factors that influence their acceptance. In... Sample PDF
Usage Intention of E-Government Services in Macao
$37.50
Chapter 5
Saxena Anupama
In the present chapter, the author seeks to identify the existing gender gaps in rural e-governance in India and has attempted to explore the... Sample PDF
Gender Evaluation of Rural E-Governance in India: A Case Study of E-Gram Suraj (E-Rural Good Governance) Scheme1
$37.50
Chapter 6
Walter Castelnovo
Partnering is often claimed to represent a solution small local government organizations (SLGOs) can resort to in order to manage innovation.... Sample PDF
The Governance of Partnerships in Local Government
$37.50
Chapter 7
Adegboyega Ojo, Tomasz Janowski
Better integration of Electronic Government (EGOV) and Public Administration Reform (PAR) strategies has been identified by global EGOV benchmark... Sample PDF
Integrating Electronic Government and Public Administration Reform Strategies: Method and Experience
$37.50
Chapter 8
Mark Deakin
Mitchell’s book on the City of Bits, sets out a vision of urban life literally done to bits, left fragmented and in danger of coming unstuck. His... Sample PDF
From the City of Bits to E-Topia: Space, Citizenship and Community as Global Strategy in the Governance of the Digitally-Inclusive Regeneration Thesis
$37.50
Chapter 9
Meltem Yildirim Imamoglu, Mohammed Rehan
However all these needs to gain strong expertise and competence of technological and administrative talent is needed to make the government and... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Turkish Public E-Procurement Systems: An Analysis of Critical Success Factors
$37.50
Chapter 10
Gilmar Ribeiro de Mello, Valmor Slomski, Edson Luiz Riccio
The general objective of this work is to identify a set of electronic governance practices for the executive power of the Brazilian States and... Sample PDF
Study of Electronic Governance Practices: Controllership Instrument for Decision-Making in the Management of the Brazilian States
$37.50
Chapter 11
Monis Aziz
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an insight into the various challenges faced by a post-conflict nation like Afghanistan and suggest... Sample PDF
Implementing ICT for Governance in a Post-Conflict Nation: A Case Study of Afghanistan
$37.50
Chapter 12
Johanna Ekua Awotwi
Views from some stake holders; attempts to improve the system and recommendations are also considered. Sample PDF
The Ghana Community Network Services Ltd (GCNet): Implementation Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 13
Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen
As illustrated by the specific eGovernment strategies, initiatives and good practice examples Danish authorities, at all levels of government... Sample PDF
Danish eGovernment Success Factors: Strategies and Good Practice Examples
$37.50
Chapter 14
Asim Balci, Tunç Durmus Medeni, Ahmet Nohutçu
The paper would concentrate on the “formation” and “participation” (formulation) dimension and stage of the ICT policy process. Presenting... Sample PDF
Turkish Case of E-Government Policy-Formulation Process as an Emerging and Innovative Public Policymaking Area
$37.50
Chapter 15
Ibrahim Arpaci
This chapter focuses on e-Turkey. In other word, this chapter is about electronic government (e-government) activities, developments and... Sample PDF
E-Turkey: Turkey’s Way to the Information Society
$37.50
Chapter 16
Yuri Hohlov, Evgeny Styrin
This chapter explores Russia’s implementation of the national e-government strategy and information policies. Based on official, national strategic... Sample PDF
E-Government in Russia: Strategies of Formation and Development
$37.50
Chapter 17
Gianluca Misuraca, Gianluigi Viscusi
The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss a conceptual framework on e-Governance for development developed by the authors and the model... Sample PDF
E-Governance for Development: Designing an Operational Roadmap for ICT-Enabled Public Administration Reform
$37.50
Chapter 18
Julián G. Casasbuenas
This chapter presents the experience of civil society organizations in Colombia to improve the transparency of the municipalities’ administrations... Sample PDF
The Contribution of Colombian Civil Society Organizations to E-Government for the Improvement of Transparency through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 19
Russell Lidman
This paper considers how to reduce corruption and improve governance, with particular attention to the impacts of information and communication... Sample PDF
Is the Internet Mightier than the Sword: An Anti-Corruption Perspective
$37.50
Chapter 20
Ana Sofía Cardenal
This chapter asks whether, and to what extent, parties are using the Internet for political mobilization. Internet offers new opportunities for... Sample PDF
Parties and ICTs: Analyzing Party Strategies to Use the Internet for Political Mobilization
$37.50
Chapter 21
Pablo Valenti
A government’s service provision to enterprises via electronic means has a significant impact on the productivity levels of such country’s economy.... Sample PDF
E-Government and Competitiveness in Latin America: The Case of the Electronic Invoice
$37.50
Chapter 22
Nestor Zapata, Christof Kuechemann
Although the three cases that we describe have not been evaluated in their impact, they turn out to be valuable, specially because they show that... Sample PDF
Experiences of the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) in the Promotion of E-Governance in Latin America
$37.50
Chapter 23
Luca Cernuzzi, Magalí González, Marco Ronchetti, Adolfo Villafiorita, Komminist Weldemariam
In a world characterized by rapid change driven by globalization, an ICT-based economy transformation poses some challenges and opportunities for... Sample PDF
Experiences in E-Governance from an ICT4G Perspective: Case Studies and Lesson Learned
$37.50
Chapter 24
Leonardo Pineda Serna
It has become increasingly evident that knowledge is intimately associated with strategic innovation (i.e. as a deliberate action allowing the... Sample PDF
Strategic Innovation and the Knowledge Society: The Case of Latin America
$37.50
Chapter 25
Kristian J. Sund, Ajay Kumar Reddy Adala
The concept of industrial clusters has received much attention in the literature over the past few decades and many examples of clusters exist today... Sample PDF
E-Government Clusters: From Framework to Implementation
$37.50
Chapter 26
Danilo Piaggesi, Maria J. Chea
The escalating competitiveness in the international global economy has created a growing demand for the creation and diffusion of knowledge. A... Sample PDF
The Knowledge Economy: A New Development Paradigm for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)
$37.50
A Possible Future Manifesto
Danilo Piaggesi, Kristian Sund, Walter Castelnovo
Afterword
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Reviews and Testimonials

