Adapting Levels of Instructional Support to Optimize Learning Complex Cognitive Skills

Adapting Levels of Instructional Support to Optimize Learning Complex Cognitive Skills

Slava Kalyuga (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-048-6.ch011
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Abstract

This chapter describes some specific adaptive procedures for tailoring levels of instructional guidance to individual levels of learner task-specific expertise to optimize cognitive resources available to learning. Recent studies in expertise reversal effect that were reviewed in previous chapters indicate that instructional design principles that benefit low-knowledge users may disadvantage more experienced ones. This reversal in the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods is due to the increase in cognitive load that is required for integration of presented supporting information with learners’ available knowledge structures. The major implication of these findings for multimedia design is the need to tailor levels of instructional support to individual levels of learner task-specific expertise. The procedures for adapting levels of instructional guidance suggested in this chapter have been developed in conjunction with empirically established interactions between levels of learner expertise and optimal instructional techniques and procedures. The chapter starts with the description of the processes and approaches to learning complex cognitive skills. The appropriate design models for learning complex skills are reviewed and different ways of varying levels of learner control in such models are described. The relations between levels of learner task-specific expertise and optimal levels of instructional guidance are then discussed. Also, empirical studies of the expertise reversal for instructional guidance and sequencing of learning tasks are reviewed. The completion tasks and faded worked examples are specific instructional methods used in the described studies for managing levels of instructional guidance in adaptive learning environments. Real-time monitoring of levels of learner task-specific expertise using rapid cognitive diagnostic methods was used in some of these studies.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Slava Kalyuga
Table of Contents
Foreword
Richard E. Mayer
Chapter 1
Slava Kalyuga
One of the major components of our cognitive architecture, working memory, becomes overloaded if more than a few chunks of information are processed... Sample PDF
Human Cognitive Processes
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Chapter 2
Cognitive Load Theory  (pages 34-57)
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive load theory is a learning and instruction theory that describes instructional design implications of human cognitive architecture outlined... Sample PDF
Cognitive Load Theory
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Chapter 3
Slava Kalyuga
Cognitive studies of expertise that were reviewed in Chapter I indicated that prior knowledge is the most important 1earner characteristic that... Sample PDF
The Expertise Reversal Effect
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Chapter 4
Slava Kalyuga
Main implication of the expertise reversal effect is the need to tailor instructional techniques and procedures to changing levels of learner... Sample PDF
Assessment of Task-Specific Expertise
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Chapter 5
Slava Kalyuga
Availability of valid and usable measures of cognitive load involved in learning is essential for providing support for cognitive load-based... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Cognitive Load
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Chapter 6
Slava Kalyuga
Chapter VI describes specific evidence-based methods for managing cognitive load in verbal and pictorial information representations. According to... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Verbal and Pictorial Representations
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Chapter 7
Slava Kalyuga
Most sophisticated multimedia learning environments include various interactivity features. Interactive multimedia learning environments respond... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Interactive Multimedia
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Chapter 8
Slava Kalyuga
According to dual-coding theory, when learning concrete concepts, adding pictorial representations could be superior to verbal-only descriptions... Sample PDF
Managing Cognitive Load in Dynamic Visual Representations
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Chapter 9
Slava Kalyuga
Instructional simulation and games are usually used as substitutes for actual equipment, processes, real-life problems, and social situations. They... Sample PDF
Optimizing Cognitive Load in Instructional Simulations and Games
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Chapter 10
Slava Kalyuga
Personalized adaptive multimedia environments provide individual learners or learner groups with experience that is specifically tailored to them.... Sample PDF
Tailoring Multimedia Environments to Learner Cognitive Characteristics
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Chapter 11
Slava Kalyuga
This chapter describes some specific adaptive procedures for tailoring levels of instructional guidance to individual levels of learner... Sample PDF
Adapting Levels of Instructional Support to Optimize Learning Complex Cognitive Skills
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Chapter 12
Slava Kalyuga
The rapid diagnostic approach to evaluating levels of learner task-specific expertise was introduced in Chapter IV and used in several studies that... Sample PDF
Adaptive Procedures for Efficient Learning
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Summary of Section I
Summary of Section II
Summary of Section II
General Conclusion
Glossary of Terms
About the Author