Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (6 Volumes)

Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (6 Volumes)

Lawrence A. Tomei (Robert Morris University, USA)
Release Date: July, 2007|Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 4032
ISBN13: 9781599049359|ISBN10: 159904935X|EISBN13: 9781599049366|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-935-9
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Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications provides a comprehensive collection of case studies, empirical research, conceptual demonstrations, and best practices on Web-enabled learning technologies. This comprehensive, six-volume collection addresses all prominent aspects of online and distance learning, including information communication technologies applied to education, virtual classrooms, pedagogical systems, Web-based learning communities and library information systems, virtual universities, and numerous other topics. Collecting defining research in over 300 chapters from 544 contributors representing more than 40 countries, Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications enables libraries to provide a foundational reference to meet the information needs of researchers, educators, practitioners, administrators, and all other stakeholders in the online and distance learning context.

Topics Covered

  • Accessibility of Technology in Higher Education
  • Adult Learners in Higher Education
  • Contextualized Learning
  • Curriculum Development in Web-Based Education
  • Educational Technology Standards
  • Electronic Portfolios and Education
  • Electronic Reading Programs
  • Evaluating Learning Management Systems
  • Frameworks for Course Management System Design and Evaluation
  • Gender in Distance Education Technology
  • Hypermedia Modules for Distance Education
  • Implementing Computer-Supported Learning in Corporations
  • Instructional Technologies and Implications for Learning
  • Intelligent and Adaptive Web-Based Instruction
  • Interactivity in Web-Based Learning
  • Issues of E-Learning in Developing Countries
  • Legal Implications of Online Assessment
  • Multimedia Technologies in Education
  • Online Academic Libraries and Distance Learning
  • Operational Success in Distance Education
  • Patterns in Electronic Brainstorming
  • Quality Assurance Issues for Online Universities
  • Security and Privacy in Distance Education
  • Simulation and Gaming in IT Education
  • Web Conferencing in Distance Education
  • Wireless Technologies in Education

Reviews and Testimonials

At last -- a single compendium for all online educators; a definitive work addressing knowledge, application, research, practice, and assessment of teaching and learning at a distance. A 'must-have' reference.

– Lawrence A. Tomei, Assc Vice President for Academic Affairs, Robert Morris University

With technology's potential being realized in teaching and learning, it is essential to have a resource that addresses so many critical issues in distance learning and in emerging technologies. This is it! In these volumes, educators, students, administrators, and researchers can gain insight, knowledge, and strategies needed to succeed and grow in our ever advancing worldwide technological classroom!

– Vivian H. Wright, PhD, Associate Professor of Instructional Technology, The University of Alabama, USA

Education as we know is a rapidly changing field. With the addition of technology to education, the pace of change has accelerated. The editor of the new collaborative work titled

– Adapting Information and Communication Technologies for Effective Education

has done an excellent job of compiling some of the best work into a volume of work that is sure to help us all keep pace with the rapid changes in the use of technology in education.

– Robert Cutshall, PhD, Texas A&M University, USA

A comprehensive research guide for e-learning administrators and educators interested in distance education's key concepts. A useful resource for information on emerging Web 2.0 technologies.

– Mary Hricko, PhD, Professor, Library & Media Services, Kent State University Geauga Campus, USA

This well-written book analyzes trends, presents implications, and addresses many of the key components of online learning design. It is a highly valuable resource for people in institutions contemplating an online learning program (K-12 or higher education) who want to avoid pitfalls that others have experienced. To find this much Web content on these issues one would have to link to nearly 50 online reference sites. This collection puts it all in one convenient set. Highly recommended.

– CHOICE, Vol. 45, No. 05 (2008)

Readers and researchers would be hard pressed to find a resource that covers as many critical issues, emerging models, or new developments in the arena of e-learning, e-teaching, and distance education. The set is recommended for high school, community college, corporate, and academic reference collections.

– American Reference Books Annual, Vol. 39

The collection is divided into eight sections: fundamental concepts and theories, development and design methodologies, tools and technologies, utilization and application, organizational and social implications, managerial impact, critical issues, and emerging trends.

– Online Information Review (2008)

There is much of value in this great publication

– British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol.39, No.5 (2008)

