Bluetooth Devices Effect on Radiated EMS of Vehicle Wiring

Bluetooth Devices Effect on Radiated EMS of Vehicle Wiring

Miguel A. Ruiz (University of Alcala, Spain), Felipe Espinosa (University of Alcala, Spain), David Sanguino (University of Alcala, Spain) and AbdelBaset Awawdeh (University of Alcala, Spain)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-899-4.ch042
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Abstract

The electromagnetic energy source used by wireless communication devices in a vehicle can cause electromagnetic compatibility problems with the electrical and electronic equipment on board. This work is focused on the radiated susceptibility (electromagnetic susceptibility [EMS]) issue and proposes a method for quantifying the electromagnetic influence of wireless radio frequency (RF) transmitters on board vehicles. The key to the analysis is the evaluation of the relation between the electrical field emitted by a typical Bluetooth device operating close to the automobile’s electrical and electronic systems and the field level specified by the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) directive 2004/104/EC for radiated susceptibility tests. The chapter includes the model of a closed circuit structure emulating an automobile electric wire system and the simulation of its behaviour under electromagnetic fields’ action. According to this a physical structure is designed and implemented, which is used for laboratory tests. Finally, simulated and experimental results are compared and the conclusions obtained are discussed.

Key Terms in this Chapter

RF: Short for radio frequency, any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When a RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. Many wireless technologies are based on RF field propagation, including cordless phones, radar, ham radio, GPS, and radio and television broadcasts. RF waves propagate at the speed of light, or 186,000 miles per second (300,000 km/s). Their frequencies however are slower than those of visible light, making RF waves invisible to the human eye.

Bluetooth (Class I, II, and III): Bluetooth is the name of a wireless technology standard for connecting devices, set to replace cables. It uses radio frequencies in the 2.45 GHz range to transmit information over short distances of generally 33 feet (10 meters) or less. By embedding a Bluetooth chip and receiver into products, cables that would normally carry the signal can be eliminated. There are currently three flavours or classifications of Bluetooth devices, relative to transmitting range. As the range is increased the signal used in the respective classification is also stronger. Note that class III devices are comparatively rare.

CISPR: The Special International Committee on Radio Interference(abbreviated CISPR from the French name of the organization, Comitéinternational spécial des perturbations radioélectriques) is concerned withdeveloping norms for detecting, measuring and comparing electromagneticinterference in electric devices. CISPR’s principal task is at the higherend of the frequency range, from 9 kHz upwards, repairing standards thatoffer protection of radio reception from interference sources such aselectrical appliances of all types, the electricity supply system,industrial, scientific and electromedical RF, broadcasting receivers (soundand TV) and, increasingly, information technology equipment (ITE).

WLAN: The acronym for wireless local-area network. Also referred to as LAWN. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. LAN is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

Anechoic (Semianechoic) Chamber: An anechoic chamber is a room in which there are no echoes. This description was originally used in the context of acoustic (sound) echoes caused by reflections from the internal surfaces of the room but more recently the same description has been adopted for the radio frequency (RF) anechoic chamber. A RF anechoic chamber is designed to suppress the electromagnetic wave analogy of echoes: reflected electromagnetic waves, again from the internal surfaces. Both types of chamber are usually built, not only with echo suppression features, but also with effective isolation from the acoustic or RF noise present in the external environment. In a well designed acoustic or RF anechoic chamber the equipment under test will only receive signals (whether acoustic or RF) which are emitted directly from the signal source, and not reflected from another part of the chamber.The semianechoic chamber is a shielded room with radio frequency absorbing material on the walls and ceiling (not on the ground). This semianechoic chamber simulates an open field test site, and eliminates any ambient signals that may be present in an open field environment.

Near Field Communication (NFC): A short-range wireless connectivity standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092) that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they are touched together, or brought within a few centimetres of each other. Jointly developed by Philips and Sony, the standard specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to exchange data. After the P2P network has been configured, another wireless communication technology, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, can be used for longer range communication or for transferring larger amounts of data.

