Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government

Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government

Jay Ramanathan (The Ohio State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch007
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Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked solutions. This chapter first provides a prescriptive transactionbased method for achieving such networking organizations with information technologies (IT) and then discusses how the organization becomes more effective in non-routine responses to citizen requests. We illustrate how the prescriptive transaction-based enterprise architecture1 framework2 was used for decision-making in a multi-year interdisciplinary industry-university collaboration resulting in a successful 311 system.
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Public institutions are organized in hierarchies making it challenging for them to address non-routine problems that demand networked solutions. This chapter first provides a prescriptive method for achieving such networking organizations with information technologies (IT) and then discusses how the resulting capabilities may be used for crisis-management. We illustrate how the underlying transaction-based enterprise architecture3framework4 was used for decision-making in a multi-year interdisciplinary industry-university collaboration5 with the City of Columbus, Ohio which has implemented a successful 3116 system. The collaboration reported here is based on two related projects: 1) the Department of Technology’s Strategic Plan [Ramnath and Landsbergen 2005] and 2) the Independent Evaluation of the 311 system [Ramnath and Desai 2007].

Finally, we also introduce an AdaptiveComplexEnterprise7 (ACE) architecture framework that treats organizations and IT in a holistic manner to create networked service capability. Figure 1 shows how our basic unit of analysis, the RED transaction tuple consisting of Requirements, Execution of transaction and Delivery arising from Requests in its contextual environment. The ACE consists of a number of nested dimensions. The outermost dimension of ACE is the strategic dimension where the external context and environment is scanned and external requirements are assessed. The business dimension is where the investments and value creation of ACE are aligned to respond to this assessment of the external requirements. The costs and the production aspects of ACE are aligned in the operations dimension and the transactions are finally executed in the infrastructure use dimension where the Requirements are operationalized into actual transaction tasks and deliverables are produced.

Figure 1.

ACE architecture framework for building network capability on existing silos

In ACE, service-providing agents (that is organizations, applications and processes) are dynamically assembled to provide adapting responses to specific routine and non-routine Requests. Our focus in this chapter, however, is on the collaboration across silos that must be established in order to manage non-routine Requests, which are the defining characteristics of crises. Hence the underlying ACE framework offers a Requirements-Execution-Delivery based prescription for planning and execution of a strategy through the alignment dimensions where IT plays a catalyst role in building networks that cut across organizational silos. We illustrate how the ACE-based analysis also succeeds in justifying the networking and the prioritization in complex organizations.

A common criticism of a complex systems characterization of an organization, particularly in the public sector, is that because of the complexity and its emergent properties it is difficult to establish clear lines of responsibility. Therefore accountability is not readily established. However, in this fine-grain monitoring of the requests and execution of transactions-deliverables it is possible to provide acountability and to establish a history, on a Request basis, even in highly uncertain and dynamic crisis management contexts.

This chapter is organized as follows. We begin with a discussion of the networking research and trends in government along with the related IT challenges that demand an interdisciplinary approach. We then present the ACE framework itself. We apply this framework to our case study of the implementation of the city’s 311 non-emergency response system. Finally, we present the IT deployment process, the results of the 311 deployment and their success in building an adaptive capability for responding to and managing crises.

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
John A. Zachman
Pallab Saha
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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