AJAX in Development of Web-Based Architecture for Implementation of E-Governance

AJAX in Development of Web-Based Architecture for Implementation of E-Governance

Dilip Kumar Sharma (G.L.A. Institute of Technology and Management, India), Gopalji Varshneya (G.L.A. Institute of Technology and Management, India) and Ashwani Kumar Upadhyay (M. N. National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-130-8.ch018
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Abstract

This article analyzes the diffusion of a Web technology named AJAX in facilitating e-government architecture and enhancing its potential by enablement of modern Web features as democracy and collaboration. Flexibility needed for free flow of interactive collaboration, compatibility, and robustness is treated as vital in the chapter. Major enterprises that have created landmarks in terms of participation of individuals and enterprises, along with contemporary Web technologies, are also analyzed to consolidate priority of technologies befitting robust and sustainable Web architecture. Emphasis is on the point that a proper collaboration among private, public, and government entities can only be achieved by proper information dissemination and acceptance of competent Web technologies, AJAX being one of them. Features of AJAX such as sectional processing ability, speed, bridging, portability, and compatibility are viewed with criticality for practical establishment.
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Introduction

E-government means the use of information and communication technology to support the entire functioning of government. The most important aspect of proficient e-government includes improved efficiency, convenience, and better accessibility of services to public and government entities. Proficient e-government covers activities for organizing, managing, and controlling resources such as people, local government bodies, business organizations, and departments of state (like the legislature, judiciary, and government), through social, political, administrative, and economic arrangements that ensure sustainable development of entire country. The Canadian government’s e-strategy is based upon a “user perspective” approach that determines the online offering and how information is organized and delivered to citizens (Canada, 2004). From a technological standpoint, the implementation of e-government implies e-enablement, interoperability, and semantic Web issues. So to provide information about government policies, programs, schemes, and products to targeted people with a user friendly citizen interface in local languages, multiple channels of communication, security of transactions, participating policy making processes, transparency in government activity, and open styles of functioning (Gupta, 2005), AJAX-based Web technology can be the best way. Designing such an application requires the consideration of elements such as ease of navigation, aesthetics, content, accessibility, and features such as personalization, customization, customer self-care, and data about communities. All these elements in combination will directly influence users’ experience with the site, and ultimately their satisfaction and adoption.

Efficient realization of e-governments through the Web from a citizen’s perspective is asserted by perceived usefulness along with the ease of its use (Mylene 2005). To achieve this, the government needs reliable Web technologies that are efficient, speedy, and support a transparent framework with disseminating information to the public and to other agencies that perform activities related to government administration. On the software level it is far more complex to manage all these aspects, and the technology named AJAX has noticeable features to quench this ever widening circle of responsibilities. E-administration, e-citizenship, e-servicing in an perfectly benefited e-state can only be achieved by developing futuristic framework of e-government with flexibility, absorption, and speed as few vital issues. AJAX has all of these software techniques and thus invites a liberal attitude with a need for initiating further research for implementation and fulfilling the requirement of efficiency in the huge and functionally complex nature of any governmental setup.

For the e-government set up there are two major challenges on an infrastructure level that are related to client server interaction. The first problem is related to the time parameter. The intention is to reduce the time consumed in processing the unique client request and providing the user with the liberty to do something else while the former request is being processed. The second parameter is about developing sophisticated framework for data passage. Discrete requests can be processed on an extensive scale at the same time and most of them will need both retrieval and postage. AJAX, which is being prominently deployed in most of today’s successful service-oriented Web networks all over the world, is suggested for best results.

