Asymmetric Communication

Asymmetric Communication

Andrew Targowski (Haworth College of Business, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-004-2.ch015
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

This chapter defines a framework for the crosscultural communication process, including efficiency and cost. The framework provides some directions for dialogue among civilizations, which is one of the main routes toward creation of the universal civilization. A developed architectural design of the cross-cultural communication process is based on a universal system approach that not only considers the complexities of the various cultural hierarchies and their corresponding communication climates, but also compares and quantifies the cultural-specific attributes with the intention of increasing efficiency levels in crosscultural communication. The attributes for two selected cultures (Western-West and Egyptian) are estimated in a normative way using expert opinions, measuring on a scale from 1 to 5 with 5 as the best value. Quantifying cultural richness (R), cultural efficiency (?), modified cultural differences (DMC, and cultural ability (B) reflects how a given culture’s strength can overcome cultural differences and enhance its competitive advantage (V). Two components of the culture factor cost, explicit (CE) and implicit (CI), are defined, examined and quantified for the purposes not only of controlling the cost of doing business across cultures, but also to determine the amount of investment needed to overcome cultural differences in a global economy. In this new millennium, global organizations will increasingly focus on the critical value of the cross-cultural communication process, its efficiency, its competence, its cost of doing business. In order to successfully communicate crossculturally, knowledge and understanding of such cultural factors as values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors should be acquired. Because culture is a powerful force that strongly influences communication behavior, culture and communication are inseparably linked. Worldwide, in the last 20 years, countries have experienced a phenomenal growth in international trade and foreign direct investment. Similarly, they have discovered the importance of crosscultural communication. As a result, practitioners and scholars are paying attention to the fact that cultural dimensions influence management practices (Hofstede, 1980; Child, 1981; Triandis, 1982; Adler, 1983; Laurent, 1983; Maruyama, 1984). In recent years, empirical work in the crosscultural arena has focused on the role of culture on employee behavior in communicating within business organizations (Tayeb, 1988). But current 346 Asymmetric Communication work on cross-cultural business communication has paid little attention to either (a) how to adapt these seminal works on general communication to the needs of intercultural business or (b) how to create new models more relevant to cross-cultural business exchanges (Limaye & Victor, 1991, p. 283). There are many focused empirical studies on cross-cultural communication between two specific cultures (e.g., Wong & Hildebrandt, 1983; Halpern, 1983; Victor, 1987; Eiler & Victor, 1988; Varner, 1988; Victor & Danak, 1990), but such results must be arguable when extrapolated across multiple cultures. The prevailing western classical linear and process models of communication (Shannon & Weaver, 1949; Berlo, 1960) neglect the complexity of cross-cultural communication. Targowski and Bowman (1988) developed a layer-based pragmatic communication process model which covered more variables than any previous model and indirectly addressed the role of cultural factors among their layer-based variables. In a similar manner, the channel ratio model for intercultural communication developed by Haworth and Savage (1989) has also failed to account completely for the multiple communication variables in cross-cultural environments. So far, there is no adequate model that can explain the cross-cultural communication process and efficiency, let alone estimate the cost of doing business with other cultures worldwide.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

This chapter defines a framework for the cross-cultural communication process, including efficiency and cost. The framework provides some directions for dialogue among civilizations, which is one of the main routes toward creation of the universal civilization. A developed architectural design of the cross-cultural communication process is based on a universal system approach that not only considers the complexities of the various cultural hierarchies and their corresponding communication climates, but also compares and quantifies the cultural-specific attributes with the intention of increasing efficiency levels in cross-cultural communication. The attributes for two selected cultures (Western-West and Egyptian) are estimated in a normative way using expert opinions, measuring on a scale from 1 to 5 with 5 as the best value.

Quantifying cultural richness (R), cultural efficiency (η), modified cultural differences (DMC, and cultural ability (B) reflects how a given culture’s strength can overcome cultural differences and enhance its competitive advantage (V). Two components of the culture factor cost, explicit (CE) and implicit (CI), are defined, examined and quantified for the purposes not only of controlling the cost of doing business across cultures, but also to determine the amount of investment needed to overcome cultural differences in a global economy.

In this new millennium, global organizations will increasingly focus on the critical value of the cross-cultural communication process, its efficiency, its competence, its cost of doing business. In order to successfully communicate cross-culturally, knowledge and understanding of such cultural factors as values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors should be acquired. Because culture is a powerful force that strongly influences communication behavior, culture and communication are inseparably linked.

