Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements

Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements

Rodney A. Reynolds (Azusa Pacific University, USA (on Leave from Pepperdine University)), Robert Woods (Spring Arbor University, USA) and Jason D. Baker (Regent University, USA)
Release Date: September, 2006|Copyright: © 2007 |Pages: 418
ISBN13: 9781591407928|ISBN10: 1591407923|EISBN13: 9781591407935|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-792-8


The Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements is the comprehensive reference source for innovative knowledge on electronic surveys. This commanding handbook of research provides complete coverage of the challenges associated with the use of the Internet to develop online surveys, administer Web-based instruments, and conduct computer-mediated assessments. More than 50 renowned experts in the field of electronic surveys and measurements have provided 58 comprehensive chapters, and the publication contains over 950 references to additional publications.

The Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements is the only work with cutting edge descriptions of the design, implementation, and use of electronic surveys, and also includes discussions on the challenges associated with online data collection and profiles of selected online measures. This combination of how-to information about online research coupled with profiles of specific measures makes it an indispensable reference for every library.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Administering online surveys
  • Analyzing online surveys
  • Business instruments
  • Creating online surveys
  • Developing valid and reliable online instruments
  • Education instruments
  • Online focus groups
  • Open source vs. commercial survey software
  • Population and sampling issues
  • Sampling and online surveys
  • Survey security
  • Survey software
  • Technology instruments

Reviews and Testimonials

"The Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements is a comprehensive reference source on topics related to electronic surveys. The Handbook contains 56 chapters, definitions of 325 key terms, 950 references, and a short biography of the authors."

– Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Vol. 20 (Fall 2008)

The Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements will help researchers sort out the otherwise confusing and disparate approaches that have been and could be used to get useful data.

