Broadband Satellite Multimedia Networks

Broadband Satellite Multimedia Networks

Paolo Chini (Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy), Giovanni Giambene (Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy) and Snezana Hadzic (Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-820-8.ch015
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Abstract

Nowadays there is an increasing need of broadband communication anytime, anywhere for users that expect to receive multimedia services with support of quality of service. In such a scenario, the aim of this chapter is to present the possibility of the satellite option that is particular attracting to bridge the digital divide in those areas where terrestrial solutions are unfeasible or too expensive. This chapter provides first a survey of the ETSI standardization framework for satellite networks. Then, resource management schemes for both forward and return link are described. Finally a suitable case study is provided for the integration of a DVB-S/DVB-RCS satellite system interconnected with a WiFi segment for local coverage; examples and results permit to understand different resource management implications.
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Introduction

Satellite communication systems represent an adequate solution for providing high bit-rate services to users over wide areas. Important advantages of the satellite approach are: (i) easy support for both broadcast and multicast high bit-rate multimedia services; (ii) backup communication services for third-generation (3G) cellular users on a global scale; (iii) efficient support of high-mobility users (e.g., users on trains, planes, etc.). For many isolated areas on earth, satellites are the only solution to be connected to local Internet service providers.

When interconnected together with local or geographical networks, satellites can be the bottleneck of the entire system because of the delay and throughput that they entail. For these reasons, getting the maximum performance out of the satellite segment is very important.

The ETSI TC-SES/BSM (satellite earth stations and systems / broadband satellite multimedia) working group had the task to focus on IP layer interworking for satellite networks. This working group has defined a reference broadband satellite multimedia (BSM) network architecture as in Figure 1. The interest here is on geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites. They are on an equatorial plane at an altitude of about 35,800 km. They have synchronous motion with respect to a point on the earth (i.e., 24-hour orbital period), so that they are stationary with respect to a user on the earth. Three GEO satellites would be enough to cover all the earth except Polar Regions. Due to their distance from earth, communications with these satellites is affected by a significant delay for the propagation of the electromagnetic signal (at least 250 ms for each hop).

Figure 1.

BSM reference network architecture

From the protocol stack standpoint, a BSM network can involve different layers (ETSI - TR 101 985, 2002):

  • The BSM network interconnects with ground network elements at layer 2, like a bridge.

  • The BSM network interconnects with ground network elements at layer 3, so that the satellite earth stations are routers.

  • The BSM network operates at a layer above the 3rd one: the satellite earth stations are gateways. In this case, these stations can perform a more accurate routing based not only on the IP datagram header, but also on information of the higher layer headers. The earth station can implement special functions, like performance enhancing proxies (PEP) that are important in order to improve the transmission control protocol (TCP) performance in satellite networks (note that a significant problem in the provision of TCP/IP services through GEO satellites is the propagation delay of the signal from the earth station to the satellite and back).

The DVB-S standard (and its variants) has gained momentum for the provision of different services in satellite networks. DVB-S has been conceived for primary and secondary distribution (fixed satellite service, FSS) and broadcast satellite service (BSS), operated in Ku (11/12 GHz) and Ka (20/30 GHz) bands (ETSI - EN 300 421, 1997). Moreover, the DVB-RCS standard (ETSI - EN 301 790, 2002) defines a two-way DVB satellite system (i.e., also a return path is considered). We refer here to a start (or mesh) topology where terminals [sometimes known as satellite interactive terminals (STs) or return channel satellite terminals (RCSTs)] communicate via a GEO bent-pipe (or regenerating) satellite to a central earth station -hub- (or directly each other). An RCST can even represent the aggregation point of multiple users. The DVB-RCS system envisages a multi-frequency time-division multiple access (MF-TDMA) transmission in the return link and employs the DVB-S standard (using a form of time division duplexing transmission) for the forward link traffic. The ground segment is composed of the following elements:

