Applying Constructivism to Online Learning: A New Instructional Design Map

Applying Constructivism to Online Learning: A New Instructional Design Map

Jennifer Lee (University of North Texas, USA) and Lin Lin (University of North Texas, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-654-9.ch005
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Abstract

Based on constructivist principles, this chapter provides a new instructional design map for online learning environments. This instructional design map includes considerations of five elements, namely, learner, knowledge, learning environment, assessment, and technology. Considerations of these elements are based on analyses of the past and existing instructional design models, online learning models, and constructive principles. Applications of the instructional design map are also discussed in the chapter.
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Introduction

Dijkstra (2005) defines instructional-design theory as a set of statements that interpret why an instructional program leads to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Although practitioners and researchers readily agree with this definition, there is much disagreement over which instructional theory or model can best accomplish the objective. This is not surprising as there has been considerable debate in the teaching and learning communities, over many decades about how students think and best learn.

In the past 50 years or so, three major influences have largely accounted for the many changes and debates surrounding instructional design theories and models. Dijkstra (2005) cites “the rediscovery of epistemology, the renewed interest in nature and knowledge acquisition, and the invention of the computer and the development of information and communication technology” (p. 187) as the dominant influences in the field of cognition and learning since the 1950s.

In this chapter, we start by briefly discussing the three major influences in the field of instructional design to underscore the importance of understanding the lineage of contemporary design theories in our quest to prepare a new generation of learners. We will then provide an overview of the ontological, epistemological, and methodological principles that guide the design of our proposed instructional design map theory for online teaching and learning. Although instructional design theories and online learning models target technology-enhanced teaching and learning environments, the developments of the two have evolved separately from one another. Therefore, we aim to bring the two together by examining each through the constructivist lens in the new media and technology environments. In the final section, we will explain how the new design map is expected to result in effective learning and why this is an improvement over existing theories. Discussions on how to apply the theory in practical settings and assessment strategies will also be outlined.

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Three Major Influences In The Instructional Design Field

Research on Cognition and Learning which Started in the 1950s

“There are two main theoretical approaches in the field of instructional design: the systematic approach and the constructivist approach” (Fardanesh, 2006, p.3). According to Tennyson and Schott (1997), instructional design was driven by behaviorism in its early stages. Behaviorism places an emphasis on producing observable and measurable outcomes in students (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Learning occurs when learners demonstrate the desired behavior in response to a stimulus (Smith & Ragan, 1999). Much of the research and work in 1950s and even 1960s focused on how to design systematic instructions to help learners achieve learning objectives through reinforcement, reward, and punishment