– Prof. Joseph B. Walther, Michigan State University, USA

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book:
Table of Contents
Joseph B. Walther
Rodney A. Reynolds, Robert Woods, Jason D. Baker
Chapter 1
J. Jamsen, K. Corley
With computer network access nearly ubiquitous in much of the world, alternative means of data col-lection are being made available to researchers.... Sample PDF
E-Survey Methodology
Chapter 2
Web Survey Design  (pages 9-18)
M. McCord
The Web survey design chapter covers the process of creating a Web (online) survey system. Along with technical requirements, the chapter gives... Sample PDF
Web Survey Design
Chapter 3
L. Roberts
In the past decade, many paper-and-pencil surveys and measures have been converted into electronic formats for administration via the Internet. In... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Constraints of Electronic Research
Chapter 4
M. Singh, S. Burgess
This chapter discusses the application of new technologies to scholarly research. It highlights the process, benefits and challenges of online data... Sample PDF
Electronic Data Collection Methods
Chapter 5
J. Lumsden
As a new medium for questionnaire delivery, the internet has the potential to revolutionize the survey process. Online (web-based) questionnaires... Sample PDF
Online-Questionaire Design Guidelines
Chapter 6
M. Lang
This paper presents a number of insights gained from a dual-mode survey of software designers recently conducted in Ireland. It describes the... Sample PDF
Dual-Mode Electronic Survey Lessons and Experiences
Chapter 7
J. Artz
An online survey uses World Wide Web technology to deliver a survey instrument to a geographically dispersed audience, thus providing the benefits... Sample PDF
Software Design Tips for Online Surveys
Chapter 8
J. Ye
The widespread use of personal computers in the work place and at home has created a new opportunity of conducting research. With the increasing... Sample PDF
Overcoming Challenges to Conducting Online Surveys
Chapter 9
G. Beidernikl
Online surveys have grown very popular in the past few years. They offer some major advantages compared to paper-and-pencil surveys. Nevertheless... Sample PDF
Sampling in Online Surveys
Chapter 10
L. Roberts
This paper explores the measurement equivalence of paper-and pencil and electronic surveys and measures. After reviewing competing claims and the... Sample PDF
Equivalence of Electronic and Off-Line Measures
Chapter 11
R. Dixon
This paper discusses the outcomes of two data collection methods involving questionnaires distributed to members of an organization. One group... Sample PDF
Electronic vs. Conventional Surveys
Chapter 12
C. Gurau
Facilitated by the technological advancements in Internet applications, online surveys have become a powerful tool to collect primary data on a... Sample PDF
The Ethics of Online Surveys
Chapter 13
A. Sturgill, P. Jongsuwanwattana
International data collection offers the possibility of greater external validity for studies. However, using the Internet to collect information... Sample PDF
Legal and Ethical Concerns of Collecting Data Online
Chapter 14
J. Melton, L. Reynolds
Internet dependency measures need to be refined from the previous measurements with regard to media dependency in order to more fully understand... Sample PDF
Measuring Internet Dependency
Chapter 15
G. Rosenkrans
Accurate and consistent metrics are critical for determining online advertising effectiveness and for the growth of online advertising spending.... Sample PDF
Online Advertising Metrics
Chapter 16
D. Aiken
This chapter is designed to answer two fundamental questions related to research on electronic surveys and measures. First, what are some of the... Sample PDF
Measurements in E-Business
Chapter 17
R. Botta
Although public relations has been an established field for more than 100 years, standardized measures have only recently been introduced. In an... Sample PDF
Measurement in Public Relations
Chapter 18
L. Reynolds
Numerous instruments have been created over the last several decades for measuring both extrinsic and intrinsic values as they are made manifest in... Sample PDF
Measuring Intrinsic Motivations
Chapter 19
Measuring Disagreement  (pages 174-187)
B. Whitworth
Agreement is an important goal of computer-mediated and face-to-face groups. This paper suggests a measure disagreement in groups facing limited... Sample PDF
Measuring Disagreement
Chapter 20
Measuring Cognitive Load  (pages 188-194)
N. Hogg
Cognitive load theory describes learning in terms of a processing system when all too often working memory is overloaded and learning is impeded.... Sample PDF
Measuring Cognitive Load
Chapter 21
J.D. Wallace
Part of the importance of descriptive studies such as surveys is the identification of directions and issues that can be pursued in future research.... Sample PDF
Surveying Online Scholarship
Chapter 22
J.D. Wallace
This chapter asks “what is meant by computer-mediated communication research?” Numerous databases were examined concerning business, education... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Communication Research
Chapter 23
S. Papagiannidis
Mixed-mode approaches are often used to boost response rates and reduce costs. Still, they can increase the complexity of designing, deploying and... Sample PDF
Mixed-Mode Surveys with Netservey
Chapter 24
Bruce Aaron
Within the Accenture Corporation, the CDO (Capability Development Organization), which manages human resource development, designed and implemented... Sample PDF
Design and Development of an Electronic Survey System
Chapter 25
B. Wachsmuth
At Seton Hall University we developed Asset, a web-based Academic Survey System and Evaluation Tool to design, administer, and analyze surveys. This... Sample PDF
Open Source Surveys with Asset
Chapter 26
Katja Lozar Manfreda, Vasja Vehovar
The chapter describes a Web portal, dedicated to survey research, using modern information-communication technologies, especially the WWW. Although... Sample PDF
Web Survey Methodology (WebSM) Portalatform
Chapter 27
Hallie D’Agruma, Erika A. Zollet
The features of Datacurious, a web-based survey software program designed specifically for academic research, are examined in this article.... Sample PDF
Web-Based Survey Software for Academic Research
Chapter 28
G. Beidernikl
The article compares two major online survey tools made in Germany: Rogator and Formgen. Both are of a very high standard and can highly be... Sample PDF