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book:
Associate Editors
Editorial Advisory Board
Contents by Volume
Chapter 1
Sara Dexter
The Educational Technology Integration and Implementation Principles (eTIPs) are six statements that describe the K-12 classroom and school-level... Sample PDF
Principles to Guide the Integration and Implementation of Educational Technology
Chapter 2
Murray Turoff, Caroline Howard, Richard Discenza
Learning is enhanced by the physical and social technologies typically used in distance education. Students in distance programs typically have... Sample PDF
Technology's Role in Distance Education
Chapter 3
Lawrence A. Tomei
This chapter provides an overview of the foundational components of teaching and learning with technology. The pillars of instructional technology... Sample PDF
The Pillars of Instructional Technology
Chapter 4
Janice A. Grackin
The most recent U.S. national statistics available indicate that among those earning degrees in engineering in 2000-2001, women made up only 18% of... Sample PDF
Psychological Framework for IT Education
Chapter 5
Interactive E-Learning  (pages 35-44)
Claude Ghaoui, W. A. Janvier
This paper introduces the concept of improving student memory retention using a distance learning tool by establishing the student’s communication... Sample PDF
Interactive E-Learning
Chapter 6
Murray Turoff, Caroline Howard, Richard Discenza
What is happening to higher education? There is a search for increasing the effectiveness of learning and expanding educational opportunities by... Sample PDF
Innovation and Technology for 21st Century Education
Chapter 7
Morgan M. Jennings, Charles H. Mawhinney, Janos Fustos
In this chapter, we report the results of a study comparing current student’s perceptions of computer information systems with student’s perceptions... Sample PDF
Making the Case for Case-Based Learning in Computer Information Systems
Chapter 8
Anthony Herrington, Jan Herrington
Recent research and learning theory provides a wealth of thought, ideas and strategies to inform the design and implementation of learner-centered... Sample PDF
What is an Authentic Learning Environment?
Chapter 9
Louis Abrahamson
The objective of this chapter is to explain the huge, burgeoning sense of excitement surrounding response systems, and more generally, networked... Sample PDF
A Brief History of Networked Classrooms: Effects, Cases, Pedagogy, and Implications
Chapter 10
Alan R. Dennis, Alain Pinsonneault, Kelly McNamara Hilmer, Henri Barki, Brent Galupe, Mark Huber, Franc¸ois Bellavance
Research has shown that some groups using electronic brainstorming generate more unique ideas than groups using nominal group brainstorming, while... Sample PDF
Patterns in Electronic Brainstorming
Chapter 11
Robert Webking, Felix Valenzuela
This chapter describes an approach that integrates audience response systems into the social science classroom. The pedagogy uses the technology to... Sample PDF
Using Audience Response Systems to Develop Critical Thinking Skills
Chapter 12
Chris Houser, Patricia Thornton
Mobile devices such as laptop computers, PDAs (personal digital assistants), and cell phones offer many features useful for learning both inside and... Sample PDF
Mobile Educational Technology
Chapter 13
Zlatko J. Kovacic
This chapter has two aims. First, to provide an overview of learning styles research and secondly, to provide an overview of research in adaptive... Sample PDF
Learning Styles and Adaptive ICT-Based Learning Environment
Chapter 14
What Do They Learn?  (pages 153-161)
Carla R. Payne
Significant learning is marked by transformation in ways of thinking and in the making of meaning. As Winn (1997) put it: “Information is not... Sample PDF
What Do They Learn?
Chapter 15
Roisin Donnelly
This paper begins with a brief review of the history of problem-based learning (PBL) integrated with online learning, and surveys relevant learning... Sample PDF
Online Problem-Based Learning Approach in Higher Education
Chapter 16
Gary M. Boyd, Dai Zhang
Entwistle (1981) found it was possible and useful to categorize students in three categories: surface learners who want to acquire and use specific... Sample PDF
Re-Enacted Affiliative Meanings and "Branding" in Open and Distance Education
Chapter 17
Fanuel Dewever
eLearning is often conceived as a single product. In reality, however, the market offering is very heterogeneous with a large product variety. Think... Sample PDF
Opportunities for Open Source eLearning
Chapter 18
Fanuel Naidu
An overview of the distance learning (DE) literature from the past few decades shows a great deal of attention being focused on “descriptive”... Sample PDF
Researching Distance Education and E-Learning
Chapter 19
Tanya McGill, Samantha Bax
Lectures are the traditional method of content delivery in undergraduate information technology degrees, yet concerns have been raised about their... Sample PDF
Learning IT: Where Do Lecturers Fit?.
Chapter 20
George Yee
Many applications and tools have been developed to support the design and delivery of distance learning courses. Unfortunately, many of these... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in Distance Education
Chapter 21
Anastasios A. Economides, Chrysostomos Roupas
Many educational organizations are trying to reduce the cost of the exams, the workload and delay of scoring, and the human errors. Also, they try... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Computer Adaptive Testing Systems
Chapter 22
Deborah W. Proctor
In systems thinking divisions apparent in science specializations are seen “as arbitrary and man made” (Checkland, 1981, p. 4). A key idea embedded... Sample PDF
Accessibility of Technology in Higher Education
Chapter 23
Patrick E. Connolly
Virtual reality, also known as VR, is an exciting but ill-defined field of discovery. The question of how technological advances in this field will... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality & Immersive Technology in Education
Chapter 24
Mac Adkins, Wanda B. Nitsch
Successful program completion in an online education context is a combination of learner attributes, the university’s focus on meeting the needs of... Sample PDF
Student Retention in Online Education
Chapter 25
Yair Levy
Numerous studies have been conducted related to dropouts from on-campus and distance education courses. However, no clear definition of dropout from... Sample PDF
Assessing Satisfaction and Academic Locus of Control of Dropout Students in online Learning Courses
Chapter 26
Jing Ping Fan, Robert D. Macredie
Adaptive hypermedia learning systems can be developed to adapt to a diversity of individual differences. Many studies have been conducted to design... Sample PDF
Gender Differences and Hypermedia Navigation: Principles for Adaptive Hypermedia Learning Systems
Chapter 27
Karen S. Nantz
Web-based courses (Mesher, 1999) are defined as those where the entire course is taken on the Internet. In some courses, there may be an initial... Sample PDF
Issues in Delivering Course Material Via the Web
Chapter 28
R. Dwight Laws, Scott L. Howell, Nathan K. Lindsay
The institutional decision about how much technology should be used to scale distance education enrollments, reduce costs, maximize profits, and... Sample PDF
Ten Scalability Factors in Distance Education
Chapter 29
Shellie Hipsky, Lindsay Adams
Cyber schools for K-12 students are growing in number. It is vital that appropriate strategies are devised in order to meet the needs of students... Sample PDF
Strategies for teaching students With Exceptional Needs in cyber schools
Chapter 30
Karoulis Athanasis, Pombortsis Andreas
The main concern of this article is the comparison of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) with the traditional, face-to-face educational approach. It... Sample PDF
Traditional Education and Distance Learning
Chapter 31
Efrem G. Mallach
This article summarizes the coverage of conversion in 17 current textbooks from major publishers — 10 for introductory MIS and seven for systems... Sample PDF
System Conversion: Teaching vs. Reality.
Chapter 32
Giorgio Agosti
Let us start with a definition: distance education can be called an educational learning process or system where teachers or instructors are... Sample PDF
Distance Education in the Era of Internet
Chapter 33
Angela Piu
This chapter reports the results of a theoretical and practical research work on simulation, both as a teaching strategy that creates a dynamic and... Sample PDF
Simulation, Training, and Education Between Theory and Practice
Chapter 34
Katrin Becker
Books, film, television, and indeed every other medium that came before them has been used and sometimes studied as media for the delivery of... Sample PDF
Pedagogy in Commercial Videos
Chapter 35
Jon Day, Hao Lou, Craig Van Slyke
Today’s business schools are looking for effective approaches to leverage technology to facilitate distributed learning and support collaborative... Sample PDF
Instructors' Experiences with Using Groupware to Support Collaborative Project-Based Learning
Chapter 36
Jim Spadaccini
Almost since the inception of the World Wide Web, scientific images in a variety of fields of study have been publicly available. However, in most... Sample PDF
Real Science: Making Connections to Research and Scientific Data
Chapter 37
Michael O’Dea
The “holy grail” of e-learning is to enable individualized, flexible, adaptive learning environments that support different learning models or... Sample PDF
Educational Technology Standards
Chapter 38
Gaye Long
Why build a Virtual School? The rationale for the virtual school project arose from the need to address the shortage of teachers, especially in the... Sample PDF
Administering a Virtual School
Chapter 39
Deborah L. Schnipke, Kirk Becker, James S. Masters
Creating quality assessments typically requires the involvement of many people who require access to the item and test information, which is stored... Sample PDF
Evaluating Content-Management Systems for Online Learning Programs
Chapter 40
Brain-Based Learning  (pages 453-474)
Kathleen Cercone
Neuroscience research that explains how the brain learns is a dynamic field. Since the 1990s, there has been explosive growth in information about... Sample PDF
Brain-Based Learning
Chapter 41
Bernard Blandin
Human activities are social activities, in essence. Evaluating or using a piece of software is a social activity, as well as a learning activity.... Sample PDF
Usability Evaluation of Online Learning Programs
Chapter 42
Beverly Woolf, Mia Stern
This chapter describes Web-based instructional tutors that support active and engaging learning. Towards that end, a theoretical foundation for... Sample PDF
Intelligent and Adaptive Web-Based Instruction
Chapter 43
Laura A.B. Dell
Videoconferencing is the latest distance learning technology to hit K-12 (elementary and secondary) education. Distance learning in all of its... Sample PDF
Connecting K-12 Schools in Higher Education
Chapter 44
Chetan Sharma, Y. R. Maindiratta
Seelampur, situated in the northeastern part of Delhi, the capital city of India, is characterized by low-income groups, high population density and... Sample PDF
Gender and Education in Oral Traditions, Culture, and ICTs
Chapter 45
Susan C. Herring, Christine Ogan, Manju Ahuja, Jean C. Robinson
The “shrinking pipeline” of women who ascend through the ranks in computer science education programs and careers is by now a familiar problem.... Sample PDF
Gender and the Culture of Computing in Applied IT Education
Chapter 46
Stefane M. Kabene, Jatinder Takhar, Raymond Leduc, Rick Burjaw
As with many disciplines, the fields of healthcare in general and medicine, in particular, have made vast strides in improving patient outcomes and... Sample PDF
Medical Education in the 21st Century
Chapter 47
Curtis J. Bonk, Robert A. Wisher, Ji-Yeon Lee
In response to the changes taking place in collaborative online learning environments, this chapter discusses how the simultaneous emergence of... Sample PDF
Moderating Learner-Centered E-Learning: Problems and Solutions, Benefits and Implications
Chapter 48
Irene Chen
Most of the distance learning professional associations were founded in the 1990s, at a time when most Internet backbone speeds were T1 or slower.... Sample PDF
Distance Education Associations
Chapter 49
Jennifer Sharkey, D. Scott Brandt
Information technology literacy can be seen as an integration of what are commonly two separate literacies—technology literacy and information... Sample PDF
Integrating Technology Literacy and Information Literacy
Chapter 50
Anna Escofet Roig, Ma Jose´ Rubio Hurtado
The scope of this article is to analyze educational multimedia games from a gender perspective. Our society is changing, moving toward information... Sample PDF
Gender, Education, and Video Games
Chapter 51
Gary A. Berg
This overview briefly reviews the history of educational technology and surveys relevant learning theory. In order to understand fully... Sample PDF
Educational Technology and Learning Theory
Chapter 52
Stephen C. Hayne, C. A.P. Smith
Recent research has proposed that groupware performance may be strongly affected by the fit between the task and the groupware structures selected... Sample PDF
The Relationship Between e-Collaboration and Cognition
Chapter 53
Maria R. Correia, Anabela Sarmento
The development and promotion of the strategic goal of the European Union (EU) to become a competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy and... Sample PDF
Adult Learners in Higher Education
Chapter 54
Aidan Mulkeen
This chapter considers how information and communication technology (ICT) can be used to achieve educational value in schools, and encourages... Sample PDF
ICT in Schools: What is of Educational Value?
Chapter 55
Kathryn A. Marold
A decade of hindsight allows us to examine the phenomenon of Web-based course delivery and evaluate its successes and failures. When Web-delivered... Sample PDF
Delivering Web-Based Education
Chapter 56
Som Naidu
The number of distance education and e-learning programs has been on the rise for some time now (Hannan & Silver, 2000). In the United States, the... Sample PDF
Evaluating Distance Education and E-Learning
Chapter 57
Yugyung Lee, Markus Junginger, James Geller
The inability of current Internet-based learning systems to deal with different kinds of learners and the high cost of developing a new learning... Sample PDF
High Performance Publisher/Subscriber Communication for Adaptive, Collaborative Web-Based Learning
Chapter 58
Efstratios T. Diamadis, George C. Polyzos
Evaluating students is critical to education. Evaluation results give students feedback about their performance so that they can learn from their... Sample PDF
Evaluating Student Learning in Distance Education
Chapter 59
Cathy Cavanaugh
While effective distance education has been practiced and studied for centuries, it has been in just the last decade that networked digital... Sample PDF
Distance Education Success Factors
Chapter 60
Adams Bodomo
This article discusses one of the main features of ICT—interactivity. Drawing from many years of Web-based course design and delivery at the... Sample PDF
Interactivity in Web-Based Learning
Chapter 61
Vanessa Paz Dennen, Curtis J. Bonk
Motivating online learners is a key challenge facing instructors in both higher education and corporate settings. Attrition rates and low... Sample PDF
We'll Leave the Light on for You: Keeping Learners Motivated in Online Courses
Chapter 62
Charles E. Beck, Gary R. Schornack
Distance education involves a wide range of elements, including students, instructors, institutions, classroom technology, state agencies and... Sample PDF
Systems Model of Educational Processes
Chapter 63
E-Learning Environment  (pages 726-732)
Mizue Kayama, Toshio Okamoto
Nowadays, the concept/system of e-learning (or eLearning) is widespread with the advent and prevalence of the Internet. Via the Internet, people can... Sample PDF
E-Learning Environment
Chapter 64
Claus Pahl
Learning is more than knowledge acquisition; it often involves the active participation of the learner in a variety of knowledge- and skills-based... Sample PDF
A Conceptual Architecture for the Development of Interactive Educational Media
Chapter 65
Nicoletta Sala
The rapid development of digital, networked multimedia technology such as the Internet, e-mail and computer-based and video conferencing can open... Sample PDF
Hypermedia Modules for Distance Education
Chapter 66
Mary Hricko
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act mandates that federal agencies must ensure the provision of accessible electronic and information technology.... Sample PDF
Understanding Section 508 and Its Implications for Distance Education
Chapter 67
Gregg Asher
Although the lack of adequate funding is probably the most significant barrier to the effective infusion of technology (since bundles of money could... Sample PDF
Inadequate Infrastructure and the Infusion of Technology into K-12 Education
Chapter 69
Amit Sheth, Cartic Ramakrishnan, Christopher Thomas
Enabling applications that exploit heterogeneous data in the Semantic Web will require us to harness a broad variety of semantics. Considering the... Sample PDF
Semantics for the Semantic Web: The Implicit, the Formal and the Powerful
Chapter 70
Fethi Ahmet Inan, Deborah L. Lowther
This chapter presents a comprehensive analytical review of computer-supported learning (CSL) design models and guidelines according to the level of... Sample PDF
A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Suported Learning Models and Guidelines
Chapter 71
Katia Passerini
This paper maintains that the use of multimedia content in Web-based instruction — facilitated by the proliferation and standardization of learning... Sample PDF
Evaluating Learning Management Systems: Leveraging Learned Experiences from Interactive Multimedia
Chapter 72
Roy Rada
Online educational programs are changing the university profession. Two of the prominent organizational forms in modern society are professional and... Sample PDF
Online Education and Manufacturing Mode
Chapter 73
Jacopo Armani, Luca Botturi
This chapter presents MAID, a complete design method for adaptive courseware tailored for non-technical people. Adaptive hypermedia systems... Sample PDF
Bridging the Gap with MAID: A Method for Adaptive Instructional Design
Chapter 74
Veronica Diaz, Patricia McGee
This chapter analyzes the emergence of learning objects as a dynamic and interactive relationship between technology and the organization. We... Sample PDF
Distributed Learning Objects: An Open Knowledge Management Model.
Chapter 75
Rodney Nason, Earl Woodruff
The field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has been growing in a number of areas and across a number of subjects (Koschmann... Sample PDF
Innovations for Online Collaborative Learning in Mathematics
Chapter 76
Brian Corbitt, Dale Holt, Stephen Segrave
Deakin University has established and integrated a major, corporate technology infrastructure to unify and enhance its on-campus and distance... Sample PDF
Strategic Design for Web-Based Teaching and Learning: Making Corporate Technology Systems Work for the Learning Organization
Chapter 77
Kurt Maly, Hussein Abdel-Wahab, C. Michael Overstreet, J. Christian Wild, Ayman Abdel-Hamid, Sahar Ghanem, Waleed Farag
In recent years, we have seen the introduction and use of many distance learning systems. Some of these systems are characterized as interactive... Sample PDF
The Essential Elements of Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning Systems
