Advances and Trends in Tissue Engineering of Teeth

Advances and Trends in Tissue Engineering of Teeth

Shital Patel (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia) and Yos Morsi (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-292-3.ch008
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Abstract

Tooth loss due to several reasons affects most people adversely at some time in their lives. A biological tooth substitute, which could not only replace lost teeth but also restore their function, could be achieved by tissue engineering. Scaffolds required for this purpose, can be produced by the use of various techniques. Cells, which are to be seeded onto these scaffolds, can range from differentiated ones to stem cells both of dental and non-dental origin. This chapter deals with overcoming the drawbacks of the currently available tooth replacement techniques by tissue engineering, the success achieved in it at this stage and suggestion on the focus for future research.
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Tissue Engineering Approach

Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary area that integrates the principles of engineering and biological sciences to develop a biological substitute, which can be used to repair, regenerate or replace parts of the body.

A general approach of TE involves the use of temporary porous three-dimensional scaffolds to: (a) define the complex anatomical shape of the tissue, (b) guide the proliferation and differentiation of seeded cells and (c) provide mechanical support for the cells (Morsi et al). Thus scaffold plays a key role in tissue engineering by providing the initial extracellular matrix required to support the growth and proliferation of cells.

Various techniques are available for manufacturing the three-dimensional scaffolds that are dependent on the optimal scaffold required for the application on hand. The ideal scaffold should posses following characteristics: (i) the rate of scaffold degradation should be in accordance to the rate of tissue growth, (ii) the surface of the scaffold should be conductive to cell attachment, growth and differentiation, (iii) possess required pore size and interconnectivity for tissue integration, vascularisation and transfer of nutrients and waste removal, (iv) have adequate mechanical strength and flexibility to suit intended application, (v) possess high surface area to volume ratio and (vi) the scaffold should be easy to process and be manufactured in a cost effective manner.

The design of an ideal scaffold has to be accompanied by the selection of a suitable material. Several synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA) and their copolymers, natural materials like collagen, fibrin and alginate are the most commonly used materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Irrespective of the type of material used and its application, it should be biocompatible, easy to modify, should have structural stability, and should be versatile, biodegradable and malleable.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Petros Koidis
Preface
Andriani Daskalaki
Acknowledgment
Andriani Daskalaki
Chapter 1
Demetrios J. Halazonetis
Cephalometric analysis has been a routine diagnostic procedure in Orthodontics for more than 60 years, traditionally employing the measurement of... Sample PDF
Software Support for Advanced Cephalometric Analysis in Orthodontics
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Chapter 2
Jorg Hendricks, Gert Wollny, Alexander Hemprich, Thomas Hierl
This chapter presents a toolchain including image segmentation, rigid registration and a voxel based non-rigid registration as well as 3D... Sample PDF
A New Software Environment for 3D-Time Series Analysis
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Chapter 3
Antheunis Versluis, Daranee Tantbirojn
Residual stress due to polymerization shrinkage of restorative dental materials has been associated with a number of clinical symptoms, ranging from... Sample PDF
Relationship Between Shrinkage and Stress
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Chapter 4
Andreas Vogel
This chapter introduces a computer-controlled method for mandible alignment. The exact positioning of the mandible in relation to the maxilla is... Sample PDF
An Objective Registration Method for Mandible Alignment
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Chapter 5
Thomas Hierl, Heike Huempfner-Hierl, Daniel Kruber, Thomas Gaebler, Alexander Hemprich, Gert Wollny
This chapter discusses the requirements of an image analysis tool designed for dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery focussing on 3D-image... Sample PDF
Requirements for a Universal Image Analysis Tool in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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Chapter 6
N.A. Borghese, I. Frosio
This chapter shows how large improvement in image quality can be obtained when radiographs are filtered using adequate statistical models. In... Sample PDF
Denoising and Contrast Enhancement in Dental Radiography
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Chapter 7
Ralf K.W. Schulze
Established techniques for three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction such as computed tomography (CT) or, more recently cone beam computed... Sample PDF
3D Reconstructions from Few Projections in Oral Radiology
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Chapter 8
Shital Patel, Yos Morsi
Tooth loss due to several reasons affects most people adversely at some time in their lives. A biological tooth substitute, which could not only... Sample PDF
Advances and Trends in Tissue Engineering of Teeth
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Chapter 9
Wei-Bang Chen, Chengcui Zhang
Bacterial colony enumeration is an essential tool for many widely used biomedical assays. This chapter introduces a cost-effective and fully... Sample PDF
Automated Bacterial Colony Counting for Clonogenic Assay
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Chapter 10
Michele Jacotti, Domenico Ciambrone
In this chapter the authors describe a new system for guided surgery in implantology. The aim of this system is to have a “user friendly”... Sample PDF
A New System in Guided Surgery: The Flatguide(TM) System
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Chapter 11
Ferenc Pongracz
Intraoperative transfer of the implant and prosthesis planning in dentistry is facilitated by drilling templates or active, image-guided navigation.... Sample PDF
Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology
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Chapter 12
Antonios Zampelis, George Tsamasphyros
Biomechanical research has gained recognition in medical sciences. Osseointegrated dental implants, being medical devices functioning under constant... Sample PDF
Finite Element Analysis and its Application in Dental Implant Research
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Chapter 13
Amit Chattopadhyay, Tiago Coelho de Souza, Oscar Arevalo
Electronic Oral Health Records (EOHRs) contains all personal health information belonging to an individual and is entered and accessed... Sample PDF
Electronic Oral Health Records in Practice and Research
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Chapter 14
Maxim Kolesnikov, Arnold D. Steinberg, Milos Zefran
This chapter describes the haptic dental simulator developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago. It explores its use and advantages as an... Sample PDF
Haptic-Based Virtual Reality Dental Simulator as an Educational Tool
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Chapter 15
Anka Letic-Gavrilovic
In this chapter, the author will demonstrate and describe a project to develop a unique database with multilingual information and knowledge... Sample PDF
Digital Library for Dental Biomaterials
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Chapter 16
Petros Koidis, Marianthi Manda
The present chapter deals with the introduction and implementation of rapid prototyping technologies in medical and dental field. Its purpose is to... Sample PDF
Rapid Prototyping and Dental Applications
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Chapter 17
Hiroo Tamagawa, Hideaki Amano, Naoji Hayashi, Yasuyuki Hirose
In this chapter, the authors report the minimal set of characters from the Unicode Standard that is sufficient for the notation of human dentition... Sample PDF
Unicode Characters for Human Dentition: New Foundation for Standardized Data Exchange and Notation in Countries Employing Double-Byte Character Sets
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Chapter 18
Nikos Nikolaidis, Ioannis Marras, Georgios Mikrogeorgis, Kleoniki Lyroudia, Ioannis Pitas
The availability of datasets comprising of digitized images of human body cross sections (as well as images acquired with other modalities such as... Sample PDF
Virtual Dental Patient: A 3D Oral Cavity Model and its Use in Haptics-Based Virtual Reality Cavity Preparation in Endodontics
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About the Contributors