To date, most research into the implications of the Internet for SMEs has focused on individual business barriers to ICT and e-commerce adoption. Such research has shown that SMEs tend to be time- and resource-poor, with their size being their main disadvantage vis-à-vis ICT adoption (OECD, 2000; Van Beveren & Thompson, 2002). Perhaps the question is not whether small firms have adopted ICT, but rather where are small firms in terms of their ICT adoption. ICT encompasses a series of separate yet interrelated components; for example, electronic mail (e-mail), the Internet, the Web, and e-commerce, which can be adopted in a variety of social and business settings. Hence, it is suggested that ICT cannot be considered as a single technological innovation but rather as a series of (process) innovations, potentially resulting in variable ICT adoption patterns (Walczuch, Van Braven, & Lundgren, 2000).
Key Terms in this Chapter
Location-Based Service: A service provided to the subscriber based on their current geographic location. This position can be known by the user as an entry or a global positioning system receiver. Most often the term implies the use of a radiolocation function built into the cell network or handset that uses triangulation between the known geographic coordinates of the base stations through which the communication takes place.
Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Accounting-oriented information systems for identifying and planning the enterprise-wide resources needed to take, make, distribute, and account for customer orders. The basic premise of these systems is to implement a single information warehouse that will service all of the functional areas of a business.
Geographical Information System (GIS): A system for managing spatial data and associated attributes. In the strictest sense, it is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, and displaying geographically-referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is a smart map tool that allows users to create interactive queries, analyze the spatial information, and edit data.
Web-Based Public Participatory GIS: An online application of GIS that is used for increasing public access to information and active participation in the decision-making process and is an important improvement over existing public and decision-maker power relationships.
Public Participatory GIS: A GIS technology that is used by members of the public, both as individuals and grass-root groups for participation in the public processes (i.e., data collection, mapping, analysis, and decision-making) affecting their lives.
Local E-Government: Information, services, or transactions that local governments provide online to citizens using the Internet and Web sites.
E-Government: Relations of top/down power—governing populations through use of online information and services.
Decision Support Systems: A class of computerized information systems that support decision making activities.
Interactive Internet Map Server: An online mapping utility which enables users who may not be familiar with GIS to view and interact with online GIS.
Planning Support Systems: Interactive computer-based systems designed to help decision-makers process data and models to identify and solve complex problems in large scale urban environment and make decisions.
Web-Based GIS also known as ‘Internet GIS’: A new technology that is used to display and analyze spatial data on the Internet. It combines the advantages of both Internet and GIS. It offers the public a new means to access spatial information without owning expensive GIS software.
Complete Chapter List
Stewart Marshall, Wal Taylor, Xinghuo Yu
Pramod Sharma, Dean Carson, Andrew Taylor
Lynne H. De Weaver
Mohamed El Louadi
Godfred Frempong, Imoro Braimah
Geoff Erwin, Wal Taylor
Leone Wheeler, Cheryl Lewis-Fitzgerald
José L. Moutinho, Manuel Heitor
Peter Songan, Khairuddin Ab. Hamid, Alvin W. Yeo, Jayapragas Gnaniah, Hushairi Zen
Daniel Teghe, Bruce Allen Knight
Auli Keskinen, Tuomo Kuosa
Olesya Arkyhypska, Svitlana Bilous, Vitaly Yarinich
Bijan B. Gillani
Juliet Jain, Glenn Lyons
Martin R. Gibbs, Philippa Wright, Michael Arnold
Deborah Sater Carstens
Aileen Cater-Steel, Shelly Grist
Maria F. Trujillo
Jayapragas Gnaniah, Alvin W. Yeo, Hushairi Zen, Peter Songan, Khairuddin Ab. Hamid
Éliane M.F. Moreau, Louis Raymond, Bernard Vermot-Desroches
Wayne Pease, Michelle Rowe
Richard M. Escalante
Heather Arthur-Gray, John Campbell
Janet Toland, Fuatai Purcell, Sid Huff
Mohamed El Louadi
Dora Scholarios, Esther van der Schoot, Beatrice van der Heijden
Cisco M. Magagula
Ashok Banerji, Saswata Basu
Colin R. Latchem, Ajit Maru
Wayne Pease, Michelle Rowe, Lauretta Wright
Usha Sundar Harris
Saundarjya Borbora, Mrinal Kanti Dutta
Chiara Giorgi, Dieter Schürch
Nicole Arellano, Wallace Chigona, Jeanne Moore, Jean-Paul Van Belle
Anjali Gera Roy
Anand Chand, David Leeming
Zubeeda Banu Quraishy
Ibrahima Poda, William F. Brescia
Colin Baskin, Michelle Barker, Peter Woods
Malathi Somaiah, V. Vijayalakshmi
Serge S. Azarov
Vicente D. Mariano
Timothy Shea, Craig Davis
Lejla Vrazalic, Peter N. Hyland
Stefane M. Kaben, Jatinder Takhar, Raymond Leduc, Rick Burjaw
Anirban Lahiri, Anupam Basu
Alicia (Lucy) Cameron
Jayapragas Gnaniah, Peter Songan, Alvin W. Yeo, Hushairi Zen, Khairuddin Ab. Hamid
Greg Whateley, Ian Bofinger, Peter Calvo
Sylvie Siyam Siwe, Clarisse Loumou Loe
Yeslam Al-Saggaf, John Weckert
Savvas Papagiannidis, Joanna Berry, Feng Li
Bijan B. Gillani
Patrick Craddock, Peggy Duncan
Laurel Evelyn Dyson
Jonathan Trusler, Jean-Paul Van Belle
Ian Weber, Eric T.K. Lim
Peter G. Mwesige
Karin Geiselhart, Peter Jamieson
Louis Sanzogni, Heather Arthur-Gray
Colin R. Latchem
Stefane M. Kabene, Raymond Leduc, Rick Burjaw
Alfredo Eurico Rodrígues Matta
Thomas Wilsdon, Jill Slay
Maximilian C. Forte
A. Lee Gilbert