Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement

Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement

John Mo (RMIT University, Australia) and Laszlo Nemes (Nemes Consulting, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch016
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Abstract

With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and achieving seamless integration. This difficulty is most noticeable in consortia that need to deal with government participation. Various government projects have different objectives and agenda. In addition, changes in business environment (or) as well as government policies impose extra conditions onto the project. Failure to comply with the project requirement can lead to loss of business and sometimes unexpected penalty. We use three case studies to show various ways of government involvements in our projects. Based on the experiences of these cases, we discuss how enterprise engineering can help creating and managing the enterprise that can engage government services successfully.
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Introduction

Today’s working environments are supported with a large number of technologies that serve wide variety of purposes such as training (Shankararaman and Lee, 1994), support (Mo and Menzel, 1998), design (Jiang and Mo, 2001), project management (Hall, 2000), data analysis (Gabbar et al, 2002), and many others related to the management of the business. They are, arguably, advantages to all stakeholders, irrespective of whether they are the customers, staff, suppliers, managers or other roles related to the company.

In this environment, human organisations can become volatile. This is particularly noticeable in government activities because they are principally people-oriented services to the public. Government processes are changing to e-Government environment but there is still difficulty in capturing the concept of citizen engagement, which is a measure of success of government policies (Jones et al, 2007). Government services have a wide variety of forms and purposes. When people look at government services, they only realise the public face of the services, that is, the interactive portal of government departments. However, there are many other services that a government has to provide and the enterprise engineering processes in those services must be handled carefully to ensure the best outcome. Orange et al (2007) investigated the innovation value in government and recognized the importance of a clear vision for the future. Government funded programmes for enterprise development are difficult to manage. Some governments adopting a “private sector” model for delivering “public good” services faced with considerable challenges of understanding organizational dynamics, for which government agencies were not competent enough to handle effectively (Massey, 2003).

Enterprise architecture adoption in government businesses is important but there are many patterns (Hjort-Madsen, 2007). It is difficult to decide which one to adopt since they are emergent, evolving, embedded, fragmented, provisional. Wu (2007) proposed layering method in the direction of strategy, business, process, service and information for developing enterprise integration in e-government. Gregor et al (2007) used enterprise architecture for enabling alignment of IS/IT in government. Enterprise architecture should enable these services to be delivered to the desired outcomes. The concept of the government operating as an enterprise is to include not only the systems that support government services, but also to understand the management processes that may affect the effectiveness of the execution of government policies.

The term enterprise refers to an identifiable group of people who have a common vision and mission. An enterprise concerns all aspects of tasks, activities, events related to this group. Integration of the enterprise activities requires modelling and analysis of the business processes, process data and knowledge within the enterprise (Shen et al, 2004). A holistic, customer oriented approach in enterprise integration helps companies to cater for different requirements and more importantly, provides a way to implement a good solution for integration (Oritz et al, 1999).

This chapter serves as a guide to the design and implementation of government supported enterprises. We discuss the importance of enterprise engineering in the design and execution of enterprise models to cope with changes. Three case studies are used to illustrate the different forms of government services and the impact different enterprise engineering approaches on the outcomes. By comparing these cases, we develop the view of a new dimension in modelling to cater for change.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
John A. Zachman
Preface
Pallab Saha
Acknowledgment
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
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Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
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Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
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Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
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Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
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Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
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Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
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Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
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Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
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Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
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Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
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Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
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Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
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Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
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Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
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Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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About the Contributors