Chapter 78
Kin Cheong Chu
In this study, an online experiment was developed for sub-degree students at remote locations to control and obtain real-time measurements or... Sample PDF
Using Virtual Instrument to Develop a Real-Time Web-Based Laboratory
Chapter 79
Leping Liu
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the design-quality of current online K-12 learning applications on student learning via... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Learning Applications: Development of Quality-Related Models.
Chapter 80
John W. Coffey
After a review of literature pertaining to representative constituent parts of contemporary learning management systems (LMS) and features of other... Sample PDF
Integrating Visual Representaiton of Knowledge with Learning Management Systems: Design Priciples for Advanced Computer-Based Learning Support
Chapter 81
Karen Schrier
Students need to learn the critical thinking of history, yet they rarely have opportunities to authentically simulate historic inquiry. Research has... Sample PDF
Reliving the Revolution: Designing Augmented Reality Games to Teach Critical Thinking
Chapter 82
Curtis J. Bonk, Robert A. Wisher, Matthew V. Champagne
Whether one is at conferences, responding to e-mail, or chatting with colleagues, the topic of e-learning is bound to prompt a discussion related to... Sample PDF
Toward a Comprehensive Model of E-Learning Evaluation: The Components
Chapter 83
Luca Botturi, Lorenzo Cantoni, Benedetto Lepori, Stefano Tardini
This chapter proposes a renewed perspective on a known project management model, fast prototyping, which was adapted for the specific issues of... Sample PDF
Fast Prototyping as a Communication Catalyst for E-Learing Design
Chapter 84
Norihiro Fujii, Shuichi Yikita, Nobuhiko Koike, Tosiyasu L. Kunii
As the broadband connectivity to the Internet becomes common, Web-based e-learning and distance learning have come to play the central roles for... Sample PDF
An E-Learning System Based on the Top Down Method and the Cellular Models
Chapter 85
Paul Darbyshire, Stephen Burgess
For many years, information technology (IT) has been used to find ways to add value for customers to entice them to purchase the products and... Sample PDF
Tertiary Education and the Internet
Chapter 86
Joanna Jedrzejowicz
The objective of this chapter is to describe the Postcourse project, which is an e-course on database design. It can be reached via the World Wide... Sample PDF
Innovative Approach to Teaching Database Design through WWW: A Case Study and Usability Evaluation
Chapter 87
Elizabeth Furtado
Human-computer interaction (HCI) aims to design and develop high-usability interactive systems (ISs) focusing on users’ needs and ergonomic... Sample PDF
Usability of Online Learning Systems and Course Materials
Chapter 88
Sheryl Burgstahler
In no field have we witnessed a greater impact of emerging technologies than in that of distance learning. Correspondence courses using printed... Sample PDF
Web-Based Distance Learning and the Second Digital Divide
Chapter 89
Mikko Maukkanen, Heikki Helin
Efficient competence management is essential in knowledge-based companies. This chapter describes how the Semantic Web technologies can be used in... Sample PDF
Applying Semantic Web in Competence Management
Chapter 90
Weiqin Chen, Barbara Wasson
In the context of distributed collaborative learning, it is usually difficult for students to be aware of others’ activities and for instructors to... Sample PDF
Intelligent Agents Supporting Distributed Collaborative Learning
Chapter 91
Kam Hou Vat
As online technologies and information resources rise in salience, experience has shown (Vat, 2000, 2001, 2002a, 2002b) that online education must... Sample PDF
Conceiving a Learning Organization Model for Online Education
Chapter 92
Cédric Buche, Ronan Querrec, Pierre De Loor, Pierre Chevaillier
This study concerns virtual environments for training in operational conditions. The principal developed idea is that these environments are... Sample PDF
MASCARET: A Pedagogical Multi-Agent System for Virtual Environments for Training
Chapter 93
Hakikur Rahman
Information is typically stored, manipulated, delivered and retrieved using a plethora of existing and emerging technologies. Businesses and... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems
Chapter 94
Krista Breithaupt, Colla J. MacDonald
This study compliments the theoretical work that led to the development of a new e-learning model, termed the Demand-Driven Learning Model (DDLM)... Sample PDF
Qualitative Standards for E-Learning: The Demand-Driven Learning Model.
Chapter 96
Ben K. Daniel, David O’Brien, Asit Sarkar
This chapter examines current research on online learning communities (OLCs), with aim of identifying User-Centred Design (UCD) principles critical... Sample PDF
User-Centered Design Principles for Online Learning Communities: A Sociotechnical Approach for the Design of a Distributed Community of Practice
Chapter 97
Patricia M. Boechler
Computers have become commonplace tools in educational environments and are used to provide both basic and supplemental instruction to students on a... Sample PDF
Supporting Navigation and Learning in Educational Hypermedia
Chapter 98
B. S.N. Cheung, L. C.K. Hui, S. M. Yiu, J. K.W. Lee, L. K. Kwok, Kenneth Leung
With the advance in Internet technology, “e-learning” becomes an alternative means of learning and teaching, and is currently an active research... Sample PDF
Content Engineering Agent: A TBL-Based E-Course Development Tool with TQM
Chapter 99
Rosangela K. Boyd, Bonnie Moulton
This chapter will discuss accessibility issues related to online education. It will provide rationale for designing online courses that cater to... Sample PDF
Universal Design for Online Education: Access for All
Chapter 100
Johanna Lammintakanen
A paradigm shift has taken place in the last decade, with a move from traditional to Web-based education at different educational levels (Harasim... Sample PDF
Curriculum Development in Web-Based Education
Chapter 101
Bronwyn Bevan
This chapter examines attributes of learning in informal environments, using a research framework developed by the Center for Informal Learning and... Sample PDF
Starting With What We Know: A CILS Framework for Moving from Physical to Virtual Science Learning Environments
Chapter 102
Marwin Britto
In recent years, institutions of higher education have been migrating to the Web for instruction in record numbers. While Web-based course... Sample PDF
Frameworks for CMS Design and Evalution
Chapter 103
Michael Shaughnessy
From 1980 to 2000, there were many articles written on the subject of software review and evaluation. Upon initial investigation of educational... Sample PDF
Educational Software Evaluation
Chapter 104
Gladys Castillo, João Gama, Ana M. Breda
This chapter presents an adaptive predictive model for a student modeling prediction task in the context of an adaptive educational hypermedia... Sample PDF
An Adaptive Predictive Model for Student Modeling
Chapter 105
Mark Notess
Contextual Design is a methodology for developing information systems from a rich understanding of customer work practice. This chapter considers... Sample PDF
Applying Contextual Design to Educational Software Development
Chapter 106
Akio Koyama, Leonard Barolli
In this chapter, a campus information providing system (CIPS) for cellular phones is proposed. By using this system, the search time to find the... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Agent-Based Campus Information Providing System for Cellular Phones
Chapter 107
Geraldine Torrisi-Steele
The notion of using technology for educational purposes is not new. In fact, it can be traced back to the early 1900s during which school museums... Sample PDF
Core Principles of Educational Multimedia
Chapter 108
Miltiadis D. Lytras, Ambjörn Naeve, Athanasia Pouloudi
E-learning as a scientific field is in an era of transition. In the last decade, several scientific fields worked as reference disciplines for the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management as a Reference Theory for E-Learning: A Conceptual and Technological Perspective.
Chapter 109
Zhiwei Xu, Wei Li, Hongguang Fu, Zhenbing Zeng
This paper presents research work conducted at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, on the Vega Grid technology and dynamic geometry technology, and how... Sample PDF
Mathematics Education over the Internet Based on Vega Grid Technology
Chapter 110
M.Gordon Hunter, Peter Carr
The essence of distance education is the physical separation of teacher and learner (Sauve, 1993). In many countries, universities are increasingly... Sample PDF
IT to Facilitate Distance Education
Chapter 111
Mick Wood
The University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN) undertook an “interactive response system” (IRS) pilot scheme using IML Question Wizard (IML), complete... Sample PDF
Interactive Response Systems in Higher Education
Chapter 112
Mario Bochicchio, Nichola Fiore
In general, the production of hypermedia applications is a complex and expensive task, requiring both technical skills and communicative abilities... Sample PDF
Hyper Video for Distance Learning
Chapter 113
Bonnie L. MacGregor
Effective communication of the grading process to students is a concern that many online instructors face. The purpose of this entry is to show how... Sample PDF
Rubrics as an Assessment Tool in Distance Education
Chapter 114
John F. Clayton
The development of the Internet has a relatively brief and well-documented history (Cerf, 2001; Griffiths, 2001; Leiner et al., 2000; Tyson, 2002).... Sample PDF
Education, the Internet, and the World Wide Web
Chapter 115
Katy Campbell
Many functional definitions emphasize a portal as an integrated system providing a gateway to organized data (c.f., Batson, 2000; Copeland, 2001;... Sample PDF
Learning Portals as New Academic Spaces
Chapter 116
Learning Systems Engineering  (pages 1429-1438)
Valentina Plekhanova
Traditionally multi-agent learning is considered as the intersection of two subfields of artificial intelligence: multi-agent systems and machine... Sample PDF
Learning Systems Engineering
Chapter 117
Anja Hoffman, Stefan Gobel, Oliver Schneider, Ido Iurgel
Within this chapter, the authors — all members of the Digital Storytelling group at ZGDV Darmstadt e.V. — provide an overview of the potential of... Sample PDF
Storytelling-Based Edutainment Applications
Chapter 118
M. Michelle Panton
Web conferencing is a technology that allows groups of individuals in a variety of diverse locations to communicate and share information without... Sample PDF
Web Conferencing in Distance Education
Chapter 119
Chia-chi Yang
The development and change in computer technologies today is so incredibly fast, and the lifecycle of technologies has been so shortened, that new... Sample PDF
Wireless Technologies in Education
Chapter 120
Mihir A. Parikh, Neeraj Parolia
The Internet has a symbiotic relationship with academia. The Internet sprung from and is continually improved by academic research. In parallel, the... Sample PDF
Multiple Internet Technologies in In-Class Education
Chapter 121
Parviz Partow-Navid, Ludwig Slusky
E-learning is defined as the transmission of knowledge whereby the instructor and/or the student participate in the learning process from different... Sample PDF
Change Management and Distance Education
Chapter 122
Distance Education Delivery  (pages 1488-1495)
Carol Wright
The term distance education is used to describe educational initiatives designed to compensate for and diminish distance in geography or distance in... Sample PDF
Distance Education Delivery
Chapter 123
Hock Chuan Chan, Bernard C.Y. Tan, Wei-Ping Tan
Businesses today must be fast and flexible, responsive to customers, and cost effective in their operations. They must collaborate more frequently... Sample PDF
One-to-One Video-Conferencing Education
Chapter 124
Alexandra I. Cristea, raig Stewart
Adaptive Hypermedia (AH) can be considered the solution to the problems arising from the “one-size-fits-all” approach to information delivery... Sample PDF
Automatic Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia
Chapter 125
Norman Pendegraft
The rapid change in information technology presents several serious problems to IS educators. In particular, the number of basic ideas that must be... Sample PDF
Simulation and Gaming in IT Education
Chapter 126
Judith C. Simon, Lloyd D. Brooks, Ronald B. Wilkes
An increasing number of traditional colleges and universities, responding to marketplace pressures, are offering online courses and degree programs.... Sample PDF
Students' Perceptions of Online Courses
Chapter 127
Donald A. Hantula, Darleen M. DeRosa
Internet distance education is a natural consequence of fin de siecle industrial transformations from a manufacturing economy, in which standard... Sample PDF
Technology of Formal Education
Chapter 128
Anders Broberg
Traditionally, much of the efforts to develop computer-based tools has been concentrated on developing production or authoring tools, such as word... Sample PDF
TEXT-COL: A Tool for Active Reading
Chapter 129
Gergely Sipos, Peter Kacsuk
This chapter summarizes the most relevant results that grid research achieved in the last decade, it presents the actual issues of the topic, and it... Sample PDF
Grid Technology for Smart Organizations
Chapter 130
Michael Haller
This chapter introduces a component-oriented approach for developing mixed reality (MR) applications. After a short definition of mixed reality, we... Sample PDF
A Component-Oriented Approach for Mixed Reality Applications
Chapter 131
Virginia E. Garland
Wireless technologies have transformed learning, teaching, and leading in K-12 schools. Because of their speed and portability, laptops, planners... Sample PDF
Digital Literacy and the Use of Wireless Portable Computers, Planners, and Cell Phones for K-12 Education
Chapter 132
Hirohiko Sagawa, Masaru Takeuchi
We have developed a sign language teaching system that uses sign language recognition and generation methods to overcome three problems with current... Sample PDF
A Sign Language Teaching System Using Sign Language Recognition and Generation Methods
Chapter 133
Electronic Reading Programs  (pages 1655-1660)
Julie Masterson-Smith
Administrators, classroom teachers, technology specialists, and library media specialists must be knowledgeable and ready to create and maintain... Sample PDF
Electronic Reading Programs
Chapter 134
Yao-Chung Chang, Han-Chieh Chao, Jiann-Liang Chen
In recent years, the prevalence of Internet and wireless technology has promoted mobile communications as a major research area. For future distance... Sample PDF
Bluetooth Scatternet Using an Ad Hoc Bridge Node Routing Protocol for Outdoor Distance Education
Chapter 135
Juha Puustjarvi, Päivi Poyry
Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The... Sample PDF
Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities
Chapter 136
Charlie Chen, Terry Ryan, Lorne Olfman
Organizations need effective and affordable software training. In face-to-face settings, behavior modeling (BM) is an effective, but expensive... Sample PDF
Online Behavior Modeling: An Effective and Affordable Software Training Method
Chapter 137
Hakikur Rahman
With the extended application of information technologies (IT), the conventional education system has crossed physical boundaries to reach the... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education in Developing Countries
Chapter 138
John Abresch
The use of geographic information in a variety of research and educational endeavors has created a number of challenges involving data management... Sample PDF
Geographic Information Systems Research and Data Centers
Chapter 139
Degan Zhang, Yuan-chao Li, Huaiyu Zhang, Xinshang Zhang, Guangping Zeng
As a new kind of computing paradigm, pervasive computing will meet the requirements of human being that anybody maybe obtain services in anywhere... Sample PDF
Web-Based Seamless Migration for Task-Oriented Mobile Distance Learning
Chapter 140
Sherry Y. Chen
The use of Web-based instruction is becoming widespread in higher education; however, much remains to be learned about how different learners react... Sample PDF
Evaluating the Learning Effectiveness of Using Web-Based Instruction: An Individual Differences Approach.
Chapter 141
Armando Cirrincione
MultiMedia Technologies (MMT) are all that kind of technological tools that make us able to transmit information in a very large meaning... Sample PDF
Multimedia Technologies in Education
Chapter 142
Sally M. Johnstone
In 1989 the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) located in Boulder, Colorado, founded the Western Cooperative for Educational... Sample PDF
Advancing the Effective Use of Technology in Higher Education
Chapter 143
Judith V. Boettcher
The importance of design for instructional programs — whether on campus or online or at a distance — increases with the possible combinations of... Sample PDF
Design Levels for Distance and Online Learning
Chapter 144
Andreas Holzinger, Harald Burgsteiner, Helfrid Maresch
In this chapter the authors report about their experiences in education of both students of healthcare engineering at Graz University of Applied... Sample PDF
Care2x in Medical Informatics Education
Chapter 145
Athanasis Karoulis, Ioannis Tarnanas, Andreas Pombortsis
In this chapter we describe the expert-based approach in evaluating Open and Distance Learning (ODL) environments. Our study is mainly concerned... Sample PDF
An Expert-Based Evaluation Concerning Human Factors in ODL Programs: A Preliminary Investigation
Chapter 146
Marie-Hélène Abel
Learning can be considered as an outcome associated to acquire new competencies (Sicilia, 2005) and we can add new knowledge. A competence is a way... Sample PDF
An Organizational Memory Tool for E-Learning
Chapter 147
Martha Cleveland-Innes, Randy Garrison, Ellen Kinsel
This study outlines the process of adjustment learners experience when first participating in an online environment. Findings from a pilot study of... Sample PDF
Role Adjustment for Learners in an Online Community of Inquiry: Identifying the Challenges of Incoming Online Learners
Chapter 148
Dianna L. Newman, Patricia Barbanell, John Falco
Online communities have expanded to include a complex array of technologies that allow us to integrate multiple modes of interaction among... Sample PDF
Videoconferencing Communities: Documenting Online User Interactions
Chapter 149
Elizabeth Buchanan
Contemporary distance education has its roots in early forms of postal correspondence study but has evolved to sophisticated, technologically... Sample PDF
Library Services for Distance Education Students in Higher Education
Chapter 150
Jonathan B. Beedle, Vivian H. Wright
The purpose of this study is to determine whether multiplayer video gamers perceive that playing video games can increase higher order thinking... Sample PDF
Perspectives from Multiplayer Video Gamers
Chapter 151
Elizabeth Fanning
A game mod describes a modification within an existing commercial computer-based game that has been created by a user. By game modding, a user can... Sample PDF
Game Mods: Customizable Learning in a K16 setting
Chapter 152
Shantha Fernando
Around the world, e-learning is becoming popular, especially among higher education institutes (universities). Many highly ranked universities have... Sample PDF
Issues of E-Learning in Third World Countries
Chapter 153
Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis, Jim Prentzas
In this chapter, we deal with knowledge representation in Intelligent Educational Systems (IESs). We make an effort to define requirements for... Sample PDF
Knowledge Representation in Intelligent Educational Systems
Chapter 154
Rand J. Spiro, Brian P. Collins, Aparna R. Ramchandran
The words openness and flexibility—the latter is the topic of this volume—are joined in the title of this chapter. We see them as two sides of the... Sample PDF
Modes of Openness and Flexibility in Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Learning Environments
Chapter 155
Amy Scott Metcalfe
The number of students with disabilities who attend college is rising, which may be one of the many positive outcomes of the Americans with... Sample PDF
Overcoming Organizational Barriers to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: A Case Study
Chapter 156
Maurice W. Wright
The adaptation of a traditional, face-to-face course to an online format presents both challenges and opportunities. A face-to-face fundamentals... Sample PDF
Creating and Using Multiple Media in an Online Course
Chapter 158
Ilias Maglogiannis, Kostas Karpouzis
A major issue problem in military training is the territorial dispersion of military personnel in a wide geographical area. Typically in every... Sample PDF
Combining Synchronous and Asynchronous Distance Learning for Adult Training inMilitary Environments
Chapter 159
Elsebeth Korsgaard Sorensen
An alternative theoretical framework for analyzing and designing computer-supported collaborative learning environments is introduced. Bateson’s... Sample PDF
Reflection and Intellectual Amplification in Online Communities of Collaborative Learning
Chapter 160
Maria Delia Rojas, Tanya McGill, Arnold Depickere
Universities teach project management to information technology (IT) students. The project management principles that students previously have... Sample PDF
Project Management in Student Information Technology Projects
Chapter 161
Jane E. Klobas, Stefano Renzi
After several years of Internet use in traditional universities, some patterns have emerged, both in the nature of use, and in understanding the... Sample PDF
Scenarios for Web-Enhanced Learning
Chapter 162
Lisa M. Daniels, Jeff Terpstra, Kimberly Addicott, Brian M. Slator, Donald P Schwert, Bernhardt Saini-Eidukat, Phillip McClean, Alan R. White
The North Dakota State University (NDSU) World Wide Web Instructional Committee (WWWIC) is an inter-disciplinary research team, which has, since the... Sample PDF
Effects of Teaching Science through Immersive Virtual Environments
Chapter 163
Jorge G. Ruiz, Maria H. van Zuilen, Alan Katz, Marcos Milanez, Richard G. Tiberius
Residency education is the period of clinical education that follows graduation from medical school, and prepares physicians for the independent... Sample PDF
ePortfolios in Graduate Medical Education
Chapter 164
Yuanchun Shi, Weikai Xie, Guangyou Xu, Peifeng Xiang, Baopeng Zhang
Real-time interactive virtual classrooms play an important role in distance learning. However currently available systems are insufficient in... Sample PDF
Project Smart Remote Classroom Providing Novel Real-Time Interactive Distance Learning Technologies
Chapter 165
Daniel Brandon
This chapter discusses the modern discipline of “project management” and the role of this discipline in technology literacy. Professional... Sample PDF
The Role of Project Management in Technology Literacy
Chapter 166
Andrea Bartlett
Student ePortfolios offer both advantages and challenges for teacher educators. The purpose of this case study is to identify benefits that make the... Sample PDF
It was Hard Work but it was Worth It: ePortfolios in Teacher Education
Chapter 167
Brian F. Fox
This chapter briefly describes the growing concern over a lack of academic integrity in higher education and the traditional methods employed to... Sample PDF
Supporting and Facilitating Academic Integrity in Distance Education through Student Services
Chapter 168
M. W. ("Wijnand") Aalderink, M. H.C.H. ("Marij") Veugelers
This chapter describes the important role that the concept of ePortfolio plays in new pedagogical paradigms in The Netherlands. ePortfolio can be... Sample PDF
ePortfolio and Educational Change in Higher Education in the Netherlands
Chapter 169
Marilyn Lewis
Information and communication technology (ICT) allows users to access information without taking geographic position into account. These users are... Sample PDF
ICT in Medical Education in Trinidad and Tobago
Chapter 170
Chiara Giorgi, Dieter Schürch
Since the end of 20th Century, the introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has deeply influenced many aspects of everyday... Sample PDF
ICT, Education, and Regional Development in Swiss Peripheral Areas
Chapter 171
László Zsolt Varga
This chapter introduces agent technology as a means of creating dynamic software systems for the changing needs of smart organizations. The notion... Sample PDF
Applications of Agent-Based Technologies in Smart Organizations
Chapter 172
Vivian H. Wright, Jon Beedle, Ronnie Stanford
Portions of an international master’s program were designed for a blended, online delivery in one pilot course. This approach allowed students in... Sample PDF
Enriching and International Program Graduate Offering: A Blended Delivery Model
Chapter 173
Leo Tan Wee Hin, R. Subramaniam
Continuing education constitutes an important aspect of furthering the process of learning beyond the formal years of schooling. Leveraging mainly... Sample PDF
Continuing Science Education of the Global Public
Chapter 174
Ibrahima Poda, William F. Brescia
Electronic information literacy has gained increased importance with the advent of the new information and communication technologies which, driven... Sample PDF
Improving Electronic Information Literacy in West African Higher Education
Chapter 175
Victor McNair, Kevin Marshall
This chapter reports on a pilot study which examined how student teachers of a one-year Post Graduate Certificate in Education course in Northern... Sample PDF
How ePortfolios Support Development in Early Teacher Education
Chapter 176
LeAnne K. Robinson
This study examines educators’ perceived barriers to technology integration and the relationship to education reform. Educators and administrators... Sample PDF
Examining Perceptual Barriers to Technology: A Study on the Diffusion of Educational Technology and Education Reform
Chapter 177
Yi-Ping Huang
The teacher education programs at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) and its professional community have undergone substantial... Sample PDF
Sustaining ePortfolios: Progress, Challenges, and Dynamics in Teacher Education
Chapter 179
Gilly Salmon
There are few published reports of structured approaches to developing lecturers for new online roles. However, both campus and distance learning... Sample PDF
E-Moderating in Higher Education
Chapter 180
Y. Y. Jessie Wong, R. Gerber, K. A. Toh
The Internet has transformed the way education is delivered in the 21st Century. Web-based education has been developed on the basis of the... Sample PDF
Diffusion of Web-Based Education in Singapore and Australia
Chapter 181
Hsianghoo Steve Ching, Carmel McNaught, Paul W.T. Poon
This article will address several areas relating to online learning and technology. We will report on work done in the development of four models... Sample PDF
Effective Technology-Mediated Education for Adult Chinese Learners
Chapter 182
Jeffrey W. Merhout, Stephanie J. Etter
As popular literature claims that college graduates are entering the workforce lacking sufficient writing skills, this paper argues that the... Sample PDF
Integrating Writing into IT/MIS Courses
Chapter 183
Aybüke Aurum, Meliha Handzic, Adian Gardiner
This chapter examines the potential of the application of an individual creativity-enhancing technique (called SoloBrainstorming, or SBS) to improve... Sample PDF
Supporting Creativity in Software Development: An Application in IT Education
Chapter 184
Paula M. Winke
In this chapter, the challenges involved in creating online Arabic and Russian proficiency tests by using a commercial test product are discussed.... Sample PDF
Online Assessment of Foreign Language Proficiency: Meeting Development, Design and Delivery Challenges
Chapter 185
Petek Askar, Ugur Halici
Most of the discussions related to education are about technological innovations. Indeed as Rogers (1995) stated, we often use the word “innovation”... Sample PDF
Diffusion of E-Learning as an Educational Innovation
Chapter 186
Jennifer R. Jamison
This chapter demonstrates how contemporary chiropractic education uses authentic “classroom” learning opportunities to prepare students for the... Sample PDF
Constructing a Clinical Experience in the Classroom
Chapter 187
Doris Lee, Steve Boreland
In this chapter, the use of computer-supported learning (CSL) in a corporate setting is defined as the delivery of learning modules or lessons... Sample PDF
Implementing Computer-Supported Learning in Corporations
Chapter 188
Noppadol Prammance
This chapter reports the results of the case study of online interaction. Prior to conducting the case study, the author conducted a pre-study to... Sample PDF
Understanding Participation in Online Courses: A Case Study of Online Interaction
Chapter 189
Hilary Wilder
This case study explores the use of online distance learning technology to bring an international component to a teacher education program. By... Sample PDF
Using E-Learning to Globalize a Teacher Education Program
Chapter 190
Pier Cesare Rivoltella
The goal of this chapter is to define the problems a school can have when it implements technology in education. This phenomenon is explained... Sample PDF
Education and Organization: ICT, Assets, and Values
Chapter 191
Jonathan Frank, Janet Toland, Karen D. Schenk
The impact of cultural diversity on group interactions through technology is an active research area. Current research has found that a student’s... Sample PDF
E-Mail Usage in South Pacific Distance Education
Chapter 192
Timothy Pelton, Leslee Francis Pelton
A computer-adaptive test (CAT) is a relatively new type of technology in which a computer program “intelligently” selects and presents questions to... Sample PDF
Introducing a Computer-Adaptive Testing System to a Small School District
Chapter 193
Margaret Haughy
This chapter delineates changing organizational responses to the provision of faculty support for teaching and learning in six large Canadian... Sample PDF
Organizational Models for Faculty Support: The Response of Canadian Universities.
Chapter 194
Bryan D. Bradley
This chapter provides a survey of basic legal issues that online assessment developers and users need to be aware of and account for in their... Sample PDF
Legal Implications of Online Assessment: Issues for Educators
Chapter 195
Sherif Kamel
New online learning techniques lead to improved ways to investing in larger numbers of people and optimizing the use of resources. Respectively... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizations in Post-Graduate Education in Egypt
Chapter 196
Douglas B. Johnstone
Western Governors University (WGU) was formally established in 1996 by the governors of 19 western states. From its inception it was committed to... Sample PDF
Western Governors University and Competency-Based Education
Chapter 197
June K. Hilton
Empirical data from a secondary school that took steps to increase technology integration in its classrooms with the long-term goal of raising... Sample PDF
Narrowing the Digital Divide: Technology Integration in a High-Poverty School
Chapter 198
Lambertus Hesselink, Dharmarus Rizal, Eric Bjornson, Sandy Paik, Raj Batra, Peter Catrysse, Dan Savage, Anthony Wong
Cyberlab is a fully automated, Internet accessible laboratory for use in research and teaching, developed at Stanford University since 1996.... Sample PDF
Stanford CyberLab: Internet Assisted Laboratories
Chapter 199
Kathryn Haley Goldman, Lynn . Dierking
Societies are in the midst of change, witnessing an explosion in out-of-school learning. From the proliferation of educational programming through... Sample PDF
Free-Choice Learning Research and the Virtual Science Center: Establishing a Record Agenda.
Chapter 200
Sheizaf Rafaeli, Yuval Dan-Gur, Miri Barak
Recommendation systems can play an extensive role in online learning. In such systems, learners can receive guidance in locating and ranking... Sample PDF
Social Recommender Systems: Recommendations in Support of E-Learning
Chapter 201
Ashok Banerji, Saswata Basu
It is widely recognised that knowledge and education are the key factors that need attention to eradicate poverty. Yet the poorest sections of the... Sample PDF
ICT Aided Education for People's Empowerment
Chapter 202
Kristina Love
Midway through the first decade of the new millennium, teachers are still facing considerable challenges in dealing with the complex forms of... Sample PDF
Literacy in K-12 Teacher Education: The Case Study of a Multimedia Resource
Chapter 203
Andrea L. Edmundson
This exploratory study examined the effects of cross-cultural learning dimensions on e-learning outcomes for employees in functionally equivalent... Sample PDF
The Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Globalized E-Learning
Chapter 204
Claire Khek, John Lim, Yingqin Zhong
Assistive Learning Technologies (ALT) have increasingly become pertinent in developing the technology literacy in education for supporting... Sample PDF
Facilitating Students with Special Needs in Mainstream Schools: An Exploratory Study of Assistive Learning Technologies (ALT)
Chapter 205
P. Clint Rogers, Scott L. Howell
nternationally, religious institutions are developing distance learning for a variety of reasons and purposes. The religious applications of... Sample PDF
Distance Education from Religions of the World
Chapter 206
Ali Fawaz Shareef, Kinshuk
Small island nations, especially Maldives, encounter a number of limitations in providing services to their people due to their size. These services... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Small Island Nations
Chapter 207
Eric G. Hansen, Robert J. Mislevy
There is a great need for designers of computer-based tests and testing systems to build accessibility into their designs from the earliest stages... Sample PDF
Accessibility of Computer-Based Testing for Individuals with Disablities and English Language Learners within a Validity Framework
Chapter 208
Mike Keppell
Within teacher education problem-based learning (PBL) has the potential to enrich teaching and learning across the curriculum. It is suggested that... Sample PDF
Authentic Cases and Media Triggers for Supporting Problem-Based Learning in Teacher Education
Chapter 209
John T. Behrens, Tara A. Collison, Sarah DeMark
During the last 6 years, the Cisco Networking Academy™Program has delivered online curricula and over 36 million online assessments to support... Sample PDF
The Seven C's of Comprehensive Online Assessment: Lessons Learned from 36 Million Classroom Assessments in the Cisco Networking Academy Program
Chapter 210
Robert S. Owen, Bosede Aworuwa
This chapter discusses the principles of two qualitatively different and somewhat competing instructional designs from the 1950s and ’60s, linear... Sample PDF
Programmed Instruction, Programmed Branching, and Learning Outcomes
Chapter 211
Luis Barrera
This article reviews the history, state of the art, and future trends in distance education in South American countries through an overview of the... Sample PDF
Distance Education in South America
Chapter 212
Distance Education in Turkey  (pages 2607-2613)
Petek Askar
Distance education is the educational process in which the instructor and learner are physically separated, and interaction between them is... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Turkey
Chapter 213
Floriana Grasso, Paul Leng
Online delivery of degree-level programmes is an attractive option, especially for working professionals and others who are unable to contemplate... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance Issues for Online Universities
Chapter 214
M. A. Rentroia-Bonito, J. Jorge, Claude Ghaoui
E-learning is expected to support organizations and individuals so they can become more adaptable and competitive. However, in order for... Sample PDF
Motivation to E-Learn Within Organizational Settings: An Exploratory Factor Structure
Chapter 215
Habibah Lateh, Arumugam Raman
Malaysia, in comparison to some of the other countries in South East Asia, is relatively small, with a size of 329,750 km2 and a population of 25.45... Sample PDF
Distance Learning and Educational Technology in Malaysia
Chapter 216
Adrienne A. Reynolds
The countries of the Middle East are undergoing rapid change in many areas, and the field of education is illustrative. This is particularly the... Sample PDF
Educational Technology in the Middle East
Chapter 217
K. Komathy, P. Vivekanandan, V. Ramachandran
The objective of this paper is to emphasize the need for an effective security model and its implementation for distributed applications. Online... Sample PDF
Secure Soap-Based Web Services for Distance Education
Chapter 218
Faye L. Lesht, Rae-Anne Montague, Vaughn J. Page, Najmuddin Shaik, Linda C. Smith
Through case study, this chapter lends insight to ways online assessment can facilitate a holistic approach to the evaluation of distance education... Sample PDF
Online program Assessment: A Case Study of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Experience
Chapter 219
Yair Levy, Michelle M. Ramim
The Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated that learning is the outcome of both teaching and practice. Clearly, learning is not confined exclusively... Sample PDF
Eight Key Elements of Successful Self-Funding E-Learning Programs
Chapter 220
Maggie Beers
This chapter describes the participatory role faculty members have played in the first year of a five-year initiative that uses e-learning to... Sample PDF
Using E-Learning to Promote Excellence in Polytechnic Education
Chapter 221
Shantha Liyanage
Learning processes are essential in building individual and organisational competencies and transfer of learning and knowledge among individual and... Sample PDF
Competency Management Systems and Technologies
Chapter 222
José Braga de Vasconcelos, Chris Kimble
This chapter describes an ontology based competence management model that can be used to support distributed collaborative working and facilitate... Sample PDF
An Ontology-Based Competence Management Model to Support Collaborative Working and Organisational Learning
Chapter 223
Vladimír Modrák
Efforts to separate unequivocally substantial signs of versatile tools of manufacturing management are usually marked by a narrowed view of the... Sample PDF
Functionalities and Position of Manufacturing Execution Systems
Chapter 224
Wm. Benjamin Martz Jr., Venkateshwar K. Reddy
The education industry is being transformed by the ever-growing presence of distance education. Distance education has several market drivers that... Sample PDF
Operational Success in Distance Education
Chapter 225
Tanya McGill, Michael Dixon
The information technology industry is subject to rapid change. There have been concerns expressed in the literature about the ability of... Sample PDF
How Do IT Students Stay Up to Date with Employers' Skill Requirements
Chapter 226
A. K. Aggarwal
As we move from a focus on data acquisition to a knowledge-based society, just-in-time and just-in-place education is becoming a necessity.... Sample PDF
