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Advanced WML

Copyright © 2009. 27 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-769-0.ch007
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MLA

Hu, Wen-Chen. "Advanced WML." Internet-Enabled Handheld Devices, Computing, and Programming: Mobile Commerce and Personal Data Applications. IGI Global, 2009. 180-206. Web. 31 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-769-0.ch007

APA

Hu, W. (2009). Advanced WML. In W. Hu (Ed.), Internet-Enabled Handheld Devices, Computing, and Programming: Mobile Commerce and Personal Data Applications (pp. 180-206). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-769-0.ch007

Chicago

Hu, Wen-Chen. "Advanced WML." In Internet-Enabled Handheld Devices, Computing, and Programming: Mobile Commerce and Personal Data Applications, ed. Wen-Chen Hu, 180-206 (2009), accessed October 31, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-769-0.ch007

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Abstract

Chapter VI discusses the creation of static web pages, which have a fixed content at all times. In order to change static web pages to dynamic ones, it is necessary to implement advanced WML, the subject of this chapter, which requires support from external programs containing procedural languages. There are several methods available for calling external programs the two most common being: • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor): PHP is a server-side, cross-platform, HTML embedded scripting language that allows programmers to create dynamic web pages. In an HTML document, PHP script (with a similar syntax to that of Perl or C) is enclosed within special PHP tags. Because PHP is embedded within tags, it is possible to jump between HTML and PHP (as in ASP and Cold Fusion) rather than relying on heavy amounts of code to output HTML. PHP is executed on the server, so the client cannot view the PHP code. PHP can perform any task that a CGI program can, and PHP-enabled Web pages can be created and edited just like regular HTML pages. • ASP.NET (Active Server Pages): ASP.NET is a free technology from Microsoft that allows programmers to create dynamic web applications. An ASP.NET file can contain text, HTML tags and scripts. Scripts in an ASP.NET file are executed on the server. ASP can be used to create web applications ranging from small, personal websites through to large, enterprise-class web applications. This chapter will focus on applications that use CGI because of its simplicity.
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Introduction

Chapter VI discusses the creation of static web pages, which have a fixed content at all times. In order to change static web pages to dynamic ones, it is necessary to implement advanced WML, the subject of this chapter, which requires support from external programs containing procedural languages. There are several methods available for calling external programs the two most common being:

  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor): PHP is a server-side, cross-platform, HTML embedded scripting language that allows programmers to create dynamic web pages. In an HTML document, PHP script (with a similar syntax to that of Perl or C) is enclosed within special PHP tags. Because PHP is embedded within tags, it is possible to jump between HTML and PHP (as in ASP and Cold Fusion) rather than relying on heavy amounts of code to output HTML. PHP is executed on the server, so the client cannot view the PHP code. PHP can perform any task that a CGI program can, and PHP-enabled Web pages can be created and edited just like regular HTML pages.

  • ASP.NET (Active Server Pages): ASP.NET is a free technology from Microsoft that allows programmers to create dynamic web applications. An ASP.NET file can contain text, HTML tags and scripts. Scripts in an ASP.NET file are executed on the server. ASP can be used to create web applications ranging from small, personal websites through to large, enterprise-class web applications.

This chapter will focus on applications that use CGI because of its simplicity.

Cgi (Common Gateway Interface)

CGI [W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), 1999] is a standard for running external programs from a World Wide Web HTTP server. CGI specifies how to pass arguments to the executing program as part of the HTTP request and defines a set of environment variables. For most mobile commerce applications, the program generates WML pages that are then passed back to the browser. CGI allows the returned WML (or other document types) to depend in any arbitrary way on the request, and a CGI program can be any program that can accept command-line arguments. Perl is a common choice for writing CGI scripts because it is good at string processing and most Web applications are string-related. Some HTTP servers require CGI programs to reside in a special directory, often “/cgi-bin/.”

A CGI Script

Figure 1 shows the top part of a CGI script, which performs the following two tasks:

Figure 1.

A sample of the top part of a CGI script

  • 1.

    Informs the Web server about the script type and content type, and prints the WML header information, and

  • 2.

    Retrieves the user entry data from the Web and converts it into $FORM variables.

The remainder of the CGI script can be made up of any kind of processing or could call other programs. It usually calls a program of a host language with embedded-SQL, such as JDBC, or a 3G language, such as C.

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Complete Chapter List

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Chapter 1
Wen-Chen Hu
With the introduction of the World Wide Web, electronic commerce revolutionized traditional commerce, boosting sales and facilitating exchanges of... Sample PDF
Fundamentals of Mobile Commerce Systems
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Chapter 2
Wen-Chen Hu
Commerce, the exchange or buying and selling of commodities on a large scale involving transportation of goods from place to place, benefits from... Sample PDF
Mobile Commerce Applications
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Chapter 3
Wen-Chen Hu
Mobile users interact with mobile commerce applications by using small wireless Internet-enabled devices, which come with several aliases such as... Sample PDF
Mobile Handheld Devices
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Chapter 4
Wen-Chen Hu
Without ways to conduct secure commercial information exchange and safe electronic financial transactions over mobile networks, neither service... Sample PDF
Essential Mobile-Commerce Technology
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Chapter 5
Wen-Chen Hu
As handheld computing is a fairly new computing area, there is as yet no generally accepted formal definition. For the purposes of this book... Sample PDF
Mobile World Wide Web Content
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Chapter 6
Wen-Chen Hu
Wireless application protocol (WAP) (Open Mobile Alliance, 2003) is a suite of network protocols that specifies ways of sending data across the... Sample PDF
WML (Wireless Markup Language)
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Chapter 7
Advanced WML  (pages 180-206)
Wen-Chen Hu
Chapter VI discusses the creation of static web pages, which have a fixed content at all times. In order to change static web pages to dynamic ones... Sample PDF
Advanced WML
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Chapter 8
WMLScript  (pages 207-228)
Wen-Chen Hu
WML is a markup language used for text formatting and displaying (Open Mobile Alliance, 2001). However, the functions of a markup language are... Sample PDF
WMLScript
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Chapter 9
Wen-Chen Hu
Numerous server-side handheld applications are available for devices. Some popular applications include: • Instant messages, which require service... Sample PDF
Database-Driven Mobile Web Content Construction
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Chapter 10
Wen-Chen Hu
There are two kinds of handheld computing and programming, namely client- and server- side handheld computing and programming. The most popular... Sample PDF
Client-Side Handheld Computing and Programming
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Chapter 11
Wen-Chen Hu
Most client-side handheld programming uses either Java or C/C++. This chapter introduces Java ME (previously known as J2ME), which is a version of... Sample PDF
Java ME (Java Platform, Micro Edition) Programming
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Chapter 12
Wen-Chen Hu
Chapter XI introduced the basics of Java ME programming. This chapter will build on this, focusing on advanced Java ME programming. The following... Sample PDF
Advanced Java ME Programming
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Chapter 13
Palm OS Programming  (pages 333-350)
Wen-Chen Hu
Programming for Palm devices is not a trivial task and it is especially hard for beginners starting their first assignment. This chapter is not... Sample PDF
Palm OS Programming
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Chapter 14
Wen-Chen Hu
The introduction to Palm OS programming given in the previous chapter provided an overview of its structure and basic concepts. This chapter... Sample PDF
Advanced Palm OS Programming
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