This chapter describes models of work-based learning and outlines key features of the authentic learning pedagogy that informs its application. It contextualises work-based learning in the political and economic imperatives driving curriculum change in universities in the Western world. In so doing, it refers to curriculum development based on generic skills and notes analyses of the role of universities in contemporary society, with particular reference to the relative importance of practical and theoretical training. Innovative case studies provide practical examples of the implementation of authentic learning pedagogies through work-based university programs. The key to successful implementation is assessment, which links theory and practice. The underlying message of the chapter is that what counts are not the teaching and learning tools you have, but the way that you use them. There can be nothing more real than real, and this is the strength of work-based university learning: it offers authentic or situated learning environments that reflect the way knowledge will be used in real life.