2D Animated Social Story for Assisting Social Skills Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

2D Animated Social Story for Assisting Social Skills Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Vivi Mandasari (Swinburne University of Technology, Malaysia), Marlene Valerie Lu (Swinburne University of Technology, Malaysia) and Lau Bee Theng (Swinburne University of Technology, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-541-4.ch001
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Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder under the umbrella term of Autism Spectrum Disorders, and it is a milder variant of autism. It is characterized by a significant difficulty in communication, prominently in social interaction and non-verbal communication. Since a decade ago, there have been a variety of tools for teaching and assisting children with AS in the acquisition of social skills, ranging from the simple picture exchange system to the high-end virtual reality system. This chapter discusses on the effectiveness of integrating Social Story, 2D animations and video instruction for teaching social skills to children diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome in an interactive manner. The prototype has been developed, implemented, and evaluated in an experimental way. This chapter will discuss on the evaluation process, results, findings, and areas for further exploration.
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Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a type of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with symptoms of impairment in social communication, interaction and coordination skills.

Hagiwara and Myles (1999) were the first to conduct a study to use multimedia approach combining Social Stories, visual symbols and computer-based instruction. Social story is a strategy designed to teach autistic children social skills and behavior management skills by addressing specific social situations and how to cope with them. Since then, there are many studies and research to find the effectiveness of Social Story by combining it with other intervention mode; Roger and Myles (2001) who combined Social Story with Comic Strip Conversations, Thiemann and Goldstein (2001) combined Social Story with multi-component intervention which includes Social Stories, cue cards, role-play and video feedback. Schneider and Goldstein (2009) had compiled the studies of Social Story for Children with ASD from the year of 1995 to 2006. He concluded that the effectiveness of Social Story alone is hard to be measured as it is combined with other modes of interventions (Crozier & Tincani, 2005). Thus, it is inconclusive to denote that the positive behavior changes are resulted from the Social Story intervention itself or a combination of Social Story with other interventions (Schneider & Goldstein, 2009).

Despite the unclearness of the effectiveness of Social Story itself, Schneider and Goldstein (2009) also reported that additional components such as visual schedules may be useful for optimizing the children’s performance rather than by using Social Story individually. Same result was reported by Mancil, Haydon, and Whitby (2009) who found that Social Stories in Power Point format produces slightly better outcome than the Social Stories in the paper format. Students also indicated that they liked the computer-assisted format (Mancil et al., 2009; Heimann, Nelson, Tjus, & Gillberg, 1995). The uses of computer based teaching aids have also been demonstrated to decrease inappropriate behaviors and improve vocabulary acquisition among children with ASD, as well as increase their social skills (Sansosti & Powell-Smith, 2008).

Based on the research and studies conducted which were briefly cited and discussed above, we concluded that social story is more effective when incorporated with some visual stimuli to enhance learning and understanding by providing an attractive and enjoyable learning environment. It is agreed that learning is most effectual when motivated. With that we propose the combination of social story, 2D animation and video instruction as an interactive pedagogical tool for ASD children. This chapter will present our attempts in assisting children with AS in social and communication skills building by using the proposed prototype. It is anticipated to be more effective in assisting them to attain social skills and real-life adaptive skills.


Autism Spectrum Disorder And Asperger Syndrome

Autism Spectrum Disorder defines any developmental disabilities that have been caused by brain abnormality with the results of impaired social interaction, difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communications, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interest (Johnson, 2008).

ASD generally characterized by a triad of impairments in social communication (verbal and non-verbal) (e.g. not understanding common gestures, facial expressions or affective responses), reciprocal social interaction (impaired relationship) (e.g. they may appear indifferent to other people) and repetitive behaviors and interests (rigidity of thought). This triad of impairments includes difficulty in understanding non-literal communication and articulating thoughts and ideas, expressing and reading emotions, participating in interpersonal imaginative play (Tartaro & Cassell, 2008; Tartaro, 2007; Cheng, Moore, McGrath, & Fan, 2005).

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Lau Bee Theng
Chapter 1
Vivi Mandasari, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder under the umbrella term of Autism Spectrum Disorders, and it is a milder variant of autism. It is... Sample PDF
2D Animated Social Story for Assisting Social Skills Learning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Chapter 2
Georgios A. Dafoulas, Noha Saleeb
The significance of newly emergent 3D virtual worlds to different genres of users is currently a controversial subject in deliberation. Users range... Sample PDF
3D Assistive Technologies and Advantageous Themes for Collaboration and Blended Learning of Users with Disabilities
Chapter 3
Ong Chin Ann, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
The main purpose of this research is to enhance the communication of the disabled community. The authors of this chapter propose an enhanced... Sample PDF
A Face Based Real Time Communication for Physically and Speech Disabled People
Chapter 4
Tee Zhi Heng, Ang Li Minn, Seng Kah Phooi
This chapter presents a novel application for wireless technology to assist visually impaired people. As an alternative to the medical model of... Sample PDF
A Novel Application of Information Communication Technology to Assist Visually Impaired People
Chapter 5
Nia Valeria, Marlene Valerie Lu, Lau Bee Theng
Communication through speech is a vital skill, an innate ability in most human beings intended to convey thoughts, needs, and it is the very... Sample PDF
Collaborative Virtual Learning for Assisting Children with Cerebral Palsy
Chapter 6
Lau Sian Lun, Klaus David
Technology can be used to assist people with disabilities in their daily activities. Especially when the users have communication deficiencies... Sample PDF
Enabling Context Aware Services in the Area of AAC
Chapter 7
Kanubhai K. Patel, Sanjay Kumar Vij
A computational model of non-visual spatial learning through virtual learning environment (VLE) is presented in this chapter. The inspiration has... Sample PDF
Spatial Knowledge Communication to Visually Challenged People
Chapter 8
Jacey-Lynn Minoi, Duncan Gillies
The aim of this chapter is to identify those face areas containing high facial expression information, which may be useful for facial expression... Sample PDF
Statistical Analysis of Facial Expression on 3D Face Shapes
Chapter 9
Jonathan Bishop
E-learning systems generally rely on good visual and cognitive abilities, making them suitable for individuals with good levels of intelligence in... Sample PDF
The Role of Augmented E-Learning Systems for Enhancing Pro-Social Behaviour in Socially Impaired Individuals
Chapter 10
Xiaoxin Xu, Mingguang Wu, Bin Sun, Jianwei Zhang, Cheng Ding
Advances in embedded computing systems have resulted in the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which provide unique opportunities for... Sample PDF
The Outdoor Wireless Healthcare Monitoring System for Hospital Patients Based on ZigBee
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