Stakeholders in Web-Based Education
Chapter 227
Glenn Lowry, Rodney Turner
In this chapter, we consider how information systems educators might revise curriculum content and adopt student-centered/active learning... Sample PDF
Information Systems Education for the 21st Century: Aligning Curriculum Content and Delivery with the Professional Workplace.
Chapter 228
Ken Stevens
As rural communities and schools decline in size educational policy makers often question their viability. In the Canadian province of Newfoundland... Sample PDF
The Management of Virtual Classes in School District Digital Intranets
Chapter 229
Gary A. Berg
In considering various management approaches internationally for the delivery of computer-based learning, there is an interest in total quality... Sample PDF
Total Quality Management in Higher Education
Chapter 230
Daniel Brandon
Project Management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to the project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder... Sample PDF
Project Management and Graduate Education
Chapter 231
Richard Ryan
To date most online content and experiences have been packaged in a traditional “class” format and delivered using a web site posted on a provider’s... Sample PDF
A Strategy to Expand the University Education Paradigm: Selling Online Class Resources.
Chapter 232
Heather Arthur-Gray, John Campbell
There is a “deep-rooted inequality situation in the Thai economy and society” (Krongkaewa & Kakwanib, 2003). This inequality permeates all aspects... Sample PDF
Education Trends in Thai Businesses Utilizing Information Technology
Chapter 233
Ned Kock
Virtually every university in the US and overseas has seen a significant increase in demand for information technology (IT) courses and programs in... Sample PDF
Bridging the Industry-University Gap through Action Research
Chapter 234
Michaela Knust, Svenja Hagenhoff
Discussions about virtual universities, teleteaching or Internet-based learning usually concentrate on pedagogical or technical topics. Ideas and... Sample PDF
Education Networks: Expected Market- and Cost-Oriented Benefits
Chapter 235
Sandra Barker
In this chapter, the introduction of “real-life” scenarios to undergraduate business students to enhance their understanding of end-user development... Sample PDF
Business Students as End-User Developers: Simulating "Real Life" Situations through Case Study Approach
Chapter 236
John M. Carroll
Educational technology provides many examples of how efficient software development and deployment is not enough. Teachers work in a complex and... Sample PDF
Building Educational Technology Partnerships through Participatory Design
Chapter 237
Nory B. Jones, Brett Golann, Gloria Vollmers
The purpose of this article is to share the experiences and lessons learned from an experimental graduate class using Web-based technologies that... Sample PDF
Using Web-Based Technologies in a Graduate Class to Develop an Entrepreneurship Knowledge Portal
Chapter 238
Stephen Burgess, Paul Darbyshire
Since the mid-1990s, there have been many claims that the Web has become the new paradigm for teaching. However, most academics do not use the Web... Sample PDF
A Comparison Between the Use of IT in Business and Education: Applications of the Internet to Tertiary Education
Chapter 239
Kathryn M. Zuckweiler, Marc J. Schniederjans, Dwayne A. Ball
This paper presents two modeling approaches that can be used to determine student class sizes for instructors who teach Web-based courses. The... Sample PDF
Methodologies to Determine Class Sizes for Fair Faculty Work Load in Web Courses
Chapter 240
Shirish C. Srivastava, Thompson S.H. Teo
Most existing studies on technology training address the operational issues of training process (e.g., training needs assessment, learning, delivery... Sample PDF
IT Training as a Strategy for Business Productivity in Developing Countries
Chapter 241
Sunil Hazari
The past decade has brought tremendous changes to higher education. Technology components that supplement teaching and learning are integrated into... Sample PDF
Using Emerging Technologies for Effective Pedagogy in Management Education
Chapter 242
Richard Ladyshewsky, John Ryan
The development of managerial expertise is a combination of acquiring further knowledge and integrating it with past experience and beliefs. To do... Sample PDF
Peer Coaching and Reflective Practice in Authentic Business Contexts: A Strategy to Enhance Competancy in Post-Graduate Business Student
Chapter 243
David Gadish
Schools of business can benefit from adoption of geographic information systems (GIS). A brief overview of GIS technology is presented along with an... Sample PDF
Introducing GIS for Business in Higher Education
Chapter 244
Gary A. Berg
Since computer-based learning can involve partnerships with for-profit organizations, be viewed as a route to increased revenue, and potentially be... Sample PDF
Distance Learning as Commercializing Higher Education
Chapter 245
Zane L. Berge, Lenora Giles
New information and communication technology, specifically computer networked systems, create both a demand and an opportunity for businesses to... Sample PDF
Implementing and Sustaining E-Learning in the Workplace
Chapter 246
Catherine C. Schifter
Distance education is not new to higher education. Correspondence courses have served students since the 19th century. What is different today is... Sample PDF
Faculty Participation in Distance Education Programs
Chapter 247
Harold M. Horowitz
This chapter describes my 25-year journey and experience with audience response systems (ARS), starting with my first realization of the potential... Sample PDF
ARS Evoltion: Reflections and Recommendations
Chapter 248
Christine Sweeney
Those who are fortunate enough to be associated with K-12 education during this first decade of the 21st century will witness tremendous... Sample PDF
Critical Barriers to Technolgy in K-12 Education
Chapter 249
Sonya S. Gaither Shepherd
The creation of computer software and hardware, telecommunications, databases, and the Internet has affected society as a whole, and particularly... Sample PDF
Computer Skills, Technostress, and Gender in Higher Education
Chapter 250
Barbara A. Frey, Ashli Molinero, Ellen Cohn
Just as wheelchair ramps and elevators provide access to wheelchair users, good Web design provides “electronic curb ramps” to the Internet for... Sample PDF
Increasing Web Accessibility and Usability in Higher Education
Chapter 251
John B. Nash, Christoph Richter, Heidrun Allert
The call for the integration of program evaluation into the development of computer-supported learning environments is ever increasing. Pushed not... Sample PDF
Evaluating Computer-Supported Learning Initiatives
Chapter 252
David Catterick
A product of its historical origins, online learning is firmly rooted in the educational values that dominate post-secondary education in Britain... Sample PDF
Do the Philosophical Foundations of Online Learning Disadvantage Non-Western Students?
Chapter 253
Dwayne Harapnuik
This chapter introduces inquisitivism as an approach for designing and delivering Web-based instruction that shares many of the same principles of... Sample PDF
Inquisitivism: The Evolution of a Constructivist Approach for Web-Based Instruction
Chapter 255
Edward D. Garten, Tedi Thompson
This is an urgently needed topic. It is the author’s conviction that, currently, there are no 21st century schools and, even worse, there is no... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance and Online Higher Education
Chapter 256
Xinchun Wang
Although the pedagogical advantages of online interactive learning are well known, much needs to be done in instructional design of applicable... Sample PDF
What Factors Promote Sustained Online Discussions and Collaborative Learning in a Web-Based Course?
Chapter 257
B. Olaniran
The integration of communication technologies and the Internet has created an explosion in the use of e-learning both locally and globally. The... Sample PDF
Challenges to Implementing E-Learning in Lesser Developed Countries
Chapter 258
Tanya McGill
Certification has become a popular adjunct to traditional means of acquiring information technology skills and employers increasingly specify a... Sample PDF
Information Technology Certification: A Student Perspective
Chapter 259
K. Watson
Psychologists and linguists agree that communicative elements other than words alone transmit more than 65% of the meaning of any linguistic... Sample PDF
Electronic Paralanguage: Interfacing with the International
Chapter 260
D. D. Davis, D. A. Major
We describe an intervention that uses computer science (CS) faculty and students to create an inclusive learning environment. Our intervention model... Sample PDF
Enhancing Inclusion in Computer Science Education
Chapter 261
H. Muukkonen
In higher education, students are often asked to demonstrate critical thinking, academic literacy (Geisler, 1994), expert-like use of knowledge, and... Sample PDF
Technology-Mediated Progressive Inquiry in Higher Education
Chapter 262
A. D. Olofsson, J. O. Lindberg
In this chapter, the possibilities to use technology in order to improve the contextual and value-based dimensions in online distance-based teacher... Sample PDF
Enhancing Phronesis: Bridging Communities Through Technology
Chapter 263
J. L. Quesenberry
The historical gender stratification in technical disciplines has been an area of study for many years and researchers have concluded that women are... Sample PDF
Female Retention in Post-Secondary IT Education
Chapter 264
M. Specht
This chapter presents an overview of research work for contextualized learning, integrating the background of adaptive hypermedia, ubiquitous... Sample PDF
Contextualized Learning: Supporting Learning in Context
Chapter 265
S. M. Hewett
The use of electronic portfolios for students as an assessment tool is explored in this chapter. Portfolios have expanded from use in the arts and... Sample PDF
Electronic Portfolios and Education: A Different Way to Assess Academic Success
Chapter 266
C. Pahl
Software-mediated learning requires adjustments in the teaching and learning process. In par¬ticular active learning facilitated through interactive... Sample PDF
Behaviour Analysis for Web-Mediated Active Learning
Chapter 267
P. Carayon
Historically, women have had lower levels of educational attainment (Freeman, 2004; NCES, 1999), which in turn could negatively affect their... Sample PDF
Gender Differences in Education and Training in the IT Workforce
Chapter 268
V. Kinuthia
One of the most difficult challenges facing African higher education institutions (HEIs) is the successful resolution of the inherent tension that... Sample PDF
Preparing African Higher Education Faculty in Technology
Chapter 269
C. Newell, M. Debenham
Distance education may be seen as both enabling and disabling in its application to, and relationship with, people with disability and chronic... Sample PDF
Disability, Chronic Illness and Distance Education
Chapter 270
C. Angeli
We live in a world that is constantly impacted by information and communication technology (ICT). ICT is considered an important catalyst and tool... Sample PDF
A Socio-Technical Analysis of Factors Affecting the Integration of ICT in Primary and Secondary Education
Chapter 271
B. Martz
Distance education is playing an ever-growing role in the education industry. As such, it is prudent to explore and understand driving conditions... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for Distance Education Programs
Chapter 272
P. M. Boechler
Cognitive load theory (CLT) is currently the most prominent cognitive theory pertaining to instructional design and is referred to in numerous... Sample PDF
Understanding Cognitive Processes in Educational Hypermedia
Chapter 273
E. Benrud
This article examines the performance of students in a Web-based corporate finance course and how the technologies associated with communication on... Sample PDF
The Online Discussion and Student Success in Web-Based Education
Chapter 274
K. J. Maser
This article highlights findings from an empirical study that explores the nature of female underrepresentation in information technology.... Sample PDF
The Influences and Responses of Women in IT Education
Chapter 275
G. Salter
There are many in education who appear to think that it is sufficient to purchase and install technology for it to be successfully used (Boddy... Sample PDF
Factors Affecting the Adoption of Educational Technology
Chapter 276
B.R. Lim
In an effort to support public education, the Korean government utilized e-learning and established EBS e-learning system. Educational Broadcasting... Sample PDF
EBS E-Learning and Social Integrity
Chapter 277
Educational Geostimulation  (pages 3321-3338)
Vasco Furtado, Eurico Vasconcelos
In this work we will describe EGA (educational geosimulation architecture), an architecture for the development of pedagogical tools for training in... Sample PDF
Educational Geostimulation
Chapter 278
Bruce Rollier, Fred Niederman
Although the Internet has been in existence since 1969, it was not widely used for educational purposes in its first two decades. Few students had... Sample PDF
Trends and Perspectives in Online Education
Chapter 279
Dirk Morrison
This chapter discusses the imperative prerequisite to the effective adoption of e-learning by institutions of higher education, namely, the adoption... Sample PDF
E-Learning in Higher Education: The Need for a New Pedagogy
Chapter 280
Geraldine Clarebout, Jan Elen, Joost Lowyck, Jef Van den Ende, Erwin Van den Enden
Educational goals have generally shifted from knowing everything in a specific domain to knowing how to deal with complex problems. Reasoning and... Sample PDF
Evaluation of an Open Learning Environment
Chapter 281
Kim E. Dooley, James R. Linder, Chanda Elbert, Timothy H. Murphy, Theresa P. Murphrey
Research in the field of distance education has recognized the need for a change and modification of the faculty role in teaching at a distance... Sample PDF
Faculty Perceptions and Participation in Distance Education
Chapter 282
Murray Turoff, Richard Discenza, Carolin Howard
Designed properly, distance education classes can be at least as effective and, in some ways, even more effective than face-to-face courses. The... Sample PDF
How Distance Programs will Affect Students, Courses, Faculty and Institutional Futures
Chapter 283
Curtis J. Bonk, Seung-hee Lee, Xiaojing Lui, Bude Su
During the last several years, high expectations have surrounded e-learning initiatives in companies, universities, and schools. Presently, however... Sample PDF
Awareness Design in Online Collaborative Learning: A Pedagogical Perspective
Chapter 284
Miguel-Ángel Sicilia, Elena García Barriocanal
Current efforts to standardize e-learning resources are centered on the notion of a learning object as a piece of content that can be reused in... Sample PDF
On the Convergence of Formal Ontologies and Standardized E-Learning
Chapter 285
Tad Waddington, Bruce Aaron, Rachael Sheldrick
This chapter provides proven strategy and tactics for the corporate evaluator. Topics include: adopting a performance-based operating model (the... Sample PDF
Guerilla Evaluation: Adapting to the Terrain and Situation
Chapter 286
Standards? What and Why?  (pages 3433-3448)
Phil Long, Frank Tansey
Specifications define the nature of the interconnections between the distinct parts of complex learning systems, but not their boundaries.  Next... Sample PDF
Standards? What and Why?
Chapter 287
Lesley Treleaven
In this chapter, the literature of online collaborative learning (OCL) is extensively reviewed for contributions to evaluation. This review presents... Sample PDF
A New Taxonomy for Evaluation Studies of Online Collaborative Learning
Chapter 288
Todd Chavez
The revolutionary changes in the educational curriculum for schools of library and information science being evinced by the exponential expansion of... Sample PDF
Staffing the Transition to the Virtual Academic Library: Competencies, Characteristics, and Change
Chapter 289
Lisa A. Petrides, Lilly Ngyuen
While the pressure of public accountability has placed increasing pressure on higher education institutions to provide information regarding... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Trends: Challenges and Opportunities for Educational Institutions.
Chapter 290
Merilyn Burke, Bruce Lubotsky Levin, Ardis Hanson
Historically, distance learning or distance education began as little more than “correspondence courses,” which promised an education in one’s own... Sample PDF
Online Academic Libraries and Distance Learning
Chapter 291
Jim Lee, Sylvia Tidwell-Scheuring, Karen Barton
Online assessment, in its infancy, is likely to facilitate a variety of innovations in both formative and summative assessment. This chapter focuses... Sample PDF
Online Assessment and Instruction Using Learning Maps: A Glimpse into the Future
Chapter 292
Timothy K. Shih, Qing Li, Jason C. Hung
In the last chapter, we discuss how advanced multimedia technologies are used in distance learning systems, including multimedia authoring and... Sample PDF
Future Directions of Multimedia Technologies in E-Learning
Chapter 293
Vicki L. Gergory
Libraries of the 21st century are very different places from those that existed at the beginning of the 20th century, and very different as well... Sample PDF
The Changing Library Education Curriculum
Chapter 294
Cecilia Mari, Sara Genone, Luca Mari
This paper analyzes the reciprocal influences between various teaching methodologies sup¬ported by information and communication technology (ICT)... Sample PDF
E-Learning and New Teaching Scenarios: The Mediation of Technology Between Methodologies and Teaching Objectives
Chapter 295
Virtual Schools  (pages 3528-3534)
Glenn Russell
Until recent times, schools have been characterised by the physical presence of teachers and students together. Usually, a building is used for... Sample PDF
Virtual Schools
Chapter 296
D. David
Course management systems will unquestionably become one of the most critical enterprise systems in higher education. This is because these systems... Sample PDF
Future Directions of Course Management Systems
Chapter 297
Bryan Alexander
Next-generation course management systems (CMS) are likely to take advantage of today’s applications’ structural and pedagogical limitations... Sample PDF
Next Generation: Speculations in New Technologies.
Chapter 298
Christopher O’Mahony
Virtual learning environments (VLEs) and managed learning environments (MLEs) are emerging as popular and useful tools in a variety of educational... Sample PDF
The Emerging Use of E-Learning Environments in K-12 Education: Implications for School Decision Makers
Chapter 299
Natahn K. Lindsay, Peter B. Williams, Scott L. Howell
A number of prominent distance learning journals have established the need for administrators to be informed and prepared with strategic plans equal... Sample PDF
Academic, Economic, and Technological Trends Affecting Distance Education
Chapter 300
Roli Varma, Marcella LaFever
The problem of disproportional representation of women in the computer science (CS) field in post-secondary education has become a major concern... Sample PDF
Motivating Women to Computer Science Education
Chapter 301
David Gibson
simSchool is a game-based simulation developed with funding from the Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology (PT3, 2003) program of the... Sample PDF
simSchool and the Conceptual Assessment Framework


