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Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-686-5.ch046
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MLA

Schmitt, Corinna and Georg Carle. "Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks." Handbook of Research on P2P and Grid Systems for Service-Oriented Computing: Models, Methodologies and Applications. IGI Global, 2010. 1076-1090. Web. 23 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-686-5.ch046

APA

Schmitt, C., & Carle, G. (2010). Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks. In N. Antonopoulos, G. Exarchakos, M. Li, & A. Liotta (Eds.) Handbook of Research on P2P and Grid Systems for Service-Oriented Computing: Models, Methodologies and Applications (pp. 1076-1090). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-686-5.ch046

Chicago

Schmitt, Corinna and Georg Carle. "Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks." In Handbook of Research on P2P and Grid Systems for Service-Oriented Computing: Models, Methodologies and Applications, ed. Nick Antonopoulos, Georgios Exarchakos, Maozhen Li and Antonio Liotta, 1076-1090 (2010), accessed October 23, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-61520-686-5.ch046

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Abstract

Today the researchers want to collect as much data as possible from different locations for monitoring reasons. In this context large-scale wireless sensor networks are becoming an active topic of research (Kahn1999). Because of the different locations and environments in which these sensor networks can be used, specific requirements for the hardware apply. The hardware of the sensor nodes must be robust, provide sufficient storage and communication capabilities, and get along with limited power resources. Sensor nodes such as the Berkeley-Mote Family (Polastre2006, Schmitt2006) are capable of meeting these requirements. These sensor nodes are small and light devices with radio communication and the capability for collecting sensor data. In this chapter the authors review the key elements for sensor networks and give an overview on possible applications in the field of monitoring.
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Background

In this section the corresponding keywords in the field of wireless sensor networks are mentioned which will be characterized in more detail in section two.

Today the industrial production is able to produce very small mobile devices (Warneke2001). Two sorts can be distinguished: very small, specialized nodes, and larger nodes with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

An embedded system is a specialized computer which is used for device control (e.g. cars, mobiles, hand-held-units, washing machine). Typically, the end user has no control over it because the device is hidden.

Embedded systems and highly embedded systems can be differentiated. Highly embedded systems would be particularly small, resulting in highly limited resources. This implies the use of sophisticated hardware, in combination with the use of suitable, special operating systems. Data can be collected by a variety of sensors. After collection, this data has to be transmitted to other nodes. Thus, wireless sensor systems have to support highly developed communication.

Wireless sensor nodes have their own energy supply provided by batteries or solar cells. Some sensor nodes have processors that allow to process data before passing it on. Different technologies for wireless transmission are used such as infrared or radio frequency technology. A sensor node consists of several components which are illustrated in figure 2 in section two.

Figure 2.

Components of a sensor node

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) (Röm04, Haenselmann2006) have a decentralized structure in which messages cannot be addressed directly to their destination. Instead messages are sent to neighboring nodes (e.g. using a local broadcast). Nodes that receive messages have to decide whether to further forward the received data. Due to the absence of planned connectivity between specific nodes, these networks are called ad-hoc networks. Another problem of these networks is their limitations concerning security and anonymity.

Like the short description of WSNs above implicit special software (e.g. TinyOS for Berkeley Motes) must be developed to optimize the quality of the established network. Therefore the developers have to look at the requirements of the environment where to use the network and also at the participating components and their limitations. On important aspect is the realization of energy saving procedures and memory saving methods for data acquiring and transmission within the network.

