EU E-Business and Innovation Policies for SMEs

EU E-Business and Innovation Policies for SMEs

Anne Wiggins (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-857-4.ch011
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Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the current UK situation of e-business adoption and implementation, and outlines the primary UK government policies and initiatives that have been introduced since 2000 in order to stimulate e-business adoption and implementation by SMEs. Companies of all sizes that have adopted e-business believe that it contributes to improved performance in four main ways: • The development of new products and services. • The generation of new customers and business channels. • A reduction in costs. • Improved productivity (HM Treasury, 2001c).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Business-to-Business (B2B): Commercial activity between two or more organizations, or the use of ICTs to facilitate payment management, inventory management and distribution management. The B2B model has become the most significant form of e-procurement, in terms of growth, volume, and financial impact of the e-business models (Addo et al., 2003). The B2B sector provides the most opportunity for exploitation, especially in the supply chain, where B2B activity is concentrated.

Purchasing in the E-Marketplace (E-Procurement): The e-procurement process involves the following steps,• Search: such as the ability to search online for appropriate suppliers, contacts, brochures, etc.• Qualify: such as online research of company background, credit history, comparisons with competitors, etc.• Negotiate: such as negotiating the price, credit terms, quality, timing, etc.• Purchase: such as ordering the product, initiating the purchase order and entering the information into the system.• Invoicing: such as receiving the invoice and matching the purchase order, entering the information into the financial and production systems.• Shipping: such as the shipping and delivery of goods, entering the information into the shipper’s tracking system. • Remittance Payment: such as receiving goods, verifying and correcting invoices, sending payment(s), entering the record into the system, and providing online after-sales support (Laudon & Traver, 2001).

Intra-Business: The use of ICTs to share information internally within an organization.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): The computer-to-computer exchange of data (e.g., invoices) in a structured format that enables the automatic processing of data without manual intervention. EDI is based on a trust relationship between an organization and its partners or between an organization and a value-added network (VAN) provider that handles the access, security, and other issues related to EDI transmissions. Certain inherent characteristics of EDI discourage unauthorized access into the network by non-EDI partners, including the stringent data formatting requirements for specific industries and the secure, dedicated nature of EDI transmissions between specific trusted partners.

Consumers-To-Business (C2B): The banding together of consumers who present themselves as a buyer group to businesses (Rayport & Jaworski, 2001).

E-Government: The use by government agencies of ITs that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions (World Bank, 2002).

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Electronic exchanges between and among consumers (e.g., auctions mediated by third parties such as eBay.com).

E-Commerce: Those business activities related to the actual buying and selling of goods and services among organizations over the Internet. E-commerce has been defined as “the buying and selling of information, products and services via computer networks” (Kalakota & Whinston, 1996, p. 1) or the application of ICTs with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the business relationships between trading partners (Kalakota & Whinston, 1997). E-commerce systems can be divided according to whether or not it is internally and externally integrated (Kalakota & Whinston, 1996). Internal integration refers to processes and systems within an organization, while external integration refers to the integration of processes and systems with other organizational partners. Types of external integration have previously included EDI systems, but the advent of the Internet has created new systems for B2B and B2C e-business.

BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER (B2C): Commercial activity between businesses and consumers, or the use of e-business to enable customer information interaction, personal finance management, purchasing products and the dissemination of after-sales information (Rayport & Jaworski, 2001).

E-Business: Those business activities related to the business operations of an organization over the Internet. E-business encompasses all commercial activities. The definition of e-business that was agreed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the EU is the method by which the order is placed which determines whether a transaction is e-business, not the payment or delivery channels. Shifting business activities from paper-based, local, face-to-face and manual processes to electronic, dispersed, mediated and automatic processes is the essence of e-business, whether in dealing with customers or suppliers (Wilkins et al., 1999). E-business activities include, but are not limited to,• Web site • E-mail order confirmation

E-Distribution: A critical component of the supply chain for most organizations.

