In light of recent reporting of the failures of some of the major publicly-held companies in the U.S. (e.g., Enron & WorldCom), it has become increasingly important that management, auditors, analysts, and regulators be able to assess and identify fraudulent financial reporting. The Enron and WorldCom failures illustrate that financial reporting fraud could have disastrous consequences both for stockholders and employees. These recent failures have not only adversely affected the U.S. accounting profession but have also raised serious questions about the credibility of financial statements. KPMG (2003) reports seven broad categories of fraud experienced by U.S. businesses and governments: employee fraud (60%), consumer fraud (32%), third-party fraud (25%), computer crime (18%), misconduct (15%), medical/insurance fraud (12%), and financial reporting fraud (7%). Even though it occurred with least frequency, the average cost of financial reporting fraud was the highest, at $257 million, followed by the cost of medical/insurance fraud (average cost of $33.7 million).