Technological advancements of the past two decades have allowed educators to deliver various effective academic programs to knowledge seekers and students around the world free of the traditional dependency on campus based programs. These advancements are formidable technological innovations that have profoundly impacted all realms of society including business, education, health care, and interpersonal and intercultural interfacing.

During this period of time numerous researchers and educators have developed a variety of techniques, methodologies, and measurement tools that have allowed them to develop, deliver and at the same time evaluate the effectiveness of several online and distance learning programs. The explosion of these technologies and methodologies in this new field of web-based education and online learning have created an abundance of new, state-of-art literature related to all aspects of this expanding discipline, allowing researchers and practicing educators to learn about the latest discoveries in the filed of distance learning and online teaching.

Due to rapid technological changes that are continually taking place, it is a constant challenge for researchers and educators in distance learning to stay abreast of the far-reaching effects of this change, and to be able to develop and deliver more innovative methodologies and techniques utilizing new technological innovation. In order to provide the most comprehensive, in-depth, and recent coverage of all issues related to web-based education and online distance learning, as well as to offer a single reference source on all conceptual, methodological, technical and managerial issues, as well as the opportunities, future challenges and emerging trends related to distance learning, Information Science Reference is pleased to offer a six-volume reference collection on this rapidly growing discipline, in order to empower students, researchers, academicians, and practitioners with a comprehensive understanding of the most critical areas within this field of study.