I believe this book provides a valuable contribution as it examines the impact of ICTs on many sectors, focusing in particular on the new role of society, the global economy, and the state. Technological innovation in the use of the ICTs has spawned dynamic and continual production. Today, there are innumerable experiences fruit of innovation and creativity at every level. Rather than being the sole purview of Research Centers, such innovations are to be found in many arenas, an encouraging sign as to the viability of state reform. Knowledge about these experiences is in part the purpose of this book, and sharing them is its best contribution given the caliber of the contributors and the wide range of cases presented. I congratulate those who supported this effort for the many interesting contributions contained in this book.

– Enrique V. Iglesias, Ibero-American Secretary General, Spain, & Former President, Inter-American Development Bank, USA

I am confident that the content of this book is of immediate and direct relevance for redirecting development policies to global economies based on technological innovation. The following points should be given special consideration when dealing with Economic Development: investing in people as the fundamental resource of the State; strengthening infrastructure; qualifying people for the job market and generating jobs; increasing income; and creating and developing centers for excellence in technology and innovation. All of these points are presented somewhere along the several chapters of this book, a reason why I would like to congratulate the authors and editors for their ability to outline a new world panorama of government, an electronic government, which the State of Sao Paulo will strengthen in the forthcoming years.

– Geraldo Alckmin, Governor, São Paulo State, Brazil

This collection of twenty six articles on e-governance technologies and practices highlights current scholarship in the governmental uses of modern and emerging information technologies in response to the adoption of user-level technologies and social networking infrastructures in the pursuit of democratic change and enhanced participation among citizens. [...] Contributors include academics in the fields of computer science and information technology from universities in the US Central and South America, Europe and India.

– Book News, Reference - Research Book News - August 2011
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Topics Covered

  • E-governance for development
  • E-governance vs. E-readiness
  • Electronic governance practices
  • Electronic government and public administration reform strategies
  • Factors influencing usage intention of e-government services
  • Gender evaluation of rural e-governance
  • Governance of partnerships in local government
  • Municipal mobile SMS services
  • Public e-procurement systems
  • Public policymaking
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Preface

The governance of social systems reflects political values, involving control between citizens and their representatives. These values determine the evolution of the mix among such factors as institutions, technology, history, culture and economics that define political processes. Each of these factors is constantly changing while having an impact on each other. 