EMC-EMI-EMS: EMC is an abbreviation for electromagnetic compatibility. This means interoperability, or an electronic device’s ability to operate in an electric environment without interfering other electronic devices (emission), and without being interfered by other devices in its vicinity (immunity).EMC is divided into two main areas: electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS). These two areas are again divided into two categories of phenomena: conducted phenomena and radiated phenomena. EMC testing comprises measurements of the emission generated on in- and outgoing cables, the emission generated as electric fields surrounding the device, immunity against several disturbance phenomena on in- and outgoing cables, immunity against electric fields generated by other electronic devices and radio transmitters, and immunity against electrostatic discharges generated by human intervention.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Preface
Yan Zhang, Jun Zheng, Miao Ma
Acknowledgment
Yan Zhang, Jun Zheng, Miao Ma
Chapter 1
Thomas M. Chen, Cyrus Peikari
This chapter examines the scope of malicious software (malware) threats to mobile devices. The stakes for the wireless industry are high. While... Sample PDF
Malicious Software in Mobile Devices
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Chapter 2
Sheikh I. Ahamed, John F. Buford, Moushumi Sharmin, Munirul M. Haque, Nilothpal Talukder
In broadband wireless networks, mobile devices will be equipped to directly share resources using service discovery mechanisms without relying upon... Sample PDF
Secure Service Discovery
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Chapter 3
Zbigniew Kotulski, Aneta Zwierko
The recent development in the mobile technology (mobile phones, middleware, wireless networks, etc.) created a need for new methods of protecting... Sample PDF
Security of Mobile Code
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Chapter 4
Identity Management  (pages 44-60)
Kumbesan Sandrasegaran, Mo Li
The broad aim of identity management (IdM) is to manage the resources of an organization (such as files, records, data, and communication... Sample PDF
Identity Management
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Chapter 5
Wireless Wardriving  (pages 61-77)
Luca Caviglione
Wardriving is the practice of searching wireless networks while moving. Originally, it was explicitly referred to as people searching for wireless... Sample PDF
Wireless Wardriving
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Chapter 6
Amel Meddeb Makhlouf, Noureddine Boudriga
The broadcast nature of wireless networks and the mobility features created new kinds of intrusions and anomalies taking profit of wireless... Sample PDF
Intrusion and Anomaly Detection in Wireless Networks
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Chapter 7
Lu Yan
A lot of networks today are behind firewalls. In peer-to-peer (P2P) networking, firewall-protected peers may have to communicate with peers outside... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network Security: Firewall Issues
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Chapter 8
Mohammad M.R. Chowdhury, Josef Noll
Ubiquitous access and pervasive computing concept is almost intrinsically tied to wireless communications. Emerging next-generation wireless... Sample PDF
Identity Management for Wireless Service Access
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Chapter 9
Peter Langendörfer, Michael Maaser, Krzysztof Piotrowski, Steffen Peter
This chapter provides a survey of privacy-enhancing techniques and discusses their effect using a scenario in which a charged location-based service... Sample PDF
Privacy-Enhancing Technique: A Survey and Classification
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Chapter 10
Lawan A. Mohammed, Biju Issac
This chapter shows that the security challenges posed by the 802.11 wireless networks are manifold and it is therefore important to explore the... Sample PDF
Vulnerability Analysis and Defenses in Wireless Networks
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Chapter 11
György Kálmán, Josef Noll
This chapter deals with challenges raised by securing transport, service access, user privacy, and accounting in wireless environments. Key... Sample PDF
Key Distribution and Management for Mobile Applications
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Chapter 12
Said Zaghloul, Admela Jukan
The architecture, and protocols for authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) are one of the most important design considerations in third... Sample PDF
Architecture and Protocols for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting in the Future Wireless Communications Networks
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Chapter 13
Josef Noll, György Kálmán
Converging networks and mobility raise new challenges towards the existing authentication, authorisation, and accounting (AAA) systems. Focus of the... Sample PDF
Authentication, Authorisation, and Access Control in Mobile Systems
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Chapter 14
Yacine Djemaiel, Slim Rekhis, Noureddine Boudriga
Wireless networks are gaining popularity that comes with the occurrence of several networking technologies raising from personal to wide area, from... Sample PDF
Trustworthy Networks, Authentication, Privacy, and Security Models
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Chapter 15
Jianfeng Ma, Xinghua Li
