Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis

Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis

Alberto Taboada-Crispi (Universidad Central de Las Villas, Cuba), Hichem Sahli (Universiteit Brussel, Belgium), Denis Hernandez-Pacheco (Universidad Central de Las Villas, Cuba) and Alexander Falcon-Ruiz (Universidad Central de Las Villas, Cuba)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch027
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Abstract

Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms: content-based image retrieval, pattern recognition, classification, segmentation, outlier detection, image mining, as well as computer-assisted diagnosis, and computeraided surgery. This chapter presents, a review of anomaly detection (AD) techniques and assessment methodologies, which have been applied to medical images, emphasizing their peculiarities, limitations and future perspectives. Moreover, a contribution to the field of AD in brain computed tomography images is also given, illustrated and assessed.
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Background

Most AD algorithms for medical image analysis are profoundly influenced by the specific image datasets used and by the medical or biological task. Figure 1 shows this diversity at a glance. Most reported studies have dealt with detection of tumors in digital mammography (Huang, 2004; Selvi, 2005; Wei, 2005; Peng, 2006; Chiracharit, 2007; Ikedo, 2007; Karnan, 2007), lung CT images (Minhas, 2005; Sluimer, 2006), and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images (Gering, 2003; Prastawa, 2004; Lee, 2005; Benamrane, 2006; Menze, 2006; Shinkareva, 2006; Bouix, 2007; Ekin, 2007), but many others can be mentioned.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Measures of Performance: Measures used to evaluate the performance of AD algorithms, by using images with available ground truths. Most of them are based on the coincidences (true positives and true negatives) and not coincidences (false positives and false negatives) between regions detected/classified by algorithms under assessment and the corresponding regions in the ground truth.

Window/Level Adjustment: Mapping of portions of the image dynamic range to the dynamic range of the display monitor. For instance, a 12 bit CT image should be re-scaled for brain matter analysis with a window/level adjustment around 35 ± 35 Hounsfield Units (i.e. gray-levels between 1000 and 1070). This is the base of the variable-bin-size histogram approach in this work.

Anomaly: Deviation or departure from the normal or common order, form or rule; one that is peculiar, irregular, abnormal or difficult to classify. In image analysis, anomalies are unknown targets, which are relatively small and with low probability of occurrence. Tumors, micro-calcifications, and vascular irregularities are examples of anomalies in the medical image analysis framework.

Content-Based Image Retrieval: Process of retrieving images from databases based on its real visual contents (features of texture, shape, and color) by using signal processing, pattern recognition and computer vision methods.

Ground Truth: The image gold standard for assessing detection/classification algorithms. This term was originally used to designate the true information gathered in ground to evaluate remote sensing techniques like aerial photographs or satellite imagery, but it has been generalized to other scenarios.

Anomaly Detection (AD) Systems: Systems used to detect anomalies. They can be developed with no prior knowledge of the data, or modeling both normality and anomalies, or modeling only normality. In the medical imaging context, the third approach is the best suited. AD systems can be based on statistical methods, neural networks, or machine learning.

Segmentation: The partitioning of digital images into different regions, which group elements (pixels or voxels) with similar feature values.