Experiences involving the mix of these factors take place in anarchic, totalitarian and democratic contexts as well as in societies in transition.  Changes among these factors can reinforce or modify the approaches social systems have to govern themselves.

Just as the internet is increasingly changing government processes, recent social networking applications such as Twitter and Facebook have more recently affected democratic processes too, by providing citizens with additional powers and a real capability to influence their government representatives and bypass official communication channels. Some recent examples include, China's July 2009 regional information blockade, including a total shut-down of the Internet, following the Uighur unrests (“full” Internet usage was restored to Xinjiang ten months later). And then, of course, there is Iran where, beginning in June 2009, the organizing power of cell phones and social media, and their ability to capture and disseminate images like the death of a young Iranian woman, Neda Agha-Soltan, arrested the world’s attention. Most of the news that reached the West from Iran came via YouTube and Twitter.Thus, Information and Communication Technology is promoting a more democratic governance in today’s knowledge society that highlights the importance of analyzing some “best practices” on local, national and regional strategy and practice of e-Governance in different societies from around the world.

This book focuses on the efforts of those societies seeking to become more democratic experiences through the application of advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) in public administration (e-government), and on processes and transformations leading to become more inclusive and participatory societies (e-governance). As such, the contents of this book provides a “snapshot” of the diversity of efforts to identify and understand the conditions for effective approaches and techniques for strengthening the process of democratization by deploying ICT. It does not attempt to offer simple solutions to complex problems but rather document practical approaches and experiences in a variety of local and national contexts, that might provide insights that could be integrated by others in their own context.

Data gathering, information processing and knowledge creation are essential capacities for economic and social development. ICT can enhance the development process in both the developed and developing world by creating new opportunities in the generation, transformation and distribution of information and knowledge, lowering transaction costs, accelerating the process of innovation and building trust between citizens and Governments. Good governance can contribute to economic growth while economic growth can contribute to good governance.

The rise of ICT led to the creation of the Information Society and the Information Society has led to the present Knowledge Society, where the application of technology evolves in economic, social, institutional and cultural contexts, creating and expanding capabilities and responding to new incentives. This can create a virtuous cycle, triggering a new economy (the Knowledge Economy), where the benefits come from the exchange of knowledge produced locally or imported and adapted to local conditions.

Several research studies point to the potentially, but not inevitable, positive relationship between ICT investment and the increase in productivity and competitiveness. These studies suggest that: (a) the relationship between ICT and growth is obvious in developed economies that have already reached a threshold in its distribution and use; (b) there is a time gap from the start of investment and the resulting increases in productivity and growth due to the process of assimilation and adaptation of ICT; and (c) education, innovation, human capital; social inclusion and a favorable economic environment are keys to exploiting the potential offered by ICT.

Although the conclusions of these research studies vary according to context and implementation strategies, they all seem to concur on one essential aspect: access to information and the production and adaptation of knowledge can transform production processes, increase labor productivity, and improve the living conditions of the citizens.

The experiences described in the chapters of this book can be summarized as follows: ICT is a tool, which coupled with investments in factors of competitiveness, such as innovation, education, social inclusion and government policies facilitating changes, can contribute to economic growth and social development, triggering a virtuous cycle leading to a Knowledge Economy. Furthermore, the diverse ICT experiences described in the following chapters reveal some common factors that limit the deployment and appropriate use of ICT: (a) the limited institutional ability to articulate and promote public policies for the distribution and use of ICT, (b) the limited network coverage and the high costs of access to ICT, and (c) the lack of digital education enabling interaction with ICT and the scarcity of content that is of interest to the local population.

By the same token, there are some factors that are common to the numerous successful experiences in ICT in public administration from around the world. This book presents some of those experiences as “best practices”, in order to inspire other countries in the deployment of ICT for better governance in all aspects of human-life. In general, the positive factors characterizing those experiences are:

  • political support;
  • an integrated and long-term vision;
  • institutional and technical capability;
  • the participation of the private sector;
  • a favorable environment (infrastructure, regulatory framework), and projected levels of investment.