Information Systems (IS): An information system has been described as “a system to collect, process, store, transmit, and display information” (Avison & Wood-Harper, 1990, p. 3).

Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): In February 1996, the EU adopted a single definition of SMEs to be applied across all EU programs and proposals dating from December 31, 1997. The Communication recommended that member states, the European Investment Bank and the European Investment Fund adopt the definitions. However, the communication permits the use of lower threshold figures, if desired. The EU recommended definition for a “micro” business is that it must have a maximum of nine employees. A “small” business must satisfy the following criteria• A maximum number of 49 employees, • A maximum annual turnover of seven million euros, • A maximum annual balance sheet total of five million euros, and • The maximum percentage of 25 percent owned by one, or jointly by several, enterprise(s) not satisfying the same criteria. The EU recommendation states that a “medium-sized” business must satisfy the following criteria • A maximum number of 249 employees • A maximum annual turnover of 40 million euros, • A maximum annual balance sheet total of 27 million euros, and • The maximum percentage of 25 percent owned by one, or jointly by several, enterprise(s) not satisfying the same criteria.

E-marketplace: The arena within which businesses conduct Internet-mediated B2B trade. Within this arena, suppliers can advertise and market their products and services.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Bruce Rocheleau
Preface
G. David Garson
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Rhoda C. Joseph, David P. Kitlan
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are key elements supporting the growth of e-government initiatives. Public administration refers... Sample PDF
Key Issues in E-Government and Public Administration
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Chapter 2
Pearson Liddell Jr., Robert S. Moore, Melissa Moore, William D. Eshee, Gloria J. Liddell
Public managers who are the gatekeepers regarding the informational content of communication systems have to be especially cognizant of which... Sample PDF
Government Web Sites as Public Forums
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Chapter 3
Rodrigo Sandoval-Almazán, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have the potential to improve the quality of the overall citizen experience when interacting with... Sample PDF
Limitations of Evolutionary Approaches to E-Government
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Chapter 4
Stephen K. Aikins
The use of Internet technology to further citizen participation is believed to hold great promise to enhance democratic governance by allowing... Sample PDF
Issues and Trends in Internet-Based Citizen Participation
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Chapter 5
Andrea B. Baker, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, Donna Canestraro, Jim Costello, Derek Werthmuller
As new Internet-based products, services, and resources are developed, private companies and government agencies are exploring the use of these open... Sample PDF
Public Sector Participation in Open Communities
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Chapter 6
Community Informatics  (pages 50-60)
Larry Stillman, Randy Stoecker
Researchers and practitioners use a wide range of terms when they discuss community involvement with information and communications technologies... Sample PDF
Community Informatics
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Chapter 7
Dale Nesbary
There exists a growing controversy over whether the government should be in the business of providing wireless broadband Internet. Public sector... Sample PDF
Public Wireless Internet
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Chapter 8
Chee Wei Phang, Atreyi Kankanhalli
The past decade has witnessed an increasing trend of information and communication technologies (ICT) exploitation by governments around the world... Sample PDF
The Current State and Future of E-Participation Research
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Chapter 9
Blogging  (pages 81-93)
David C. Wyld
What is a blog? According to a recent report from The Pew Internet & American Life Project, well over half of the American adult population do not... Sample PDF
Blogging
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Chapter 10
E-Government and SMEs  (pages 94-104)
Ron Craig
This chapter looks at a particular focus of e-government, that of support for business in general and SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) in... Sample PDF
E-Government and SMEs
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Chapter 11
Anne Wiggins
This paper provides an overview of the current UK situation of e-business adoption and implementation, and outlines the primary UK government... Sample PDF
EU E-Business and Innovation Policies for SMEs
$37.50
Chapter 12
Ioannis P. Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
The gradual “penetration” of an innovative, digitally-oriented information society, in the scope of the actual convergence among telecommunications... Sample PDF