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Abbas Jamalipour
Preface
Nicola Cranley , Liam Murphy
Chapter 1
Ronan Skehill, William Kent, Dorel Picovici, Michael Barry, Sean McGrath
This chapter introduces quality of service in multi-access wireless networks. Specifically it demonstrates how QoS is implemented in IEEE 802.11 and... Sample PDF
Evaluating QoS in a Multi-Access Wireless Network
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Chapter 2
Dirk Staehle, Andreas Mäder
This chapter gives an overview of the background and functionality of the high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), and provides insights into the... Sample PDF
Radio Resource Management Strategies for HSDPA-Enhanced UMTS Networks
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Chapter 3
Nidal Nasser, Tarek Bejaoui
Major research challenges in the next generation of wireless networks include the provisioning of worldwide seamless mobility across heterogeneous... Sample PDF
Handoff Management in Next Generation Wireless Networks
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Chapter 4
Ming Li, Roberto Riggio, Francesco De Pellegrini, Imrich Chlamtac
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the architectures, algorithms, and protocols in the topic of resource management in IEEE... Sample PDF
Resource Management in IEEE 802.11 Based Wireless Networks
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Chapter 5
Anna Sfairopoulou, Carlos Macián, Boris Bellalta
Network Technologies and Strategies (NeTS) Research Group, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, SpainThis chapter introduces the problems caused to voice over... Sample PDF
Adaptive Codec Selection for VoIP in Multi-Rate WLANs
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Chapter 6
Michael M. Markou, Christos G. Panayiotou
This chapter introduces the network buffer control techniques as a mean to provide QoS. This problem has been extensively studied in the context of... Sample PDF
Buffer Control Techniques for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Networks
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Chapter 7
Gabriel-Miro Muntean, Janet Adams
Wireless networks are becoming a part of everyday life for many people. When a mobile device has wireless LAN capability, multimedia content can be... Sample PDF
Power Saving in Wireless Multimedia Streaming to Mobile Devices
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Chapter 8
Jose Luis Jodra, Fidel Liberal, Begoña Blanco Jauregi
This chapter introduces the principal characteristics of MANETs and shows how these particularities may affect both QoS conditions and QoS... Sample PDF
Multimedia Services Provision in MANETs
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Chapter 9
Andrej Kos, Mojca Volk, Janez Bester
Commonly understood as the next generation networks (NGN), a composite environment of proven telecommunications and Internet-oriented mechanisms has... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance in the IMS-Based NGN Environment
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Chapter 10
Marcio Nieblas Zapater, Graça Bressan
This chapter discusses the quality assurance of multimedia services over IP networks from the end user standpoint and introduces the concept of... Sample PDF
Quality of Experience for Video Services
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Chapter 11
Dorel Picovici, John Nelson
Perceptual voice quality measurement can be defined as an objective quantification of an overall impression of the perceived stimulus. An... Sample PDF
Perceptual Voice Quality Measurements for Wireless Networks
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Chapter 12
Tacha Serif, Gheorghita Ghinea
This chapter describes an investigation exploring user experiences of accessing streamed multimedia content, when that content is tailored according... Sample PDF
Enhancing the Multimedia Tour Guide Experience: Transmission Tailoring Based on Content, Location, and Device Type
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Chapter 13
Harilaos Koumaras, Fidel Liberal, Lingfen Sun
The concept of PQoS, although in general it deals with the user satisfaction with a specific delivered/ requested service, is in practice... Sample PDF
PQoS Assessment Methods for Multimedia Services
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Chapter 14
Peifang Zhang, Scott Jordan
Emerging wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) data services will likely require resource allocation to ensure that throughput targets are... Sample PDF
Scheduling and Access Control for Wireless Connections with Throughput Guarantees
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Chapter 15
Paolo Chini, Giovanni Giambene, Snezana Hadzic
Nowadays there is an increasing need of broadband communication anytime, anywhere for users that expect to receive multimedia services with support... Sample PDF
Broadband Satellite Multimedia Networks
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Chapter 16
Panagiotis Papadimitriou, Vassilis Tsaoussidis
An increasing demand for multimedia data delivery coupled with reliance in best-effort networks, such as the Internet, has spurred interest on... Sample PDF
End-to-End Support for Multimedia QoS in the Internet
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Chapter 17
Tarek Bejaoui, Nidal Nasser
This chapter introduces the cross layer design for resource allocation over multimedia wireless networks. Conventional layered packet scheduling and... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Radio Resource Management Protocols for QoS Provisioning in Multimedia Wireless Networks
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Chapter 18
Gürkan Gür, Suzan Bayhan, Fatih Alagöz
This chapter introduces the QoS issues and support in transport protocols for wireless multimedia transmission. After an overview of the transport... Sample PDF
Transport Protocols and QoS for Wireless Multimedia
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