In recent years, the countries represented in this book have invested significant effort and resources in ICT initiatives, and in general there has been progress. Important lessons have been learned:

  • it is essential to work with a medium and long-term vision, concrete goals, and a will to coordinate between and among different initiatives;
  • there is a gap in the know-how to absorb available technological resources and use them to benefit development needs. ICT investments must be combined with people’s ability to use them in a creative and appropriate way;
  • the rate of technological innovation accelerates technological obsolescence. Solutions must be designed to ensure the sustainability of the infrastructure;
  • many organizations are aware of their limits and how these can be tackled by using ICT, but few know how to accede to financing;
  • there seems to be an opportunity for the establishment of mechanisms to transfer technology between and among countries in this book and other regions of the world;
  • in poor and marginalized areas, the biggest challenge is to demonstrate the benefits of using ICT.

In particular, we would like to draw the basic principles for a global ICT-based strategy from the best practices presented in our book that incorporates the integral dimension of e-governance, within the context of “managing changes” at local, national and regional levels, bearing in mind that there are no simple solutions and the “factors” and mix of factors are constantly changing. In the list below, for each element of the strategy, we indicate the corresponding chapters of the book:

1. Creation of a favorable environment for the distribution and use of ICT
For ICT to contribute to development, the environment must facilitate its spread and use in institutional, business and social contexts. The strategy will support the development of initiatives that contribute to complete the process of liberalization of the telecommunications market, increase the use of ICT, combine regulatory measures with public-private initiatives to extend connectivity and adapt tariffs, and create assurance and confidence in the public, social and commercial use of ICT through the formulation and application of norms, edicts and/or laws, among others. (Chapters  4, 13, 15, 16)

2. ICT in support of the modernization of the State
ICT is a key tool for the modernization and transformation of the State, within the continuous effort to improve trust between citizens and Government.  This strategy pursues initiatives aimed at establishing a modern, professional and transparent public administration, so as to improve the efficiency and transparency of the management of expenditures, promote the participation of society in the formulation of public policies, improve and extend the coverage of public services, especially to the excluded sectors, increase fiscal responsibility, and decrease fraud. (Chapters 4, 6, 7, 14, 17, 25)

3. ICT in support of competitiveness
This strategy promotes initiatives that support innovation and the transfer and implementation of ICT to increase productivity, competitiveness and sustainable economic growth, which are determining factors in achieving a dynamic economy. The strategy prioritizes the needs of the SMEs, micro-firms and rural producers, as well as the needs of sectors offering a high potential of economic development and job creation like the ICT sector, which is favored by its own technological advantages to compete in a global market. (Chapters 3, 9, 10, 12, 21)

4. ICT in support of social development
Social development is a fundamental element to reduce poverty, promote equality and improve the well being. The distribution and appropriate use of ICT can accelerate social development and broaden its impact, especially in the areas of health and education. (Chapters 1, 2, 5, 11, 18, 19, 20)

5. ICT in support of regional integration
The creation of Regional Public Goods aimed at implementing sustainable economic growth and reducing poverty contributes to regional integration, providing the economies with a better position to face the forces of globalization. ICT can contribute to the process of regional integration, specifically in the promotion of regional infrastructure, the consolidation of regional markets, and the strengthening of institutions. (Chapters 22, 24, 26).

Besides the components of the global strategy emerging from the examples discussed in the book, we would like to add a further element that complements the strategy. It is an element that in our view will become more and more central for any future discussion on E-Governance:

6. ICT in support of the environment and in responding to natural disasters
The protection of the environment and the management of natural resources are increasingly important factors for achieving sustainable development and improving quality of life in general. This strategy proposes to utilize ICT in addressing environmental issues and protecting natural resources, and in preventing, mitigating and managing natural disasters.

The current volume of programs and financial initiatives of the multilateral development organizations and national agencies around the world requires an effective coordination effort, so that initiatives complement each other, avoiding duplication. To this end, it is imperative to strengthen communication between involved organizations and to consider their plans in the design and continuous evaluation of projects. Since every country is different, an international effort toward harmonization should be pursued in the process involving the integration of ICT in public administration and democratization.

