The use of Internet and Web technologies between organizations has gained much attention in recent years. Termed business-to-business (B2B) electronic commerce, the linking and integration of inter-organizational business processes and systems promises cost and time savings, as well as new business opportunities. The many examples of B2B applications cover a broad range of sales and purchasing processes, business models, industries, and products and services. Complexity ranges from simple message switchboards to sophisticated marketplaces handling a multitude of real-time transactions, integrated closely with the backend systems of the participants. Using information technology (IT) to connect organizations is by no means a new phenomenon, but reaches back several decades to include electronic data interchange (EDI) systems and remote terminal applications. Still, systems based on Internet standards seem to be easier to set up technically and cheaper to interconnect. They might thus reach wider adoption and acceptance than many of the earlier initiatives, and as a result give smaller players a realistic opportunity to join in and reap benefits similar to their larger partners.