Building Digital Memories for Augmented Cognition and Situated Support

Building Digital Memories for Augmented Cognition and Situated Support

Mathias Bauer (mineway GmbH, Germany), Alexander Kröner (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI GmbH), Germany), Michael Schneider (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI GmbH), Germany) and Nathalie Basselin (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI GmbH), Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-032-5.ch013
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Limitation of the human memory is a well-known issue that anybody has experienced. This chapter discusses typical components and processes involved in the building and the exploitation of augmented memories. SPECTER, an adaptive, self-learning system supports the user in everyday activities by interpreting sensor information captured in the environment and deriving adequate suggestions for actions to be taken in the current situation. A particular form of introspection allows the user to reflect on the digital memory’s contents and the system behavior, thus leaving the user in control. An empirical study in a shopping scenario evaluates the benefits and limitations of the approach taken
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Limitation of the human memory is a well-known issue that anybody has experienced. Do you remember how the colleague you just met was dressed, how much you paid for your television, what you prepared this year for dinner to your various guests, which books you looked at the last time you visited a bookstore, and, by the way, when exactly was it again? Human sensory, short-term and long-term memories appear to have limitations or problems which disable us to store and retrieve all data.

Human sensory memory consists of a buffer in which items perceived are stored. There exists one per perception channel (e.g. view, touch). The storage time usually lasts 200 to 500 ms after the perception of an item. George Sperling conducted several studies and reported that sensory memory could store a maximum of 12 perceived items, but, because of the fast degradation of this memory, only a few could actually be memorized and reported by the subjects (Sperling, 1960).

While limitations of the short-term human memory are still controversial, views argue that short-term memory would have capacity- and / or time-limitations. According to Miller (Miller, 1956) this memory would have limitations regarding enumerations of more than seven items plus or minus two or, according to more recent research (Henderson, 1972), the upper capacity limit would rather be between 3 and 5 chunks. In addition, memory has various biases such as for instance the one to remember rather the first or last items of an enumeration than the ones in between. Diverse strategies therefore allow for dealing with these issues. While the storable number of chunks would be limited, the easiest way to remember a long number or list of letters is, according to Herbert Simon, to divide them into chunks of three letters or numbers. Phone numbers are indeed usually divided into chunks of three or two numbers. To cope with the time limitation of the short-term memory, rehearsal of chunks is an efficient way to store them longer into the short-term memory.

Long-term memory problems have also been studied and categorized into “seven sins” by Schacter (2001). Three of the seven sins involve forgetting: “transience”, i.e. the decreasing ability to access memory over time, “absent-mindedness”, i.e. lapses of attention and forgetting to do things, and “blocking”, i.e. temporary inaccessibility of some data. Three other sins involve distortion problems: “misattribution”, i.e. a right memory is associated with a wrong source or one believes to have seen or heard something while this is not the case, “suggestibility”, i.e. implanting of misinformation via leading questions for instance, and “bias”, i.e. distortion of past memories by current knowledge. The seventh sin is of less interest for the purpose of this chapter since it consists of “persistence”, i.e. pathological inability to forget, which can happen after a traumatic-stress. In order to cope with the usual memory problems, people often resort to memory aids such as sticky notes and mnemonics.