Exploitation of Public Sector Information in Europe
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Chapter 13
Donald F. Norris
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the adoption, uses, and impacts of information technology (IT), including electronic... Sample PDF
Information Technology Among U.S. Local Governments
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Chapter 14
Christopher G. Reddick
Human resources information systems (HRIS) is any technology that is used to attract, hire, retain, and maintain talent, support workforce... Sample PDF
Public Sector Human Resources Information Systems
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Chapter 15
Digital Libraries  (pages 152-161)
Micah Altman
Digital libraries are collections of digital content and services selected by a curator for use by a particular user community. Digital libraries... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries
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Chapter 16
Dimitrios K. Kardaras, Eleutherios A. Papathanassiou
The impact of “e-business” on the public sector is the main source of the government’s transformation towards “e-government,” which refers to the... Sample PDF
An Exploratory Study of the E-Government Services in Greece
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Chapter 17
Giorgos Laskaridis, Konstantinos Markellos, Penelope Markellou, Angeliki Panayiotaki
In recent years, we have witnessed the rapid evolution of the World Wide Web. This development allows millions of people all over the world to... Sample PDF
E-Government's Barriers and Opportunities in Greece
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Chapter 18
Alex Dunayev, John Paynter
Worldwide governments are investing in initiatives to open access to information, resources, communication and services via channels typically used... Sample PDF
E-Lections in New Zealand Local Governments
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Chapter 19
John Paynter, Gabrielle Peko
A census is an official count. It can be contrasted with sampling in which information is only obtained from a subset of a population. As such, it... Sample PDF
E-Census 2006 in New Zealand
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Chapter 20
Mirko Cesarini, Mariagrazia Fugini, Mario Mezzanzanica, Krysnaia Nanini
Public administrations, during the last few years, activated modernizations in public service delivery. In particular, this arrangement relates to... Sample PDF
Security Challenges in Distributed Web Based Transactions: An Overview on the Italian Employment Information System
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Chapter 21
Sheng-Uei Guan, Yuan Sherng Tay
M-commerce possesses two distinctive characteristics that distinguish it from traditional e-commerce: the mobile setting and the small form factor... Sample PDF
Interactive Personalized Catalogue for M-Commerce
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Chapter 22
Vesile Evrim, Dennis McLeod
Over the years, trust has been extensively studied in many fields such as sociology, psychology, and economics. The sociologist Gambetta (2000)... Sample PDF
Trust Based E-Commerce Decisions
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Chapter 23
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
Digital government is a complex socio-technical phenomenon, which is affected by technical, managerial, institutional, and environmental factors... Sample PDF
Using Partial Least Squares in Digital Government Research
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Chapter 24
Eleutherios A. Papathanassiou, Xenia J. Mamakou
The advent of the Internet has altered the way that individuals find information and has changed how they engage with many organizations, like... Sample PDF
Privacy Issues in Public Web Sites
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Chapter 25
Lourdes Moreno, Elena Castro, Dolores Cuadra, Paloma Martinez
Internet growth makes use feasible by an increased number of people around the world. For this reason, several approaches must be taken in order to... Sample PDF
A Framework for Accessible and Usable Web Applications
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Chapter 26
Giovanni Maria Sacco
The quantity and diversity of information available from public government sources is now quite large. Most people associate governmental... Sample PDF
Intelligent User-Centric Access to Public Information
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Chapter 27
Jean-Philippe Rennard
“If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” The famous statement of Sir Isaac Newton demonstrates that the progress of... Sample PDF
Open Access to Scholarly Publications and Public Policies
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Chapter 28
Alfred P. Rovai, Emery M. Petchauer
The Pew Internet and American Life Project (Pew/Internet; Lenhart, Horrigan, Rainie et al., 2003) reports 42 percent of Americans say they do not... Sample PDF
The Digital Divide and Social Equity
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Chapter 29
Esharenana E. Adomi
