This chapter addresses the issue of authentic assessment in an online, asynchronous educational environment. Initially, a definition of “authentic” is articulated. Building on this theoretical foundation by describing authentic assessment in the face-to-face classroom, a framework for authentic assessment in the virtual classroom is developed. Next, the multiple challenges of conducting authentic assessment online are addressed. Finally, specific strategies for authentic online assessment are identified and discussed. These strategies include the use of electronic portfolios, electronic journals, assessment embedded in online discussion, and rubrics.