In the design and analysis of authentication and key agreement protocols, provably secure formal methods play a very important role, among which the... Sample PDF
The Provably Secure Formal Methods for Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols
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Chapter 16
Shiguo Lian
In a wireless environment, multimedia transmission is often affected by the error rate; delaying; terminal’s power or bandwidth; and so forth, which... Sample PDF
Multimedia Encryption and Watermarking in Wireless Environment
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Chapter 17
Paris Kitsos
In this chapter, a system-on-chip design of the newest powerful standard in the hash families, named Whirlpool, is presented. With more details an... Sample PDF
System-on-Chip Design of the Whirlpool Hash Function
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Chapter 18
Security in 4G  (pages 272-296)
Artur Hecker, Mohamad Badra
The fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks will be a technology-opportunistic and user-centric system combining the economic and technological... Sample PDF
Security in 4G
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Chapter 19
Christoforos Ntantogian, Christos Xenakis
The integration of heterogeneous mobile/wireless networks using an IP-based core network materializes the beyond third generation (B3G) mobile... Sample PDF
Security Architectures for B3G Mobile Networks
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Chapter 20
Christos Xenakis
This chapter analyzes the security architecture designed for the protection of the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS). This... Sample PDF
Security in UMTS 3G Mobile Networks
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Chapter 21
Yan Zhang, Yifan Chen, Rong Yu, Supeng Leng, Huansheng Ning, Tao Jiang
Motivated by the requirements for higher data rate, richer multimedia services, and broader radio range wireless mobile networks are currently in... Sample PDF
Access Security in UMTS and IMS
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Chapter 22
Christos Xenakis
The global system for mobile communications (GSM) is the most popular standard that implements second generation (2G) cellular systems. 2G systems... Sample PDF
Security in 2.5G Mobile Systems
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Chapter 23
Sasan Adibi, Gordon B. Agnew
Security measures of mobile infrastructures have always been important from the early days of the creation of cellular networks. Nowadays, however... Sample PDF
End-to-End Security Comparisons Between IEEE 802.16e and 3G Technologies
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Chapter 24
Silke Holtmanns, Pekka Laitinen
This chapter outlines how cellular authentication can be utilized for generic application security. It describes the basic concept of the generic... Sample PDF
Generic Application Security in Current and Future Networks
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Chapter 25
Sangheon Pack, Sungmin Baek, Taekyoung Kwon, Yanghee Choi
Network mobility (NEMO) enables seamless and ubiquitous Internet access while on-board vehicles. Even though the Internet Engineering Task Force... Sample PDF
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Framework in Network Mobility (NEMO) Environments
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Chapter 26
Bin Lu
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring and self-maintaining network characterized as dynamic topology, absence of infrastructure, and... Sample PDF
Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 27
Christer Andersson, Leonardo A. Martucci, Simone Fischer-Hübner
Providing privacy is often considered a keystone factor for the ultimate take up and success of mobile ad hoc networking. Privacy can best be... Sample PDF
Privacy and Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 28
Tomasz Ciszkowski, Zbigniew Kotulski
The pervasiveness of wireless communication recently gave mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) significant researchers’ attention, due to its innate... Sample PDF
Secure Routing with Reputation in MANET
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Chapter 29
Paolo Bellavista, Rebecca Montanari, Daniela Tibaldi, Alessandra Toninelli
The increasing diffusion of wireless portable devices and the emergence of mobile ad hoc networks promote anytime and anywhere opportunistic... Sample PDF
Trust Management and Context-Driven Access Control
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Chapter 30
Bing Wu, Jie Wu, Mihaela Cardei
Security has become a primary concern in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The characteristics of MANETs pose both challenges and opportunities in... Sample PDF
A Survey of Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 31
Sasan Adibi, Gordon B. Agnew
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained popularity in the past decade with the creation of a variety of ad hoc protocols that specifically offer... Sample PDF
Security Measures for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs)
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Chapter 32
Hao Yin, Chuang Lin, Zhijia Chen, Geyong Min
The integration of wireless communication and embedded video systems is a demanding and interesting topic which has attracted significant research... Sample PDF
A Novel Secure Video Surveillance System Over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 33