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Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Omer F. Rana
Preface
Nick Antonopoulos, Georgios Exarchakos, Maozhen Li, Antonio Liotta
Chapter 1
Danny Hughes, Geof Coulson, James Walkerdine
Peer-to-peer file sharing has become popular for many kinds of resource location and distribution applications including file sharing, distributed... Sample PDF
A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Architectures for Service Oriented Computing
$37.50
Chapter 2
Heba Kurdi, Maozhen Li, H. S. Al-Raweshidy
Advances in Grid computing are stimulating the emergence of novel types of Grids. Accessible Grids, manageable Grids, interactive Grids and personal... Sample PDF
Taxonomy of Grid Systems
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Chapter 3
Lu Liu, Duncan Russell, Jie Xu
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks attract attentions worldwide with their great success in file sharing networks (e.g., Napster, Gnutella, BitTorrent, and... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Search Techniques for Service-Oriented Computing
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Chapter 4
Carlos Abalde, Víctor M. Gulías, Javier París
Much recent work on building scalable peer-to-peer (P2P) systems has focused on distributed hash tables (DHTs), which have become in a powerful... Sample PDF
A Survey of Efficient Resource Discovery Techniques on DHTs
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Chapter 5
Amitava Biswas, Suneil Mohan, Rabi Mahapatra
Searching is likely to be the next most important service on the Internet after communication. At present centralized Internet search engines can... Sample PDF
Semantic Technologies for Distributed Search P2P Networks
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Chapter 6
Tran Vu Pham, Lydia M.S. Lau, Peter M Dew
Supporting global scientific collaborations are becoming more important due to the increasing complexity of modern scientific problems as well as... Sample PDF
Grid, P2P and SOA Orchestration: An Integrated Application Architecture for Scientific Collaborations
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Chapter 7
Elias S. Manolakos, Demetris G. Galatopoullos
The vision of pervasive computing is to create and manage computational spaces where large numbers of heterogeneous devices collaborate... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Architectures for Pervasive Computing
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Chapter 8
Farag Azzedin, Mohamed Eltoweissy, Salman Ahmad Khwaja
The P2P computing is one of the technologies that is having a significant impact on the way Internet-scale systems are built. It is well established... Sample PDF
Overview of Service Oriented Architecture for Resource Management in P2P Systems
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Chapter 9
Carlos Kamienski, Ramide Dantas, Djamel Sadok, Börje Ohlman
The authors use P2P communications for building a powerful service oriented architecture capable of orchestrating advanced services. Underlying... Sample PDF
Managing the Future Internet: Services, Policies and Peers
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Chapter 10
P2P Network Management  (pages 226-244)
Chunsheng Ni, Jilong Wang
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology has been widely applied in Internet application systems, especially in sharing large video files among multiple user... Sample PDF
P2P Network Management
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Chapter 11
Carmelo Ragusa
Over the past years we have witnessed a shift in the market towards service orientation. Companies in the coming service market need to be extremely... Sample PDF
Business Grids, Infrastructuring the Future of ICT
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Chapter 12
Eddy Caron, Frédéric Desprez, Franck Petit, Cédric Tedeschi
Within distributed computing platforms, some computing abilities (or services) are offered to clients. To build dynamic applications using such... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Service Discovery for Grid Computing
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Chapter 13
Jochen Furthmüller, Oliver P. Waldhorst
Grid computing offers exciting possibilities for mobile consumer devices. The sharing of resources makes new, demanding applications feasible and... Sample PDF
Survey on Grid Computing on Mobile Consumer Devices
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Chapter 14
Moisés R.N. Ribeiro, Marconi P. Fardin, Helio Waldman
The data transport structure of the modern networks is moving toward a model of high-speed packet/frame/timeslot capable... Sample PDF
P2P in Scalable Cross-Layer Control Planes of Next Generation Networks
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Chapter 15
George V. Popescu
Recently a new category of communication network paradigms has emerged: overlay networks for content distribution and group communication... Sample PDF
Distributed Indexing Networks for Efficient Large-Scale Group Communication
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Chapter 16
Chunjiang Zhao, Junwei Cao, Huarui Wu, Weiwei Chen
The data grid integrates wide-area autonomous data sources and provides users with a unified data query and processing infrastructure. Adaptive data... Sample PDF
Adaptive Query Processing in Data Grids
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Chapter 17
Ryota Egashira, Akihiro Enomoto, Tatsuya Suda