This collection entitled, “Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications” is organized in eight (8) distinct sections, providing the most wide-ranging coverage of topics such as: 1) Fundamental Concepts and Theories; 2) Development and Design Methodologies; 3) Tools and Technologies; 4) Utilization and Application; 5) Organizational and Social Implications; 6) Managerial Impact; 7) Critical Issues; and 8) Emerging Trends. The following provides a summary of what is covered in each section of this multi volume reference collection:

Section One, Fundamental Concepts and Theories, serves as a foundation for this exhaustive reference tool by addressing crucial theories essential to the understanding of online and distance learning. Chapters such as, “Technology’s Role in Distance Education” by Caroline Howard, Murray Turoff and Richard Discneza as well as “Distance Education in the Era of the Internet” by Giorgio Agosti provide an excellent framework in which to position distance learning within the field of information science and technology. Sara Dexter’s, “Principles to Guide the Integration and Implementation of Educational Technology” offers excellent insight into the critical incorporation of technology into the classroom for educators and administers alike, while chapters such as, “Learning IT: Where Do Lecturers Fit?” by Tanya McGill and Samantha Bax address some of the basic, yet crucial stumbling blocks of distance learning. With sixty chapters comprising this foundational section, the reader can learn and chose from a compendium of expert research on the elemental theories underscoring online and distance learning discipline.

