In this chapter, the activity domain theory is introduced as a theoretical lens for guiding the alignment of business and knowledge strategies. Alignment is focused around the activity domain, which can be comprehended as a human workpractice where socially organized actors process a work object into a required outcome. An organization is seen as a constellation of activity domains, each providing a specific outcome. The products or services provided by the organization are realized by coordinating the domains. The main target for the business strategy is the constellation of activity domains. The target of the knowledge strategy is the knowledge needed to produce the outcome of each domain and the knowledge needed to coordinate the domains. In this way, the activity domain provides a common target for business and knowledge strategies. We argue that this approach makes it possible to operationalize an integrated alignment of business and knowledge strategies.