Cognitivism gradually succeeded behaviorism in the 1970s and 1980s as researchers studied the influence of mental processes on learning. Cognitivists believe that learners participate actively in the process of knowledge acquisition and construction. Tennyson and Schott (1997) noted that the definition of instructional design at this point “shifted to considerations of learning theory and the development of models linking these theories to the design of instruction” (p.7). Some of the models and theories introduced during this period are still influential today. 
 In the last decade, Otting and Zwaal (2006) observed that the “traditional views of education and the focus on absolute truth have been gradually replaced by a diversity of more dynamic, pluralist, and relativists conceptions” (p. 347). Constructivists, identifying themselves with Piaget and Vygotsky and representing an array of perspectives, view learning as a process of constructing meaning from experience. Unlike the traditional instructional systems approaches of designing instruction, constructivists hold that “all knowledge is socially constructed” (Molenda, 1997, p.46). According to Gold (2001, p.37), “knowledge is not separate from but rather embedded within experiences and interpreted by the learner.” Karagiorgi and Symeou (2005, p.17) further stated that “constructivism makes a different set of assumptions about learning and suggests new instructional principles.” Learning is seen to be an internal construction of reality by the individual. The cognitive process of meaning making is emphasized both as an individual mental activity and a socially interactive interchange.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Michael Sherman
Acknowledgment
Carla R. Payne
Chapter 1
Maria Luisa Pérez Cavana
Taking into account the complexity and multiplicity of constructivist theories, the first part of this chapter focuses on the relationship between... Sample PDF
Closing the Circle: From Dewey to Web 2.0
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Chapter 2
Noel Fitzpatrick, Nóirín Hayes, K.C. O’Rourke
Constructivism has become the comfortable face of educational theory in recent years, due in no small part to the mainstreaming of learning... Sample PDF
Beyond Constriction and Control: Constructivism in Online Theory and Practice
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Chapter 3
Barbara de la Harpe, Fiona Peterson
There is a strong move worldwide for a constructivist theory to underpin the way teaching and learning are viewed in today’s colleges and... Sample PDF
The Theory and Practice of Teaching with Technology in Today's Colleges and Universities
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Chapter 4
Karen Swan, D.R. Garrison, Jennifer C. Richardson
This chapter presents a theoretical model of online learning, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, which is grounded in John Dewey’s... Sample PDF
A Constructivist Approach to Online Learning: The Community of Inquiry Framework
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Chapter 5
Jennifer Lee, Lin Lin
Based on constructivist principles, this chapter provides a new instructional design map for online learning environments. This instructional design... Sample PDF
Applying Constructivism to Online Learning: A New Instructional Design Map
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Chapter 6
Beth Rubin
Constructivist education usually involves authentic assessment, which is affected by the media used to teach. Information technology can enhance or... Sample PDF
Enhancing Authentic Assessment Through Information Technology
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Chapter 7
Xenia Coulter, Alan Mandell
The adult college student, caught between the competing demands of work and home, has recently become a valuable commodity in today’s fast-changing... Sample PDF
Nontraditional Students and Information Technology: The Siren Call of the Virtual Classroom and its Impact on Progressive Educational Ideals
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Chapter 8
Jakko van der Pol
This chapter aims to perform a thorough analysis of students’ online learning conversations. Although offering a high potential for collaborative... Sample PDF
Online Learning Conversations: Potential, Challenges and Facilitation
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Chapter 9
Laura M. Nicosia
Contemporary educators have been reassessing pedagogical frameworks and reevaluating accepted epistemologies and ontologies of learning. The age-old... Sample PDF
Virtual Constructivism: Avatars in Action
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Chapter 10
G. Andrew Page, Radwan Ali
The key idea that sets constructivism apart from other theories of cognition was launched about 60 years ago by Jean Piaget. It was the idea that... Sample PDF
The Power and Promise of Web 2.0 Tools
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Chapter 11
Shalin Hai-Jew
This chapter examines some ways information technologies (IT) are deployed in higher education courses to help learners create robust mental models.... Sample PDF
IT-Enabled Strategies for Mental Modeling in E-Learning
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Chapter 12
Roisin Donnelly
This chapter critically explores the design and implementation of a blended problem-based learning (PBL) module for academic professional... Sample PDF
Transformative Potential of Constructivist Blended Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education
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Chapter 13
James G.R. Cronin, John Paul McMahon, Michael Waldron
Reception and use of information technology by lifelong learners within a “blended” learning environment needs to be articulated within a... Sample PDF
Critical Survey of Information Technology Use in Higher Education: Blended Classrooms
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Chapter 14
M. Beatrice Ligorio, Nadia Sansone
In this chapter, the case of a blended university course will be described in detail. The main focus of this description will be on how some... Sample PDF
Structure of a Blended University Course: Applying Constructivist Principles to Blended Teaching
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Chapter 15
Hwee Ling Lim, Fay Sudweeks
As educators utilize an increasingly wide range of technologies for facilitating interaction between distant learning parties, there are concerns... Sample PDF
Constructivism and Online Collaborative Group Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study
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Chapter 16
Linda Lohr, Nicholas Eastham, David Kendrick
This case study describes how a constructivist theory of learning guided the design of distributed learning environment for a three credit hour... Sample PDF
Constructivist Strategies to Optimize Four Levels of Interaction in a Distributed Learning Environment: A Case Study
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Chapter 17
Alessio Gaspar, Sarah Langevin, Naomi Boyer
This chapter discusses a case study of the application of technology to facilitate undergraduate students’ learning of computer programming in an... Sample PDF
Facilitating Students-Driven Learning of Computer Programming with Technology
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Chapter 18
John Miller
A central component of constructivist pedagogy at the college level is the modeling and practicing of critical thinking, and since Socrates... Sample PDF
Designing Asynchronous Discussions to Teach Critical Thinking
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Chapter 19
Mark H. Schulman
The challenges for Goddard College posed by 21st Century information technologies are their incorporation into, and reflection of, the foundational... Sample PDF
"To Be in Occasional Touch": Goddard College's Progressive Principles and Distributed Learning
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Chapter 20
Carol R. Rinke, Divonna M. Stebick, Lauren Schaefer, M. Evan Gaffney
This chapter presents a critical case study on the use of information technology in a pre-service teacher education program. The authors integrated... Sample PDF
Using Blogs to Foster Inquiry, Collaboration, and Feedback in Pre-Service Teacher Education
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Chapter 21
Michal Zellermayer, Nili Mor, Ida Heilweil
This chapter describes the learning environment that the authors created for veteran teachers, graduate students in Teaching and Learning who are... Sample PDF
The Intersection of Theory, Tools and Tasks in a Postgraduate Learning Environment
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About the Contributors