More than 30 years ago, Malcolm Knowles defined andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn. The essence of this principle is based on the premise that adults learn differently than children. Knowles’ andragogical studies were significant. One reason for this was that pedagogy, the art and science of educating children, had been well researched, but educating adults had not been as thoroughly studied.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Andragogy: The art and science of helping adults learn premised on at least four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners on which traditional pedagogy. See Smith, 1996, 1999). Andragogy, the encyclopaedia of informal education (see www.infed.org/lifelonglearning/b-andra.htm ).
Interactive Video Conferencing: Videoconferencing is a live, two-way, interactive electronic means of communication. Two or more people in different geographic locations can engage in face-to-face audio and visual exchanges using cameras, monitors, and document software (see www.netc.org/digitalbridges/vc/ ).
Humanist: Engages with the whole person and with their experiences for learning that combines the logical and intuitive, the intellect and feelings; found a ready audience. “When we learn in that way,” Rogers said, “we are whole , utilizing all our masculine and feminine capacities.” URL: www.infed.org/biblio/learning-humanistic.htm
Mature Learner: The adult learner who is a proactive and responsible person
Self-Directed Learning: An instructional process where a learner assumes primary responsibility for the learning process; and as a personality characteristic centering on a learner’s desire or preference for assuming responsibility for learning (see www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/hiemstra_self_direction.htm ).
Pedagogy: Study of teaching methods, including the aims of education and the ways in which such goals may be achieved. The field relies heavily on educational psychology, or theories about the way in which learning takes place.. pedagogy (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 15, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. URL: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9108621
Behaviorism: A theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior. URL: www.funderstanding.com
Chat Rooms: A site on a computer network where online conversations are held in real time by a number of users (Dictionary.com)
Didactic Teaching Method: Lectures, drill and practice, and worksheets that encourage students to memorize facts and procedures (see www.edletter.org/past/issues/2002-so/instruction.shtml ).
Cognitive: The social cognition learning model asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development. Humans are the only species to have created culture, and every human child develops in the context of a culture. Therefore, a child’s learning development is affected in ways large and small by the culture—including the culture of family environment—in which he or she is enmeshed (see www.funderstanding.com/vygotsky.cfm ).
Web Cameras: A digital camera designed to take digital photographs and transmit them over the Internet (see www.wordreference.com/definition/webcam ).
Online Schools (or cyber school): Virtual learning resources, “online schools,” “Cyber School,” “net school,” or “virtual school” are often used interchangeably to refer to educational organizations that offer K-12 courses through the Internet or Web-based resources. Virtual schools and related forms of Web-based education have grown dramatically in recent years (Fulton, 2002 AU25: The in-text citation "Fulton, 2002" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ). Cyberschool is an education program in which normal curriculum is taught in an online forum, instead of inside of a classroom. This program is currently available in some schools in Canada (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberschool ).
MP3 Players: Abbreviation of MPEG-1, audio layer 3 standard technology and format for the compression of audio signals into very small computer files. MP3. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 13, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service (see www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9372748 ).
Distance-Learning: A type of education, typically college-level, where students work on their own at home or at the office and communicate with faculty and other students via e-mail, electronic forums, videoconferencing, chat rooms, bulletin boards, instant messaging, and other forms of computer-based communication. Most distance learning programs include a computer-based training (CBT) system and communications tools to produce a virtual classroom. Because the Internet and World Wide Web are accessible from virtually all computer platforms, they serve as the foundation for many distance learning systems (see http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/distance_learning.html ).
Adult Larner: An individual whose major role in life is something other than full-time student (based on Arthur Chickering). See ed.fnal.gov/lincon/staff_adult.shtml
Differentiated Instruction: To differentiate instruction is to recognize students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assist in the learning process (see www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html ).
Instant Messaging: The act of instantly communicating between two or more people over a network such as the Internet (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instant_messaging).