In Service-Oriented Computing, service providers publish their services by deploying service components which implement those services into a... Sample PDF
Distributed and Adaptive Service Discovery Using Preference
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Chapter 18
Mohammed Hawa
Cooperation incentives have been proposed as an effective solution to various problems that plague Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Computational Grid systems... Sample PDF
Cooperation Incentives: Issues and Design Strategies
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Chapter 19
Liangxiu Han
This chapter identifies challenges and requirements for resource sharing to support high performance distributed Service-Oriented Computing (SOC)... Sample PDF
Exploiting P2P and Grid Computing Technologies for Resource Sharing to Support High Performance Distributed System
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Chapter 20
Marco A.S. Netto, Rajkumar Buyya
One of the promises of Grid Computing is to enable the execution of applications across multiple sites. Several multi-site applications require... Sample PDF
Resource Co-Allocation in Grid Computing Environments
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Chapter 21
Daniel M. Batista, Nelson L.S. da Fonseca
The fluctuation in resource availability, as well as the uncertainties in relation to requirements for applications, call for the implementation of... Sample PDF
Self-Adjustment for Service Provisioning in Grids
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Chapter 22
Ziliang Zong, Xiaojun Ruan, Adam Manzanares, Kiranmai Bellam, Xiao Qin
High performance Grid platforms and parallel computing technologies are experiencing their golden age because of the convergence of four critical... Sample PDF
Improving Energy-Efficiency of Computational Grids via Scheduling
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Chapter 23
Bart De Vleeschauwer, Filip De Turck, Bart Dhoedt, Piet Demeester
This chapter discusses the use of peer-to-peer overlay networks to route around failures and congestion points in the Internet. The motivation for... Sample PDF
Dynamic Overlay Networks for Robust and Scalable Routing
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Chapter 24
Florin Pop
This chapter presents a fault tolerant framework for the applications scheduling in large scale distributed systems (LSDS). Due to the specific... Sample PDF
A Fault Tolerant Decentralized Scheduling in Large Scale Distributed Systems
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Chapter 25
Vassilios V. Dimakopoulos, Spiridoula Margariti, Mirto Ntetsika, Evaggelia Pitoura
Maintaining multiple copies of data items is a commonly used mechanism for improving the performance and fault-tolerance of any distributed system.... Sample PDF
Data Replication in P2P Systems
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Chapter 26
Anwitaman Datta, Di Wu, Liu Xin, Adam Wierzbicki
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) storage systems leverage the combined storage capacity of a network of storage devices (peers) contributed typically by... Sample PDF
Maintaining Redundancy in Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems
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Chapter 27
Dimka Karastoyanova, Frank Leymann
The current trend in Service Oriented Computing (SOC) is to enable support for new delivery models of software and applications. These endeavours... Sample PDF
Making Scientific Applications on the Grid Reliable Through Flexibility Approaches Borrowed from Service Compositions
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Chapter 28
Ciprian Dobre
The field of modeling and simulation was long seen as a viable alternative to develop new algorithms and technologies and to enable the development... Sample PDF
A General Framework for the Modeling and Simulation of Grid and P2P Systems
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Chapter 29
Bin Li, Lee Gillam
Grid computing continues to hold promise for the high-availability of a wide range of computational systems and techniques. It is suggested that... Sample PDF
Grid Service Level Agreements Using Financial Risk Analysis Techniques
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Chapter 30
Lican Huang
The currently two types of main P2P technologies–unstructured and structured approaches do not care about the semantic meaning of the nodes. They do... Sample PDF
Virtual Hierarchical Tree Grid Organizations (VIRGO)
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Chapter 31
Simon Miles, Nir Oren, Michael Luck, Sanjay Modgil, Felipe Meneguzzi, Nora Faci, Camden Holt, Gary Vickers
Electronic contracts mirror the paper versions exchanged between businesses today, and offer the possibility of dynamic, automatic creation and... Sample PDF
Electronic Business Contracts Between Services
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Chapter 32
Adam Wierzbicki, Tomasz Kaszuba, Radoslaw Nielek
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Grid systems serve whole communities of users, and are thus good examples of information systems that should realize social... Sample PDF
Trust and Fairness Management in P2P and Grid Systems
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Chapter 33
Karaoglanoglou Konstantinos, Helen Karatza
The significance of efficient security mechanisms in P2P and Grid systems is unquestionable, since security is considered to be a quality of service... Sample PDF
Trust Calculation and Management in P2P and Grid Systems