Some of the previously mentioned limitations of the human memory can be addressed by exploiting one of the strengths of computers: the ability to store huge amounts of information for an unlimited time without loss of precision. And actually, state-of-the-art mobile devices in general provide features for creating reminders, linking notes to time and dates, and for managing time.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Barry Smyth
Constantinos Mourlas, Panagiotis Germanakos
Constantinos Mourlas, Panagiotis Germanakos
Chapter 1
Nikos Tsianos, Panagiotis Germanakos, Zacharias Lekkas, Constantinos Mourlas
The plethora of information and services as well as the complicated nature of most Web structures intensify the navigational difficulties that arise... Sample PDF
Assessment of Human Factors in Adaptive Hypermedia Environments
Chapter 2
Barry Smyth
Everyday hundreds of millions of users turn to the World-Wide Web as their primary source of information during their educational, business and... Sample PDF
Case Studies in Adaptive Information Access: Navigation, Search, and Recommendation
Chapter 3
Sherry Y. Chen
Web-based instruction is prevalent in educational settings. However, many issues still remain to be investigated. In particular, it is still open... Sample PDF
The Effects of Human Factors on the Use of Web-Based Instruction
Chapter 4
Gulden Uchyigit
Coping with today’s unprecedented information overload problem necessitates the deployment of personalization services. Typical personalization... Sample PDF
The Next Generation of Personalization Techniques
Chapter 5
Nancy Alonistioti
This chapter introduces context-driven personalisation of service provision based on a middleware architectural approach. It describes the emerging... Sample PDF
Advanced Middleware Architectural Aspects for Personalised Leading-Edge Services
Chapter 6
Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
This chapter introduces intelligent information personalization as an approach to personalize the webbased information retrieval experiences based... Sample PDF
Intelligent Information Personalization: From Issues to Strategies
Chapter 7
Babis Magoutas
This chapter introduces a semantically adaptive interface as a means of measuring the quality of egovernment portals, based on user feedback. The... Sample PDF
A Semantically Adaptive Interface for Measuring Portal Quality in E-Government
Chapter 8
Fabio Grandi, Federica Mandreoli, Riccardo Martoglia, Enrico Ronchetti, Maria Rita Scalas
While the World Wide Web user is suffering form the disease caused by information overload, for which personalization is one of the treatments which... Sample PDF
Ontology-Based Personalization of E-Government Services
Chapter 9
Maria Golemati, Costas Vassilakis, Akrivi Katifori, George Lepouras, Constantin Halatsis
Novel and intelligent visualization methods are being developed in order to accommodate user searching and browsing tasks, including new and... Sample PDF
Context and Adaptivity-Driven Visualization Method Selection
Chapter 10
Honghua Dai
Web usage mining has been used effectively as an approach to automatic personalization and as a way to overcome deficiencies of traditional... Sample PDF
Integrating Semantic Knowledge with Web Usage Mining for Personalization
Chapter 11
Constantinos Mourlas
One way to implement adaptive software is to allocate resources dynamically during run-time rather than statically at design time. Design of... Sample PDF
Adaptive Presentation and Scheduling of Media Streams on Parallel Storage Servers
Chapter 12
Gheorghita Ghinea
This study investigated two dimensions of cognitive style, including Verbalizer/Imager and Field Dependent/ Field Independent and their influence on... Sample PDF
Impact of Cognitive Style on User Perception of Dynamic Video Content
Chapter 13
Mathias Bauer, Alexander Kröner, Michael Schneider, Nathalie Basselin
Limitation of the human memory is a well-known issue that anybody has experienced. This chapter discusses typical components and processes involved... Sample PDF
Building Digital Memories for Augmented Cognition and Situated Support
Chapter 14
Rafael Morales, Nicolas Van Labeke, Paul Brna, María Elena Chan
It is believed that, with the help of suitable technology, learners and systems can cooperate in building a sufficiently accurate learner model they... Sample PDF
Open Learner Modelling as the Keystone of the Next Generation of Adaptive Learning Environments
Chapter 15
Klaus Jantke, Christoph Igel, Roberta Sturm
Humans need assistance in learning. This is particularly true when learning is supported by modern information and communication technologies. Most... Sample PDF
From E-Learning Tools to Assistants by Learner Modelling and Adaptive Behavior
Chapter 16
Violeta Damjanovic, Milos Kravcik
The process of training and learning in Web-based and ubiquitous environments brings a new sense of adaptation. With the development of more... Sample PDF
Using Emotional Intelligence in Personalized Adaptation
Chapter 17
Yang Wang
This chapter presents a first-of-its-kind survey that systematically analyzes existing privacy-enhanced personalization (PEP) solutions and their... Sample PDF
Technical Solutions for Privacy- Enhanced Personalization
About the Contributors