Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture

Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture

Patricia A. Young (University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-426-2.ch001
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Abstract

If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found in the literature of scholars across nations. In Germany, Wilheim A. Lay (1903) studied the relationship between psychology (i.e., memory, perception, muscle response) and the practice of teaching subject matter (i.e., reading, writing, and arithmetic). Lay believed that educational topics could benefit from an experimental approach that explored “not only the psychological but also the biological, anthropological, hygienic, economic, logical, ethical, aesthetic, and religious experiences of the pupil and his community by means of observation, statistics and the experiment (Lay, 1936, p. 139).” In Geneva, Edouard Claparède (1905) argued that the type of teaching should be dependent on the knowledge the child brings with them. Claparède believed that the learner needed to know how to learn in order to learn. Ernst Meumann (1907), in Germany, continued with this line of inquiry into experimental psychology and experimental pedagogy examining the application of psychology methods to pedagogical problems. Given the increased demands on children to learn more information, Meumann sought to develop psychologically based methods to improve teaching and learning.
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Pioneers In Learning, Learning Theory, & Psychology

If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found in the literature of scholars across nations. In Germany, Wilheim A. Lay (1903) studied the relationship between psychology (i.e., memory, perception, muscle response) and the practice of teaching subject matter (i.e., reading, writing, and arithmetic). Lay believed that educational topics could benefit from an experimental approach that explored “not only the psychological but also the biological, anthropological, hygienic, economic, logical, ethical, aesthetic, and religious experiences of the pupil and his community by means of observation, statistics and the experiment (Lay, 1936, p. 139).” In Geneva, Edouard Claparède (1905) argued that the type of teaching should be dependent on the knowledge the child brings with them. Claparède believed that the learner needed to know how to learn in order to learn. Ernst Meumann (1907), in Germany, continued with this line of inquiry into experimental psychology and experimental pedagogy examining the application of psychology methods to pedagogical problems. Given the increased demands on children to learn more information, Meumann sought to develop psychologically based methods to improve teaching and learning. Meumann (1913) wrote in the introduction of the book The Psychology of Learning:

In the traditional pedagogy we read a great deal about methods of teaching; but in most cases, the pedagogical text-books can tell us nothing about methods of learning. And yet we find ourselves confronted by the very serious question as to whether the efficiency of school-room management may not be increased by systematically improving the pupil’s procedure in the act of learning in such a fashion that his learning may be perfected in its technical aspects and accomplished more economically (p. xiv).

In the United States, early examples of the scientific approach to the child study movement can be found in the works of psychologists G. Stanley Hall (e.g., The Contents of Children’s Minds on Entering School - 1893) and James M. Cattell (e.g., Mental Tests and Measurements -1890). Furthering the research in child psychology, John Dewey and Edward Lee Thorndike explored the psychology of schooling and the child. Dewey (1897) theorized that, to educate an individual, one must know about their “psychological structure and activities” and their “social conditions” (p. 4). This knowledge aided in determining where the child came from and where they were headed. Specifically, Dewey sought to understand how socialization influenced learning and how it could aid in educating the individual. Edward Lee Thorndike (1903, 1906) contributed several textbooks on the psychology of education, teaching, and learning. In the textbook Educational Psychology, Thorndike (1903) examined the influences of mental development, environment, and genetics. In formulating a theory of education, Thorndike (1903) hypothesized the following:

To know the original natures of the beings to be educated and to know the influence of the forces of nature, human lives and all the paraphernalia of civilization upon these original natures is to know how to control their education in the interest of the aim we have chosen (p. 163).

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rita C. Richey
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Patricia A. Young
If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found... Sample PDF
Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture
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Chapter 2
Patricia A. Young
There have been many definitions of culture hypothesized by theorists and scholars as a way to understand human beings, other species and entities;... Sample PDF
The Nature of Culture in Design
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Chapter 3
Patricia A. Young
The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not... Sample PDF
The Culture-Based Model Framework
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Chapter 4
Patricia A. Young
Inquiry (11-16) monitors development, automates the internal flow of the design process, and functions as internal sensors. This monitoring checks... Sample PDF
CBM Inquiry, Development
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Chapter 5
Patricia A. Young
Team (T1–T3) focuses on the recruitment of a culturally sensitive design team that includes a cultural expert, an educator, and other culturally... Sample PDF
CBM Team, Assessments, Brainstorming
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Chapter 6
CBM Learners  (pages 88-99)
Patricia A. Young
The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment... Sample PDF
CBM Learners
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Chapter 7
CBM Elements I  (pages 100-125)
Patricia A. Young
Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all... Sample PDF
CBM Elements I
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Chapter 8
CBM Elements II  (pages 126-141)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural communications is covered in its... Sample PDF
CBM Elements II
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Chapter 9
CBM Elements III  (pages 142-173)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural demographics and Cultural... Sample PDF
CBM Elements III
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Chapter 10
CBM Elements IV  (pages 174-214)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural history is covered in its entirety.... Sample PDF
CBM Elements IV
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Chapter 11
CBM Elements V  (pages 215-231)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural knowledge, Cultural language... Sample PDF
CBM Elements V
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Chapter 12
CBM Elements VI  (pages 232-253)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VI
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Chapter 13
CBM Elements VII  (pages 254-278)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII
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Chapter 14
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII & Training
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Chapter 15
Patricia A. Young
Instructional design includes the production of educational products such as software, Web-based environments, video games, videos, films, and print... Sample PDF
Case Study of an Educational Product
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Chapter 16
Case Study in Game Design  (pages 316-330)
Patricia A. Young
The global game industry expects substantial growth in the next decades. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) are expected to skyrocket from the... Sample PDF
Case Study in Game Design
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Chapter 17
Case Study in E-Learning  (pages 331-341)
Patricia A. Young
The future of e-learning is wide open in terms of innovations in software, hardware, instructional content, and teaching practices. Recent... Sample PDF
Case Study in E-Learning
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Chapter 18
Case Study in Research  (pages 342-358)
Patricia A. Young
Research is seen as a bad word, more work and lots more money. However, research is a good thing to do and engage in before, during and after... Sample PDF
Case Study in Research
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Chapter 19
Conclusion  (pages 359-364)
Patricia A. Young
Culture works as a design construct. It is apparent that there are many factors operating to make this happen. First, the nature of culture in... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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About the Author