Imaging Modalities: Different physical principles involved in the acquisition of an image. In the medical imaging context, we can mention: photography, endoscope, microscopy, electrical impedance tomography, ultrasound-based systems, X rays, CT, MRI and fMRI, MRSI, SPECT, PET and PET/CT.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Themis P. Exarchos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Chapter 1
Ioannis Dimou, Michalis Zervakis, David Lowe, Manolis Tsiknakis
The automation of diagnostic tools and the increasing availability of extensive medical datasets in the last decade have triggered the development... Sample PDF
Computational Methods and Tools for Decision Support in Biomedicine: An Overview of Algorithmic Challenges
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Chapter 2
William Hsu, Alex A.T. Bui, Ricky K. Taira, Hooshang Kangarloo
Though an unparalleled amount and diversity of imaging and clinical data are now collected as part of routine care, this information is not... Sample PDF
Integrating Imaging and Clinical Data for Decision Support
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Chapter 3
Spyretta Golemati, John Stoitsis, Konstantina S. Nikita
The estimation of motion of the myocardial and arterial wall is important for the quantification of tissue elasticity and contractility and has... Sample PDF
Analysis and Quantification of Motion within the Cardiovascular System: Implications for the Mechanical Strain of Cardiovascular Structures
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Chapter 4
Christos V. Bourantas, Katerina Naka, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Lampros Michalis
Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) imaging is an intravascular catheter-based technique which provides real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional... Sample PDF
New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
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Chapter 5
Stavroula Mougiakakou, Ioannis Valavanis, Alexandra Nikita, Konstantina S. Nikita
Recent advances in computer science provide the intelligent computation tools needed to design and develop Diagnostic Support Systems (DSSs) that... Sample PDF
Diagnostic Support Systems and Computational Intelligence: Differential Diagnosis of Hepatic Lesions from Computed Tomography Images
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Chapter 6
Marotesa Voultsidou, J. Michael Herrmann
Indicative features of an fMRI data set can be evaluated by methods provided by theory of random matrices (RMT). RMT considers ensembles of matrices... Sample PDF
Significance Estimation in fMRI from Random Matrices
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Chapter 7
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Robert Dawe, Konstantinos Arfanakis, John G. Georgiadis
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water... Sample PDF
Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI
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Chapter 8
Dimitrios G. Tsalikakis, Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Segmentation plays a crucial role in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) applications, since it permits automated detection of regions of... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
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Chapter 9
Katia Marina Passera, Luca Tommaso Mainardi
Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different... Sample PDF
Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology
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Chapter 10
Lena Costaridou, Spyros Skiadopoulos, Anna Karahaliou, Nikolaos Arikidis, George Panayiotakis
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is currently the most effective modality in detecting breast cancer... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: Trends and Challenges
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Chapter 11
E. Kyriacou, C.I. Christodoulou, C. Loizou, M.S. Pattichis, C.S. Pattichis, S. Kakkos
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the Western world and a major cause of disability in adults. The objective of this work was to... Sample PDF
Assessment of Stroke by Analysing Cartoid Plaque Morphology
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Chapter 12
Marios Neofytou, Constantinos Pattichis, Vasilios Tanos, Marios Pattichis, Eftyvoulos Kyriacou
The objective of this chapter is to propose a quantitative hysteroscopy imaging analysis system in gynaecological cancer and to provide the current... Sample PDF
Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynecological Cancer
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Chapter 13
Thomas V. Kilindris, Kiki Theodorou
Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal... Sample PDF
Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case
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Chapter 14
Ioannis Tsougos, George Loudos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Konstantina S. Nikita, Kiki Theodorou
Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of... Sample PDF
Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging
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Chapter 15
Evanthia E. Tripoliti, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Konstantia Veliou
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality which can significantly improve our understanding of the brain... Sample PDF
Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography
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Chapter 16
Anastasios Koutlas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
The aim of this chapter is to analyze the recent advances in image processing and machine learning techniques with respect to facial expression... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for Facial Expression Recognition
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Chapter 17
Arcangelo Merla
This chapter presents an overview on recent developments in the field of clinical applications of the functional infrared imaging. The functional... Sample PDF
Developments and Advances in Biomedical Functional Infrared Imaging
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Chapter 18
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Moulos
The completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies at the dawn of the new millennium, are rapidly changing... Sample PDF
DNA Microarrays: Analysis and Interpretation
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Chapter 19
Nikolaos Giannakeas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Microarray technology allows the comprehensive measurement of the expression level of many genes simultaneously on a common substrate. Typical... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for the Segmentation of cDNA
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Chapter 20
Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Automated chromosome analysis is now becoming routine in most human cytogenetics laboratories. It involves both processing and analysis of digital... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Automated Chromosome Image Analysis
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Chapter 21
O. Lezoray, G. Lebrun, C. Meurie, C. Charrier, A. Elmotataz, M. Lecluse
The segmentation of microscopic images is a challenging application that can have numerous applications ranging from prognosis to diagnosis.... Sample PDF
Machine Learning in Morphological Segmentation
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Chapter 22
Michael Haefner, Alfred Gangl, Michael Liedlgruber, A. Uhl, Andreas Vecsei, Friedrich Wrba
Wavelet-, Fourier-, and spatial domain-based texture classification methods have been used successfully for classifying zoom-endoscopic colon images... Sample PDF
Pit Pattern Classification Using Multichannel Features and Multiclassification
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Chapter 23
C. Papaodysseus, P. Rousopoulos, D. Arabadjis, M. Panagopoulos, P. Loumou
In this chapter the state of the art is presented in the domain of automatic identification and classification of bodies on the basis of their... Sample PDF
Automatic Identification and Elastic Properties of Deformed Objects Using their Microscopic Images
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Chapter 24
Alexia Giannoula, Richard S.C. Cobbold
“Elastography” or “elasticity imaging” can be defined as the science and methodology of estimating the mechanical properties of a medium (including... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Ultrasound Radiation-Force Elastography
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Chapter 25
Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview about models and methodologies used for the Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) analysis. DCE is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Contrast Enhancement: Analysis's Models and Methodologies
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Chapter 26
George K. Matsopoulos
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image processing applications including image... Sample PDF
Automatic Correspondence Methods towards Point-Based Medical Image Registration: An Evaluation Study
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Chapter 27
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Hichem Sahli, Denis Hernandez-Pacheco, Alexander Falcon-Ruiz
Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis
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Chapter 28
C. Delgorge-Rosenberger, C. Rosenberger
The authors present in this chapter an overview on evaluation of medical image compression. The different methodologies used in the literature are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Medical Image Compression
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Chapter 29
Charalampos Doukas, Ilias Maglogiannis
Medical images are often characterized by high complexity and consist of high resolution image files, introducing thus several issues regarding... Sample PDF
Advanced ROI Coding Techniques for Medical Imaging
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Chapter 30
Farhang Sahba
Ultrasound imaging now has widespread clinical use. It involves exposing a part of the body to highfrequency sound waves in order to generate images... Sample PDF
Segmentation Methods in Ultrasound Images
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