Section Two, Development and Design Methodologies, provides in-depth coverage of conceptual architectures and distance learning frameworks to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the emerging technological developments within the field of online and distance learning. “A Conceptual Architecture for the Development of Interactive Educational Media” by Claus Pahl offers research fundamentals imperative to the understanding of the design of educational tools. Conversely, Gregg Asher’s, “Inadequate Infrastructure and the Infusion of Technology into K-12 Education” explores the shortcomings of those schools under-prepared for emersion into the world of online and distance learning. From basic designs to abstract development, chapters such as “Systems Model of Educational Processes” by Charles E. Beck and “Reliving History with ‘Reliving the Revolution’": Designing Augmented Reality Games to Teach the Critical Thinking of History” by Karen Schrier serve to expand the reaches of development and design technologies within the online and distance learning community. This section includes over forty contributions from researchers throughout the world on the topic of online development and methodologies in distance learning.

Section Three, Tools and Technologies, presents an extensive coverage of various tools and technologies available in the field of distance learning that practicing educators and researchers alike can utilize to develop different techniques in support of offering distance learning educational programs. Chapters such as “Core Principles of Educational Multimedia” by Geraldine Torrisi-Steele enlightens readers about the fundamental research on one of the many tools used to facilitate and enhance the distance learning experience whereas chapters like, “Hyper Video for Distance Learning” by Mario Bochicchio and Nicola Fiore explore the latest technological offerings. It is through these rigorously researched chapters that the reader is provided with countless examples of the up-and-coming tools and technologies emerging from the field of online and distance learning. Another contribution entitled “Vega Grid Technology, Hyper Video, Learning Portals, Wireless Technologies, Simulation and Gaming and Videoconferencing” explores some of the recent technologies that can have been deployed in support of distance learning course offerings. With more than thirty five chapters, this section offers a broad treatment of some of the many tools and technologies within the online and distance learning community.

Section Four, Utilization and Application discusses a variety of applications and opportunities available that can be considered by practicing educators in developing viable and effective distance learning educational programs. This section includes more than forty chapters such as “Overcoming Organizational Barriers to Web Accessibility in Higher Education: A Case Study” by Amy Scott Metcalfe which incorporates applications of distance learning into the higher education society, while chapterss such as Dorris Lee’s, “Implementing”, discusses the utilization of online learning within the corporate realm. Also considered in this section are the challenges faced when utilizing distance learning as outlined by Martha Cleveland-Innes, Randy Garrison and Ellen Kinsel’s, “Role Adjustment for Learners in an Online Community of Inquiry: Identifying the Challenges of Incoming Online Learners”. The adaptability of developing countries is also given consideration in chapters like, “Issues of E-Learning in Third World Countries” by Shantha Fernando which investigates the major hurdles faced by the socio-economic underprivileged within our global community. Contributions included in this section provide excellent coverage of today’s global community and how distance learning technologies and education are impacting the social fabric of our present-day global village.

Section Five, Organizational and Social Implications includes a wide range of research pertaining to the social and organizational impact of online and distance technologies around the world. Introducing this section is Pier Cesare Rivoltella’s chapter entitled, “Education and Organization: ICT, Assets, and Values” providing a comprehensive introduction of education and its technological role within organizations as a social construct. Additional chapters included in this section such as “Narrowing the Digital Divide: Technology Integration in a High-Poverty School” by June K. Hilton epitomize one of the most contested issues within society concerning access to technology—the digital divide. Also introducing a rising concern within the education organization is Bryan D. Bradley’s, “Legal Implications of Online Assessment: Issues for Educators” which provides an alternative approach to research regarding the legality of online assessment. The discussions presented in this section offer research into the integration of technology to allow access for all classrooms regardless of socioeconomic status; arguably the most important social and organizational barrier that this field of study has yet to overcome.

Section Six, Managerial Impact presents contemporary coverage of the social implications of online and distance learning, more specifically related to the corporate and managerial utilization of online learning technologies and applications, and how online learning can be facilitated within these organizations. Core ideas such as training and continuing education of human resources in modern organizations are discussed through these more than twenty five chapters. “Implementing and Sustaining E-Learning in the Workplace” by Zane Berge discusses strategic planning related to the organizational elements and the e-learning program requirements that are necessary to build a framework in order to institutionalize and sustain e-learning as a core business process. Equally as crucial, within the educational management system, chapters such as “The Management of Virtual Classes in School District Digital Intranets” by Ken Stevens address the latest research concerning the management of digital networking via the internet to schools, particularly those in rural communities. Concluding this section is a chapter by Catherine C. Schifter of Temple University, “Faculty Participation in Distance Education Programs”. This chapter refocuses the issue of the managerial impact of distance learning to the facilitators by examining the crucial role that faculty members play in the success of a virtual classroom.

Section Seven, Critical Issues , containing thirty chapters addressing issues such as gender barriers, web accessibility, quality assurance and development of e-learning in under-developed countries presents readers with an in-depth analysis of the most current and relevant issues within this growing field of study. Barbara A Frey, Ashli Molinero and Ellen Cohn’s, “Increasing Web Accessibility and Usability in Higher Education” developes an excellent model for researchers and practioners as attempts are made to expand the reaches of online and distance learning within the higher education community. Forming a frameworks in which to position the issues faced in this growing field are provided by research found in chapters such as, “Inquisitivism: The Evolution of a Constructivist Approach for Web-Based Instruction” by Dwayne Harapnuik—an chapter that takes the core psychological paradigms of education and translates them into applicable ideas within the exploding realm of online and distance education. Crucial examinations such as that presented in David Catterick’s chapter, “Do the Philosophical Foundations of Online Learning Disadvantage Non-Western Students?” serves to reinforce the ideas presented in this section while simultaneously enticing and inspiring the reader to research further and participate in this increasingly pertinent debate.

The concluding section of this authoritative reference tool, Emerging Trends, highlights research potential within the field of online and distance learning while exploring uncharted areas of study for the advancement of the discipline. Introducing this section is Bruce Rollier’s, “Trends and Perspectives in Online Education” which sets the stage for future research directions and topical suggestions for continued debate. Providing a fresh, alternative view of distance education is the chapter, “Faculty Perceptions and Participation in Distance Education” by James R. Lindner, Kim E. Dooley, Chanda Elbert, Timothy H. Murphy and Theresa P. Murphrey of Texas A&M University. These colleagues explore the adaptive traits necessary as disseminators of knowledge within this evolving platform of education; a reminder that not only is the role of the learner rapidly evolving, but so too is the role of the facilitator. Another a debate which currently finds itself at the forefront of research within this field is presented by David Gibson’s research which centers on simSchool and gaming within online and distance learning as a discipline, whereas Bernhard Ertl, Katrin Winkler and Heinz Mandl’s, “E-Learning: Trends and Future Development” summarizes contemporary trends while projecting future developments.

Although the primary organization of the contents in this multi-volume is based on its eight sections, offering a progression of coverage of the important concepts, methodologies, technologies, applications, social issues, and emerging trends, the reader can also identify specific contents by utilizing the extensive indexing system listed at the end of each volume. Furthermore to ensure that the scholar, researcher and educator have access to the entire contents of this multi volume set as well as additional coverage that could not be include in the print version of this publication, the publisher will provide unlimited multi-user electronic access to the online aggregated database of this collection for the life of edition, free of charge when a library purchases a print copy. This aggregated database provides far more contents than what can be included in the print version in addition to continual updates. This unlimited access, coupled with the continuous updates to the database ensures that the most current research is accessible knowledge seekers.

Educational programs at the college level have witnessed fundamental changes during the past two decades, moving more toward campus-free approaches and allowing millions of non-traditional as well traditional students around the globe to have access to educational programs which two decades ago, were inaccessible. In addition to this transformation, many traditional educational programs have taken advantage of the technologies offered by distance and online learning in order to expand and augment their existing programs. This has allowed educators to serve their student base more effectively and efficiently in the modern virtual world. With continued technological innovations in information and communication technology and with on-going discovery and research into newer and more innovative techniques and applications, the online and distance learning discipline will continue to witness an explosion of knowledge within this rapidly evolving field. This continued trend will also lead to expansion of the literature related to all areas of this discipline. Access to more up-to-date research findings and knowledge of established techniques and lessons to be learned from other researchers and practicing educators will facilitate the discovery and invention of more effective methodologies and applications of online and distance learning technologies.

The diverse and comprehensive coverage of online and distance learning in this six-volume authoritative publication will contribute to a better understanding of all topics, research, and discoveries in this developing, significant field of study. Furthermore, the contributions included in this multi-volume collection series will be instrumental in the expansion of the body of knowledge in this enormous field, resulting in a greater understanding of the fundamentals while fueling the research initiatives in emerging fields. We at Information Science Reference, along with the editor of this collection, and the publisher hope that this multi-volume collection will become instrumental in the expansion of the discipline and will promote the continued growth of online and distance learning.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Lawrence A. Tomei is Associate Provost for Academic Affairs and a professor in education at Robert Morris University. Born in Akron, Ohio, he earned a BSBA from the University of Akron (1972) and entered the US Air Force, serving until his retirement as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1994. Dr. Tomei completed his MPA and MEd at the University of Oklahoma (1975, 1978) and EdD from USC (1983). His articles and books on instructional technology include: Professional Portfolios for Teachers (1999), Teaching Digitally: Integrating Technology Into the Classroom (2001), Technology Facade (2002), Challenges of Teaching with Technology Across the Curriculum (2003), and Taxonomy for the Technology Domain (2005).


Reference UniverseReference Universe

Editorial Board

Associate Editors

Steve Clarke
University of Hull, UK

Murray Jennex
San Diego State University, USA

Annie Becker
Florida Institute of Technology USA

Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
University of Tampere, Finland

Editorial Advisory Board

Sherif Kamel
American University in Cairo, Egypt

In Lee
Western Illinois University, USA

Jerzy Kisielnicki
Warsaw University, Poland

Keng Siau
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

Amar Gupta
Arizona University, USA

Craig van Slyke
University of Central Florida, USA

John Wang
Montclair State University, USA

Vishanth Weerakkody
Brunel University, UK