Comparison of Online Surveys Tools
Chapter 29
E. Park
This chapter offers an introductory description of SurveyTracker software. Comparisons are made to competitor software programs. The central focus... Sample PDF
Survey Tracker E-Mail/ Web Survey Software
Chapter 30
J. Baker
One of the significant advances in software design afforded by the internet has been the open source movement, an effort to collaboratively create... Sample PDF
Open Source Survey Software
Chapter 31
Hyperlink Analysis  (pages 277-282)
M. Thelwall
Hyperlink analysis is a collection of techniques that researchers can use to identify patterns in the hyperlinks between collections of web sites.... Sample PDF
Hyperlink Analysis
Chapter 32
M. Vorvoreanu
The Web site Experience Analysis (WEA) (Vorvoreanu, 2004) is a research protocol used to evaluate the experience of visiting a Web site. Currently... Sample PDF
Web Site Experience Analysis
Chapter 33
T. O’Daniel
Getting data to yield their insights can be hard work. This is especially true with survey data, which tends to be oriented toward the presence or... Sample PDF
Bit-Wise Coding for Exploratory Analysis
Chapter 34
R. Reynolds
Doll and Tofkzadeh (1988) developed their measure of End-User Computing Satisfaction because ‘decision analysis’ (examination of specific uses of... Sample PDF
Measurment of End-User Computing Satisfaction
Chapter 35
R. Reynolds
Several researchers (e.g., Carter & Greenberg, 1965; Flanagin, & Metzger, 2000; Fogg, 2002; Johnson & Kaye, 2004; Newhagen & Nass, 1989) discuss or... Sample PDF
Web Credibility Measurment
Chapter 36
J. Baker
Understanding the psychosocial classroom environment has been important in both traditional face-to-face courses and online education. Trickett and... Sample PDF
Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey
Chapter 37
W. Brown
The celebrity-persona parasocial identification scale (CPI) is designed to measure how media consumers develop identification with celebrities or... Sample PDF
Celebrity-Persona Identification Scale
Chapter 38
M. McCord
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) measures perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as predictors of a user’s intent to use... Sample PDF
Technology Acceptance Model
Chapter 39
M. Bocarnea
The celebrity-persona parasocial interaction scale (CPPI) is designed to measure how media consumers form parasocial relationships with celebrities... Sample PDF
Celebrity-Persona Parasocial Interaction Scale
Chapter 40
K. Marmenout
The Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is an instrument initially developed by O’Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell (1991) to assess person-organization... Sample PDF
Organizational Culture Profile
Chapter 41
Measuring Online Flow  (pages 317-319)
D. Aiken
Examination of the flow construct began almost twenty years ago. Csikszentmihalyi has written extensively on this notion loosely described as... Sample PDF
Measuring Online Flow
Chapter 42
R. Woods
The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) (McCroskey, 1982) measures communication apprehension. Communication apprehension (CA)... Sample PDF
Personal Report of Communication Apprhension
Chapter 43
L. Shen, J. Dillard
The theory of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966; Brehm & Brehm, 1981; Wicklund, 1974) has often been called upon to explain the failure of... Sample PDF
Reactance Proneness Assessment
Chapter 44
J. Dillard, L. Shen
According to appraisal theories of emotion, negative emotions arise from the perception that the environment is in an incongruent relationship with... Sample PDF
Self-Report Measures of Discrete Emotions
Chapter 45
S. Sargent
Traditionally, communication scholars have been most concerned with how, when, where, and with whom individuals choose to communicate. While... Sample PDF
The Listening Styles Profile
Chapter 46
R. Dennis, M. Bocarnea
The SLAI measures the seven concepts found in Patterson’s (2003) theory of servant leadership. According to Patterson, the servant leader (a) leads... Sample PDF
Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument
Chapter 47
C. Kiewitz, J. Weaver
We describe two short form versions of the self-report Aggression Questionnaire initially developed by Buss and Perry (1992). Often referred to as... Sample PDF
The Aggression Questionnaire
Chapter 48
Motivational Gifts Survey  (pages 348-351)
D. DellaVecchio
This Motivational Gifts Survey (MGS) is designed as a seven-scale instrument that measures motivational gifts in order to provide profiles that are... Sample PDF
Motivational Gifts Survey
Chapter 49
J. Baker
According to Barak and English (2002), the use of Internet-based psychological tests is an extension of computerized testing which emerged in the... Sample PDF
Queendom Online Test Repository
Chapter 50
S. Berry, R. Woods
The Willingness to Communicate (WTC) Scale (McCroskey & Richmond, 1985) measures a respondent’s tendency to approach or avoid initiating... Sample PDF
Willingness to Communicate
Chapter 51
S. Berry, R. Woods
The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (Posner & Kouzes, 2002) was designed to measure what people did when they were at their “personal best” in... Sample PDF
Leadership Practicies Inventory
Chapter 52
J. Weaver, C. Kiewitz
We describe a newly developed 12-item short form version of the self-report Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) originally developed by Eysenck... Sample PDF
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
Chapter 53
S. Berry, R. Woods
The Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) (Neuliep & McCroskey, 1997) measures the fear people experience when... Sample PDF
Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension
Chapter 54
Gender Role Inventory  (pages 367-370)
J. Weaver
We describe a newly developed 14-item inventory designed to measure two dimensions – agency and communion – of gender role self perceptions. The... Sample PDF
Gender Role Inventory
Chapter 55
S Sargent
In the past decade, the growth of the Internet has been undeniable, affecting the way people communicate, interact, and gather information.... Sample PDF
Internet Motives Questionnaire
Chapter 56
S. Berry
The Situational Communication Apprehension Measure (SCAM) was developed by McCroskey and Richmond (1982, 1985) to measure state communication... Sample PDF
Situational Communication Apprehension Measure
About the Authors