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Chapter 34
Rehab Alnemr, Matthias Quasthoff, Christoph Meinel
Business often develop proprietary reputation systems for their community, with the side effect of locking users into that service if they wish to... Sample PDF
Taking Trust Management to the Next Level
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Chapter 35
Hoon Wei Lim
Public key infrastructure (PKI) is presently deployed in most grid implementations. Existing PKI-based grid systems make extensive use of public key... Sample PDF
Designing Grid Security Infrastructures Using Identity-Based Cryptography
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Chapter 36
Guillaume Pierre, Steen Maarten van
Many large-scale distributed applications rely on collaboration, where unrelated users or organizations share their resources for everyone’s... Sample PDF
Enforcing Fairness in Asynchronous Collaborative Environments
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Chapter 37
G. Marchetto, M. Papa Manzillo, L. Torrero, L. Ciminiera, F. Risso
The idea of sharing resources across the network has become very popular during the last few years, leading to a diversified scenario in which... Sample PDF
Service Providers Indexing Using P2P Systems
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Chapter 38
Aldo Campi, Franco Callegati
This chapter advocates migrating sufficient functionality into the network as to allow direct support to grid computing services. This approach is... Sample PDF
SIP Protocol for Supporting Grid Computing
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Chapter 39
Matthew Adigun, Johnson Iyilade, Klaas Kabini
The service-oriented computing paradigm is based on the assumption that existing services can be put together in order to obtain new composite... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Infrastructure for Dynamic Composition of Grid Services
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Chapter 40
Antonio Manzalini, Roberto Minerva, Corrado Moiso
This chapter describes motivations and characteristics of a novel service platform based on P2P technology for delivering Telecommunication and ICT... Sample PDF
Exploiting P2P Solutions in Telecommunication Service Delivery Platforms
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Chapter 41
Malohat Ibrohimovna, Sonia Heemstra de Groot
A personal network (PN) is a network of a user’s personal devices and services, cooperating with each other independently of their geographical... Sample PDF
Fednets: P2P Cooperation of Personal Networks Access Control and Management Framework
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Chapter 42
Paul Grace, Danny Hughes, Geoff Coulson, Gordon S. Blair, Barry Porter, Francois Taiani
Grid computing is becoming increasingly pervasive; sensor networks and mobile devices are now connected with traditional Grid infrastructure to form... Sample PDF
Overlay-Based Middleware for the Pervasive Grid
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Chapter 43
A. R. Razavi, P. Krause, S. Moschoyiannis
Current research and development in ICT has opened new opportunities and threats for both large corporations and SMEs alike. Many SMEs see the new... Sample PDF
Digital Ecosystems: Challenges and Proposed Solutions
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Chapter 44
Juan Pedro Muñoz-Gea, Josemaria Malgosa-Sanahuja, Pedro Jose Piñero-Escuer, Joan García-Haro
Thanks to the technological development, the production of multimedia content is no longer restricted to content providers. End-users communities... Sample PDF
Providing VoD Services in Community Networks Using P2P Technology
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Chapter 45
Dana Petcu, Georgiana Macariu, Alexandru Cârstea, Marc Frîncu
Service-oriented computing is an interesting paradigm not only for building business applications but also for scientific applications requiring a... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Symbolic Computations
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Chapter 46
Corinna Schmitt, Georg Carle
Today the researchers want to collect as much data as possible from different locations for monitoring reasons. In this context large-scale wireless... Sample PDF
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
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Key Terms in this Chapter

Ad-Hoc Network: A self-configuring network of routers which are connected by links.

Two-Level Scheduling: Describes a method to more efficiently perform process scheduling.

Sensors: Devices that measure data from the environment and which they can pass on.

Se nsor Network: A network which consists of different sensor nodes that can communicate with each other. If the network consists of wireless component it is a so called wireless sensor network (WSN).

Sensor Nodes: Represent the basis for the sensor networks and consist of a great number of single components like the data recording unit, computation unit, radio unit, external data source, actors for mobility and an antenna.

Embedded System: A specialized computer that is used for device control where the user has no control of it because it is hidden from him.

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM): Deals with the observation of structural health in different research fields like building health or animal observation.

Multihop Communication: Means that the message needs to hop over several subsystems until it reaches the final destination.