this chapter considers some of the issues related to the adoption of online synchronous communication tools and proposes strategies to help deal with these issues. Two contrasting contexts of use of online synchronous tools are described. In one context, audio-conferencing using Elluminate LiveTM is highlighted, in the other, video-conferencing using iVisitTM. Issues related to use of these tools for synchronous communication are considered from the perspective of relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity. The advantages included the immediacy, spontaneity, intimacy, efficiency, and convenience of communication. Complexity manifested itself in relation to time management, shifting and evolving technical and pedagogical needs, and changes in instructors’ roles. Compatibility issues included the demands on instructors, lack of freedom from temporal constraints, and difficulties with communication across time zones and when multi-tasking.