Worldwide, in the last 20 years, countries have experienced a phenomenal growth in international trade and foreign direct investment. Similarly, they have discovered the importance of cross-cultural communication. As a result, practitioners and scholars are paying attention to the fact that cultural dimensions influence management practices (Hofstede, 1980; Child, 1981; Triandis, 1982; Adler, 1983; Laurent, 1983; Maruyama, 1984). In recent years, empirical work in the cross-cultural arena has focused on the role of culture on employee behavior in communicating within business organizations (Tayeb, 1988). But current work on cross-cultural business communication has paid little attention to either (a) how to adapt these seminal works on general communication to the needs of intercultural business or (b) how to create new models more relevant to cross-cultural business exchanges (Limaye & Victor, 1991, p. 283). There are many focused empirical studies on cross-cultural communication between two specific cultures (e.g., Wong & Hildebrandt, 1983; Halpern, 1983; Victor, 1987; Eiler & Victor, 1988; Varner, 1988; Victor & Danak, 1990), but such results must be arguable when extrapolated across multiple cultures. The prevailing western classical linear and process models of communication (Shannon & Weaver, 1949; Berlo, 1960) neglect the complexity of cross-cultural communication. Targowski and Bowman (1988) developed a layer-based pragmatic communication process model which covered more variables than any previous model and indirectly addressed the role of cultural factors among their layer-based variables. In a similar manner, the channel ratio model for intercultural communication developed by Haworth and Savage (1989) has also failed to account completely for the multiple communication variables in cross-cultural environments. So far, there is no adequate model that can explain the cross-cultural communication process and efficiency, let alone estimate the cost of doing business with other cultures worldwide.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Andrew Targowski
Chapter 1
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of generic civilizations and world civilization, applying the cybernetic technique of... Sample PDF
The Civilization Grand Model
$37.50
Chapter 2
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this study is to define the role of civilization’s critical powers in the civilization life cycle. The role of... Sample PDF
Civilization Life Cycle: Introduction
$37.50
Chapter 3
The Civilization Index  (pages 62-77)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define energy levels of civilizations, particularly in respect to a role of information-communication processes.... Sample PDF
The Civilization Index
$37.50
Chapter 4
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate a role of information-communication (INFOCO) processes in human development according to the following... Sample PDF
(A) Liberating the Future from the Past
$37.50
Chapter 5
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define intrinsic values of information-communication processes in human development. The development of... Sample PDF
(B) Liberating the Past from the Future
$37.50
Chapter 6
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate whether we humans are wise enough to save our civilization from threats of internal conflicts and... Sample PDF
Will Wisdom Save the Human Project?
$37.50
Chapter 7
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define processes triggering the emergence of global civilization at the beginning of the 21st century. In... Sample PDF
From Global to Universal-Complementary Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 8
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information- based tools for the study of the human story in order to “informate” traditional historic... Sample PDF
Theory of Critical Total History of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 9
Andrew Targowski
This chapter will attempt to analyze the cumulative evolution of labor, intellect (information & knowledge), and politics. In pursuit of this aim... Sample PDF
The Information Wave of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 10
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information, mainly in terms of cognition units, and also to find out its other perspectives and images.... Sample PDF
Information and Organization
$37.50
Chapter 11
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define a scope of service science and service automation in service economy based on ideal generic service systems... Sample PDF
Service Science and Automation Laws
$37.50
Chapter 12
Information Laws  (pages 277-288)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information laws which control the development of the global and universal civilizations as well as... Sample PDF
Information Laws
$37.50
Chapter 13
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the architecture of information-communication systems which play key roles in the development of the... Sample PDF
The Electronic Global Village
$37.50
Chapter 14
Information Societies  (pages 311-343)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the evolution and key indicators of the information society that is being triggered by the Information Wave... Sample PDF
Information Societies
$37.50
Chapter 15
Asymmetric Communication  (pages 345-362)
Andrew Targowski
This chapter defines a framework for the crosscultural communication process, including efficiency and cost. The framework provides some directions... Sample PDF
Asymmetric Communication
$37.50
Chapter 16
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the dynamics of the economic infrastructure, which supports any civilization and defines the modus operandi... Sample PDF
Civilization Market Integration
$37.50
Chapter 17
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is the investigation whether human civilization has much of a future on the Earth. This investigation is partially based... Sample PDF
The Future of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 18
Andrew Targowski
For years, the construction of the universe has occupied the best minds of theologians and scientists. The first modern breakthrough was made by... Sample PDF
The Information Architecture of the Universe
$37.50
About the Contributors