John Felix Charles Joseph, Amitabha Das, Boon-Chong Seet, Bu-Sung Lee
Intrusion detection in ad hoc networks is a challenge because of the inherent characteristics of these networks, such as, the absence of centralized... Sample PDF
Cutting the Gordian Knot: Intrusion Detection Systems in Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 34
Luis E. Palafox, J. Antonio Garcia-Macias
In this chapter we present the growing challenges related to security in wireless sensor networks. We show possible attack scenarios and evidence... Sample PDF
Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 35
Mohamed Hamdi, Noreddine Boudriga
The applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are continuously expanding. Recently, consistent research and development activities have been... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 36
A.R. Naseer, Ismat K. Maarouf, Ashraf S. Hasan
Since routing is a fundamental operation in all types of networks, ensuring routing security is a necessary requirement to guarantee the success of... Sample PDF
Routing Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 37
Yawen Wei, Zhen Yu, Yong Guan
Localization of sensor nodes is very important for many applications proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN), such as environment monitoring... Sample PDF
Localization Security in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 38
Miao Ma
One of the severe security threats in wireless sensor network is false data injection attack, that is, the compromised sensors forge the events that... Sample PDF
Resilience Against False Data Injection Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 39
Jean-Marc Seigneur, Luminita Moraru, Olivier Powell
Weiser (1991) envisioned ubiquitous computing with computing and communicating entities woven into the fabrics of every day life. This chapter deals... Sample PDF
Survivability of Sensors with Key and Trust Management
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Chapter 40
Yu Wang
Fault tolerance is one of the premier system design desiderata in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. It is crucial to have a certain level of... Sample PDF
Fault Tolerant Topology Design for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
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Chapter 41
Georgios Kambourakis, Angelos Rouskas, Stefanos Gritzalis
Security is always an important factor in wireless connections. As with all other existing radio technologies, the Bluetooth standard is often cited... Sample PDF
Evaluating Security Mechanisms in Different Protocol Layers for Bluetooth Connections
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Chapter 42
Miguel A. Ruiz, Felipe Espinosa, David Sanguino, AbdelBaset Awawdeh
The electromagnetic energy source used by wireless communication devices in a vehicle can cause electromagnetic compatibility problems with the... Sample PDF
Bluetooth Devices Effect on Radiated EMS of Vehicle Wiring
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Chapter 43
Security in WLAN  (pages 695-709)
Mohamad Badra, Artur Hecker
The great promise of wireless LAN will never be realized unless there is an appropriate security level. From this point of view, various security... Sample PDF
Security in WLAN
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Chapter 44
Jahan Hassan, Björn Landfeldt, Albert Y. Zomaya
Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are rapidly becoming a core part of network access. Supporting user mobility, more specifically session... Sample PDF
Access Control in Wireless Local Area Networks: Fast Authentication Schemes
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Chapter 45
Denis Trcek
Mass deployment of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is now becoming feasible for a wide variety of applications ranging from medical... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in RFID Based Wireless Networks
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Chapter 46
Giorgos Kostopoulos, Nicolas Sklavos, Odysseas Koufopavlou
Wireless communications are becoming ubiquitous in homes, offices, and enterprises with the popular IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (LAN)... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy Approaches for Wireless Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANs & MANs)
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Chapter 47
Sasan Adibi, Gordon B. Agnew, Tom Tofigh
An overview of the technical and business aspects is given for the corporate deployment of services over worldwide interoperability for microwave... Sample PDF
End-to-End (E2E) Security Approach in WiMAX: A Security Technical Overview for Corporate Multimedia Applications
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Chapter 48
Symeon Chatzinotas, Jonny Karlsson, Göran Pulkkis, Kaj Grahn
During the last few years, mobile broadband access has been a popular concept in the context of fourth generation (4G) cellular systems. After the... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Security Architectures for Mobile Broadband Access
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Chapter 49
Sasan Adibi, Gordon B. Agnew
Authentication is an important part of the authentication authorization and accounting (AAA) schemes and the extensible authentication protocol... Sample PDF
Extensible Authentication (EAP) Protocol Integrations in the Next Generation Cellular Networks
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