Biosensor1 is a diagnostic tool in which a biological element is used to sense a chemical and its amount in a given sample, and then the sensed information (i.e., data) is transferred to a transducer which converts this signal to electrical signal. In this way, it transforms a biological response into an electrical signal. It also detects, records, and transmits data generated due to physiological change or any chemicals presence in the area being analyzed. The analysis is accurate and reliable. In other words, biosensor can be termed as a device used in a biological derived sensing element2 integrated with a physiochemical transducer, producing an electrical signal (Turner, 1996). The resulting electrical signal is a measure of the amount of chemical or combination of chemicals being detected. Sometimes Biosensors are referred as the living organisms, which are used as a sensor to detect the environmental change.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Oxidoreductases: An enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction.
Potentiometric: Pertaining to or involving the measurement of an electromotive force, or potential difference by comparison with a known voltage.
Piezoelectrical: Of or relating to generation of electricity, or of electric polarity in dielectric crystals subjected to mechanical stress.
Subcutaneous: Performed or introduced under the skin, as an injection by a syringe.
Electrode: A conductor, not necessarily metallic, through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic medium, as an electrolytic cell, arc generator, vacuum tube, or gaseous discharge tube.
Electrochemical: Of or relating to chemical reactions brought about by electricity; galvanochemical.
Amperometric: Pertaining to or involving the measurement of an electric current.