Traditionally, due to the distinction between pedagogy (art and science of teaching children) and andragogy (art and science of helping adults learn), scholars have written books for K-12 learners while other scholars have written books for adult learners. Clearly, the two fields are separated. Nowhere can we find a book that addresses both pedagogical and andragogical issues. By studying pedagogy, we learn more about andragogy, and by studying andragogy, we learn more about pedagogy. Since we live in this learning society, lifelong learning has become the goal in education. Why separate the two fields from each other? After all, from pedagogy to andragogy, it should be seen as a continuum of one’s education as an integral part of lifelong learning process. As two distinctively different scientific disciplines, pedagogy and andragogy should be knitted together into one book so that teachers and school administrators can study both approaches to teaching and learning and select the ones that fit their particular teaching and learning situations. Teaching and learning with information communication technologies also require different approaches. Pedagogy and andragogy should be translated into online teaching and learning in the new century. It is our utmost pleasure to give birth to such a book titled Pedagogical and Andragogical Teaching and Learning with Information Communication Technologies
after months of research in the two separate, yet closely related disciplines, pedagogy and andragogy. Indeed, this book has advanced a framework, a process, and meaningful approaches for teaching and learning with information communication technologies.
Everyone who teaches knows that pedagogy and andragogy emerged as soon as famous educators such as Socrates, Plato, and Confucius began teaching. These two concepts are used every day by ordinary teachers and educators from any educational establishments on any campus from any countries. While pedagogy is defined as instructional methods in the educational field, it is defined in particular as the art and science of teaching children (please note in the general field of education, it is defined as the overarching concept of teaching, though) as opposed to andragogy, which is defined as the art and science of helping adults in adult education. In any educational leadership/counseling programs, the most commonly asked question is what kinds of knowledge/skills should school teachers and administrators (principals/counselors) possess in order to be effective instructors and administrators? The primary answer to this question will be school instructors and administrators need to be equipped with the knowledge of pedagogy as well as andragogy. In other words, they need to know how children and adults learn in order to teach those children and help those adults learn effectively. Without knowledge of pedagogy and andragogy, any instructional/administrative activities would lead to mindless activism, let alone effective teaching or administrative leadership. As two closely related fields of study, pedagogy and andragogy have been studied by teachers, scholars, and practitioners for centuries. Some scholars argue that pedagogy preceded andragogy, and others argue that andragogy preceded pedagogy by saying that the students of Socrates, Plato, or Confucius were of adults, not of children.
Some even say although these prominent educators educated and trained adults first, andragogy was not coined until 1833 in Germany. As a field of study, it was advanced only around the 1920s. Later in the 1970s, as a strikingly different concept from pedagogy, it was popularized by Malcolm Knowles in North America. Pedagogy as field of study had matured long before andragogy was introduced to North America. The father of pedagogy, John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), advocated that children should learn from things to words and then from words to things. Principles of pedagogy were well documented for teachers and school leaders long before the term andragogy was coined. Then, Jean Piaget’s (1896-1980) advanced theory of cognitive development and epistemological view, together called "genetic epistemology,” laid great importance to the education of children. He declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual."
Naturally, education should encompass the education of children and the education of adults. Otherwise, “democracy based on well-informed citizenry” would become an empty slogan. Back to the question what kinds of knowledge/skills should school teachers and administrators (principals/counselors) possess in order to be effective instructors and administrators? The secondary answer to this question should be school teachers and administrators need to be equipped with their own preparation from their own fields, whether they be math, biology, history or nursing. In other words, teachers and school administrators need to be subject matter experts. Knowledge of pedagogy and andragogy will only equip them with the right kinds of instructional strategies. Subject matter knowledge should come from their former school preparation or real world experience.
Even well equipped with the aforementioned two kinds of knowledge, a plethora of other kinds of knowledge are needed in order for teachers and administrators to be effective instructional and administrative leaders. For example, as e-learning has become a major force in education on any campus in any country in the new century, acquiring knowledge through technology, especially Web 2.0’s interactivity, can occur anywhere, at any time. Most schools and universities have seized this historic opportunity to engage teaching and learning via technology. Information communication technology as an enhancing instructional tool has become the buzz term. Indeed, both school teachers and administrators can help learners, young and old, acquire knowledge with information communication technologies. In other words, teaching and learning either pedagogically or andragogically online can happen. Likewise, pedagogical and andragogical assessment online can happen.