Just like the electronic technology world, the frequency, breadth, and depth of electronic surveys and measures is expanding exponentially. Researchers and research consumers are rapidly transitioning to demands and expectations for sophisticated uses of electronic surveys and measures. There can be little question about the need to learn about electronic surveys.

The habits and opportunities for research with electronic platforms has become a completely independent area of research and advanced study. Employers are increasingly seeking individuals who can assist with designing survey tools that take advantage of developing technology and software. It is no longer enough to know just the technology or the software. Researchers, students, and consumers are increasingly sophisticated in their expectations. If we want to use electronic surveys to study people, we need to know more about how people respond to and react to electronic surveys.

One particular task the research community faces is the demand to shift and adapt the body of existing paper and pencil measurement tools onto electronic technology capabilities. It is not really much of an issue any more to observe that electronic options increase the potential and complexities for doing research. It is also not very useful to observe that some conventional research areas or measures are best done (or only validated) in traditional settings with those established tools. Research participants are less and less willing to answer and respond to older survey research practices and settings.

Developing technological abilities for electronic surveys and measurements have created a recent growth industry in online survey services. Researchers with limited programming knowledge could design and pilot test surveys in a day. The next day, the researcher could draw samples (with sophistication far beyond older practices). By the end of the week, not only can the data collection be complete, but also the statistical analyses done (again with amazing sophistication) and strategically potent presentational materials constructed (and also tested for effectiveness). Our need is rapidly moving on to how to prepare for such abilities by practically any person with any potential motive.

This handbook helps us move toward coping with and adjusting to a sophisticated world of research capabilities. There is no promise here of definitive answers. We are not even sure enough of the most relevant questions yet. Therefore, the modest goal with this volume is to help move us all along toward clarifying the central issues we need to address on electronic surveys and measurements.

The authors of the chapters in this book are representatives from some of the most innovative private and public programs that study, develop, or directly use research based on electronic surveys and measurements. Just reading the list of authors and their biographies is inspiring. The insights of their individual and their collective wisdom certainly justifies spending some time with this volume. Both novice and sophisticated researchers will find useful materials here.

The handbook is divided into three sections: usage of online surveys and measurements; survey software; and specific measurements.

In Section I: Usage of Online Surveys and Measurements, the focus is on the details of using online surveys to do research. In these chapters, the readers will encounter details (at various levels) on issues related to various types of electronic surveys and research. Some of the chapters carefully contrast electronic surveys and research with related methods. Some of the chapters here directly address ethical issues related to electronic surveys. Several of the later chapters in this section direct the reader to broader issues that should be of particular concern to researchers who use electronic-based communication platforms.

In Section II: Survey Software, the focus is on software services and programs that should be of strong value to those who do research with, on, or about electronic-based communication platforms. While readers will know about one or two survey software programs, most readers will be well impressed with the variety of software and programming options covered in the second section of the book.

In Section III: Instrument Profiles of Interest to Survey Researchers, the focus is on specific measurements or measurement processes related to or of value for survey research on or about the use of electronic-based communication platforms. The intention with the chapters in this section is to provide short and efficient introductions to particular measurement options. Readers should find the resources here central to their own research efforts, enough to want to keep the entire volume well within a quick reach. Several of the authors for this volume hope to find an economically viable option for offering a database with downloadable versions of the measures profiled here. We also hope to add to that database of downloadable files on a regular basis.

Rodney A. Reynolds
Azusa Pacific University, USA (on leave from Pepperdine University, USA)

Robert Woods
Spring Arbor University, USA

Jason D. Baker
Regent University, School of Education, USA

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Rodney A. Reynolds is a Professor of Communication at Azusa Pacific University, USA (on Leave from Pepperdine University). He received his Ph.D. degree in communication from Michigan State University, USA and his MA degree (with honors) in communication from Arizona State University, USA. He earned his BA degree in Speech Communication from the California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, USA with honors from both the Speech Communication Department and from the student government. Dr. Reynolds teaches each of the core courses for the communication division but is focused mainly on the research methods course. His research interest is social influence with an emphasis on message processing.
Robert Woods is an Assistant Professor of Communication at Spring Arbor University, USA. He holds a M.A. in Communication, a M.A. in Eucation, an M.A. in Education, and a Ph.D. in Communication all from Regent University, USA.
Jason D. Baker, Ph.D. is an associate professor of education at Regent University, USA where he teaches and conducts research about online distance education. He has advised and trained faculty in the use of educational technology and consulted with institutions developing online learning programs. He has been an active Internet developer and researcher for the past decade.