We hope this book will contribute to global efforts in order to ensure that all countries generate the political will needed to effectively  use ICT and expand their Knowledge Economy to become more democratic and participatory knowledge  societies, in a new world ruled by a new e-Governance. 

We wish you a very good reading! 

Danilo Piaggesi (Lead Editor), Kristian J. Sund and Walter Castelnovo (Co-editors)
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Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Danilo Piaggesi was Knowledge Economy Coordinator in the Vice Presidency of the Inter American Development Bank (IADB), in Washington D.C, from 2007 to 2009 and Chief of the Information and Communication Technology for Development Division (ICT4DEV) at the IADB, from 1999 to 2008. The ICT4DEV Division was in charge of structuring and implementing the Bank’s policy to introduce ICT in the Bank’s project portfolio, providing technical assistance to IADB’s borrowing member countries, and better informing government decisions regarding ICT and its applications. Prior to the IABD assignment, from 1981 to 1991, Mr. Piaggesi worked for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) at different duty stations in Africa and Latin America in the field of technology transfer for development. From 1992 to 1998 he was part of the technical staff of Telespazio, Telecom-Italia Group in Rome, where he was in charge of the Strategic Alliances and International Activities Division. .Mr. Piaggesi also consulted for the European Union in Brussels, evaluating project proposals for funding in the field of telecommunications and environment. While at IADB, he was the alternate of the Bank’s President in the Steering Committee of the United Nations Global Alliance for ICT and Development (GAID); after leaving the Bank, he has remained a member of its Strategic Council.

At present he is Managing Director of the Fondazione Rosselli Americas (FRA) and a member of Fondazione Rosselli’s Board. FRA focuses on Knowledge Society, ICT and innovation for development. One of the major programs of FRA is the IKEP (International Knowledge Economy Program) working with multi and bi-lateral cooperation to support development projects where ICT, innovation and the principles of the Knowledge Economy can be instrumental for achieving socio-economic growth.

Mr. Piaggesi holds a PhD degree in Physics with a specialization in geophysics, cum laude, from the University of Rome (1980), and an Executive International Business Certificate from Georgetown University/John Cabot University, in Washington D.C and in Rome, (1996). His professional training is in remote sensing (1981); digital image processing and analysis (1986); technical cooperation project formulation and appraisal (1989); telecommunications (1995-1996) and ICT, innovation and Knowledge Society for development. He lives and works in Alexandria, Virginia, USA, with his wife Helena.

Kristian J. Sund, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer in Strategic Management at Middlesex University Business School, in London. He teaches strategic management at both undergraduate and MBA levels and leads the online distance-learning MBA in Shipping & Logistics. From 2007 to 2009 he was Managing Director of the Executive Master in e-Governance at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. His research currently focuses on strategic types, organizational cognition and learning and perceived environmental uncertainty, as well as more generally organizations and strategic management. His research has been applied to the hospitality industry, the postal industry, leisure (service) industry and others and has appeared in a variety of journals. Both as a consultant and regular employee, Kristian has worked with a diverse range of service industries, including banking, telecom, tourism, leisure and the postal sector. Kristian holds a Ph.D. in Management and M.Sc. in Economics from the University of Lausanne and a M.A. in Society, Science and Technology from the EPFL, where he also completed his post-doc.
Walter Castelnovo, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Information Systems and Organization at the University of Insubria (Italy). His research interests concern technological and organizational innovation in Public Administration and Interorganizational Information Systems. He is one of the founders of the Research Center for “Knowledge and Service Management for Business Applications” of the University of Insubria and he is member of the Scientific Committee of the “Interdepartmental Center for Organizational Innovation in Public Administration” of the University of Milan. He served as member of the committee for many international conferences on E-Government and ICT evaluation and he is the General Chair of The 5th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation, that will be held in 2011 at the University of Insubria. He is also member of the Department of Institutional Reforms, E-Government and Institutional Federalism of the Association of the Municipalities of Lombardia (Italy).
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Editorial Board

  • Frank Bannister, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • Gianluca Misuraca, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Spain & Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland
  • Chris Vein, City and County of San Francisco, USA
  • Christof Kuechemann, GTZ, El Salvador
  • Maddalena Sorrentino, Università degli studi di Milano, Italy