Biometrical Identification as a Challenge for Legislation: The Finnish Case

Biometrical Identification as a Challenge for Legislation: The Finnish Case

Reima Suomi (Turku School of Economics, Finland), Tuomas Aho (Bützow Attorneys Ltd., Finland), Tom Björkroth (Finnish Competition Authority, Finland) and Aki Koponen (Turku School of Economics, Finland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-220-6.ch012
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Abstract

Accurate identification of individuals is a cornerstone of any modern society. Without identification, we cannot recognize the parties of different transactions and bind individuals to their rights and liabilities. Without identification, the transactions, rights, and liabilities become useless, and society can no longer work. Biometrical identification offers a technologically effective solution to the identification problems. These technologies are spreading fast in the whole information and communication technology field and pervading into many aspects of using computers and similar devices. Just like any other technology, biometric identification cannot develop without a sufficient regulative environment. This chapter provides an overview of the challenges and approaches, in addition to introducing biometric technologies. Finland has had connection with biometric identification and this chapter covers some aspects of the same.
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Biometrical Identification

The need to identify persons accurately has been a cornerstone for the world for centuries. Every human being, person, can be seen as a bunch of rights and liabilities. The person can use his/her rights and carry his/her liabilities as a private person, or on behalf of some third party, for example organization, through some kind of authorizing relationship from that third party. Rights are used and liabilities carried out in different transactions. Without identification, we cannot recognize the parties of different transactions and bind individuals to rights and liabilities. The transactions, rights and liabilities become useless, and the society can no longer work.

Modern virtual way or transacting through computer and telecommunication networks has made the challenge of identification more acute than ever.

Biometrical identification that has actually been the cornerstone of identification ever (people are known traditionally because of their race, age, size and face characteristics). Another popular method has been that of handwriting, where the connection between the person and the signature is always anyway vague. These kinds of identification have been very natural, but they cannot happen over the telecommunication network. Special devices and applications are needed for biometrical identification over the networks.

Authentication methods fall into three categories: what you know (usually password and/or PIN), what you have (smart card), and what you are (biometric) (Kroenke, 2007, p. 224).

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Jeffrey Soar
Preface
Varuna Godara
Chapter 1
Varuna Godara
Pervasive computing is trying to make the dreams of the science fiction writers come true—where you think of some type of convenience and you have... Sample PDF
Pervasive Computing: A Conceptual Framework
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Chapter 2
Varuna Godara
The need for more and more flexibility (in terms of time and location) in business operations, contextbased services, decentralization of business... Sample PDF
Pervasive Business Infrastructure: The Network Technologies, Routing and Security Issues
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Chapter 3
Deo Prakash Vidyarthi
The proliferation of the capable mobile devices has given the opportunity to utilize these devices for various purposes. The mobile devices being... Sample PDF
Computational Mobile Grid: A Computing Infrastructure on Mobile Devices
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Chapter 4
Mark J.W. Lee
This chapter investigates the use of mobile digital technologies for learning, or mobile learning (mlearning), across a variety of education and... Sample PDF
Mobile and Pervasive Technology in Education and Training: Potential and Possibilities, Problems and Pitfalls
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Chapter 5
Gaya Prasad
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in their presence. They are present in air, soil, water, and all kinds of living creatures. Varieties of microbes have... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Computing for Microbial Forensics and Bioterrorism
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Chapter 6
Jonathan G.M. Pratt
This chapter presents the major findings of case study research investigating uncritical assessment of an institution-wide learning management... Sample PDF
Falling Behind: A Case Study in Uncritical Assessment
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Chapter 7
Yvonne Lee, Martin Kornberger
In the rapidly changing digital marketplace, firms increasingly try to look for new ways to acquire, engage, and retain their consumers. In doing... Sample PDF
Strategizing in the Digital World: Aligning Business Model, Brand and Technology
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Chapter 8
Helena Halas, Tomaž Klobucar
This chapter explores the influence of pervasive computing on companies and their businesses, with the main stress on business models. The role of... Sample PDF
Business Models and Organizational Processes Changes
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Chapter 9
Te Fu Chen
To date, identifying barriers and critical success factors (CSFs) and integrating business model in implementing e-business for SMEs, have not been... Sample PDF
The Critical Success Factors and Integrated Model for Implementing E-Business in Taiwan's SMEs
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Chapter 10
Lawan Ahmed Mohammed
The change in physical structures of computing facilities into small and portable devices, or even wearable computers, has enhanced ubiquitous... Sample PDF
Security Issues in Pervasive Computing
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Chapter 11
Grace Li
Pervasive computing and communications is emerging rapidly as an exciting new paradigm and discipline to provide computing and communication... Sample PDF
Deciphering Pervasive Computing: A Study of Jurisdiction, E-Fraud and Privacy in Pervasive Computing Environment
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Chapter 12
Reima Suomi, Tuomas Aho, Tom Björkroth, Aki Koponen
Accurate identification of individuals is a cornerstone of any modern society. Without identification, we cannot recognize the parties of different... Sample PDF
Biometrical Identification as a Challenge for Legislation: The Finnish Case
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Chapter 13
Antony Glambedakis
This chapter sets out to inform the reader about the impact of pervasive computers in aviation passenger risk profiling. First is an overview of the... Sample PDF
Pervasive Computers in Aviation Passenger Risk Profiling
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Chapter 14
Penny Duquenoy, Oliver K. Burmeister
There is a growing concern both publicly and professionally surrounding the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and... Sample PDF
Ethical Issues and Pervasive Computing
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Chapter 15
Phillip W.J. Brook
This chapter explores the implications of knowledge sharing in an era of pervasive computing, and concludes that, perhaps counter-intuitively... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing and Pervasive Computing: The Need for Trust and a Sense of History
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Chapter 16
Patrice Braun
In view of the fact that women are playing an increasingly important role in the global economy, this chapter examines business skilling in the... Sample PDF
Advancing Women in the Digital Economy: eLearning Opportunities for Meta-Competency Skilling
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Chapter 17
B.K. Mangaraj, Upali Aparajita
The future of pervasive computers largely depends upon culture studies of human societies. This forms a challenging field of social research because... Sample PDF
Cultural Dimension in the Future of Pervasive Computing
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Chapter 18
Genevieve Watson
Pervasive computers cover many areas of both our working and personal lives. This chapter investigates this phenomenon through the human factors... Sample PDF
Outline of the Human Factor Elements Evident with Pervasive Computers
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Chapter 19
Kalawati Malik
This chapter analyses the impact of computer and video games on the development of children. First introductory part of this chapter informs its... Sample PDF
Impact of Computer and Video Games on the Development of Children
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About the Contributors