AJAX name is an acronym for asynchronous javascript and XML (extensible markup language) (Quin). The name was coined by Jesse James Garrett in February, 2005, from the adaptive path Web site (Garrett, 2005). It is a combination of existing technologies such as DHTML, CSS, JavaScript, DOM (Stenback, 2004), XML, XSLT, and XMLHttpRequest (Paulson, 2005). At present most dynamic Web interfaces are powered by JavaScript and wherever the need is expanding the booster of AJAX has become mandatory. The core component of AJAX is XML Http Request, which enables updating components of a Web page by sending and receiving information without page reloads.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Mehdi Khosrow-Pour
Chapter 1
Marijn Janssen, George Kuk
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E-Government Business Models: Theory, Challenges and Research Issues
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Chapter 2
Roy Ladner
In this chapter we provide an overview of electronic government as it pertains to national security and defense within the Department of Defense... Sample PDF
Electronic Government: Overview and Issues for National Security Interests
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Chapter 3
Ranjeev Mittu, Suleyman Guleyupoglu, William Barlow, Michael Dowdy, Sean McCarthy
The emergence of new doctrine is enabling Security, Stabilization, Transition and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations to become a core U.S. military... Sample PDF
Towards Civil-Military Coordination During Security, Stabilization, Transition and Reconstruction Efforts
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Chapter 4
Akhilesh Bajaj, Sudha Ram
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security... Sample PDF
A Comprehensive Framework Towards Information Sharing Between Government Agencies
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Chapter 5
Eric T.K. Lim, Chee-Wee Tan, Shan-Ling Pan
As e-government becomes increasingly pervasive in modern public administrative management, its influence on organizations and individuals has become... Sample PDF
E-Government Implementation: Balancing Collaboration and Control in Stakeholder Management
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Chapter 6
Yining Chen, H.M. Chen, Russell K.H. Ching, Wayne W. Huang
Over the last decade, the Internet has become one of the most important means of communication in all social areas. The success of Web technology... Sample PDF
Electronic Government Implementation: A Comparison Between Developed and Developing Countries
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Chapter 7
Jonna Järveläinen, Eija Koskivaara, Päivi Pihlaja, Hannu Salmela, Jarmo Tähkäpää, Timo Kestilä
This collaborative action research study reports the experiences in developing e-government innovations in early childhood education context in... Sample PDF
Involving Service Professionals in eGovernment Innovation: The Case of Finnish Early Childhood Education
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Chapter 8
Jyoti Choudrie, Vishanth Weerakkody
This article examines how horizontal integration between the various departments of a local authority in the United Kingdom (UK) occurs. Following... Sample PDF
Horizontal Process Integration in E-Government: The Perspective of a UK Local Authority
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Chapter 9
Lucas Walsh
As developments in communication technologies impact upon many spheres of public and private life, they influence the way in which the public sector... Sample PDF
Online Policy Consultation: A Case Study of Local Government
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Chapter 10
Lisa Hill
Due to compulsory voting, Australia’s turnout rate is among the highest and most socially-even in the industrialised world. Nevertheless, some... Sample PDF
Electronic Conduits to Electoral Inclusion in an Atypical Constituency: The Australian Case
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Chapter 11
Kevin O’Toole
This chapter analyses local government’s response to the pressure to modernise its structures through its use of Information Communication... Sample PDF
Australia Local Government and E-Governance: From Administration to Citizen Participation?
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Chapter 12
Kate Alport
This chapter examines the spread of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in South Australia. It starts by assessing South Australia’s... Sample PDF
Engaging the Community Through E-Democracy in South Australia
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Chapter 13
G. P. Sahu
The study seeks to highlight the key variables affecting usage of e-government by internal users of Indian Central Excise. An e-government... Sample PDF
Users' Acceptance of E-Government: A Study of Indian Central Excise
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Chapter 14
Tagelsir Mohamed Gasmelseid
The recent economic, organizational and technological transformations are motivating developing countries to adopt electronic government... Sample PDF
A Multi-Agent Service Oriented Modeling of E-Government Initiatives
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Chapter 15
Shahram Rahimi
The effectiveness of current search and retrieval systems is restricted as they do not use the semantics of the data but mainly utilize keywords.... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Ontological Mediation in Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 16
Eugene Santos Jr., Eunice E. Santos, Hien Nguyen, Long Pan, John Korah
With the proliferation of the Internet and rapid development of information and communication infrastructure, E-governance has become a viable... Sample PDF
Analyst-Ready Large Scale Real Time Information Retrieval Tool for E-Governance
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Chapter 17
Marco Carvalho
Data dissemination and information management technologies for tactical environments are quickly becoming major areas of research for both military... Sample PDF
In-Stream Data Processing for Tactical Environments
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Chapter 18
Dilip Kumar Sharma, Gopalji Varshneya, Ashwani Kumar Upadhyay
This article analyzes the diffusion of a Web technology named AJAX in facilitating e-government architecture and enhancing its potential by... Sample PDF
AJAX in Development of Web-Based Architecture for Implementation of E-Governance
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About the Contributors