Much of the developed world has, over the past two decades, been transformed by what are now termed information and communication technologies... Sample PDF
Africa and the Challenges of Bridging the Digital Divide
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Chapter 30
Carlos Nunes Silva
Public administration includes many professions and occupations, each with its own set of ethical guidelines. In addition, they have to follow the... Sample PDF
Research Ethics in E-Public Administration
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Chapter 31
Jimmie L. Joseph, David P. Cook
New technologies can lead to social upheaval and ethical dilemmas which are unrecognized at the time of their introduction. Medical care technology... Sample PDF
Medical Ethical and Policy Issues Arising from RIA
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Chapter 32
Lia Bryant, Iolanda Principe
Public information technology, as a term, implicitly suggests universal access by citizens to information through the use of technology. The... Sample PDF
Social Capital and the Gendering of Differential IT Use
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Chapter 33
Eugene J. Akers
The ability to understand the salient aspects of innovations, as perceived by the members of a social system, is essential to the success of planned... Sample PDF
Technology Diffusion in Public Administration
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Chapter 34
Shahidul Hassan, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
Recent developments in institutional theory are highly promising for the study of e-government. Scholars in various disciplines, such as economics... Sample PDF
Institutional Theory and E-Government Research
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Chapter 35
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, Shahidul Hassan
The relationship between information technologies (IT) and organizational (structural) change has been a topic of interest for public administration... Sample PDF
Structure Theory and Government IT
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Chapter 36
Jimmie L Joseph
Intelligence and security informatics (ISI) is the application of information systems (IS), databases, and data coding schemes to issues of... Sample PDF
Intelligence and Security Informatics
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Chapter 37
Stephen K. Aikins
The modern network and Internet security vulnerabilities expose state and local government networks to numerous threats such as denial of service... Sample PDF
Practical Measures for Securing Government Networks
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Chapter 38
Anthony W. Buenger
Digital convergence constitutes the full realization of the Information Age and provides the foundation to link cultural, personal, business... Sample PDF
Digital Convergence and Cybersecurity Policy
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Chapter 39
David A. Bray
Most analyses of possible future bioterrorism events predict they may be similar to the anthrax events of 2001. Specifically, a limited population... Sample PDF
Bioterrorism Response and IT Strategies
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Chapter 40
Ludwig Slusky, Parviz Partow-Navid
All branches of federal government are required to change their business practices to a paperless operation. Privacy and information security are... Sample PDF
Federal Public-Key Infrastructure
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Chapter 41
Sheng-Uei Guan
One hindrance to the widespread adoption of mobile-agent technology is the lack of security. Security will be the issue that has to be addressed... Sample PDF
Integrity Protection of Mobile Agent Data
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Chapter 42
David C. Wyld
We are in the midst of what may become one of the true technological transformations of our time. RFID (radio frequency identification) is by no... Sample PDF
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology
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Chapter 43
Sheng-Uei Guan
There has been a lot of research done in the area of intelligent agents. Some of the literature (Guilfoyle, 1994; Johansen, Marzullo, & Lauvset... Sample PDF
Roaming-Agent Protection for E-Commerce
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Chapter 44
Amalia Agathou, Theodoros Tzouramanis
Over the past few years, the Internet has changed computing as we know it. The more possibilities and opportunities develop, the more systems are... Sample PDF
The Role of Data Mining in Intrusion Detection Technology
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Chapter 45
Luis Felipe Luna-Reyes
Information technology development and implementation have been recognized as forms of organizational change (Doherty & King, 2003; Orlikowski... Sample PDF
System Dynamics to Understand Public Information Technology
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Chapter 46
Luis Felipe Luna-Reyes
Contemporary organizations face the challenge of growing and advancing in a complex and changing environment (Johannessen, Olaisen, & Olsen, 2001;... Sample PDF
Government Innovation Through Knowledge Management
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Chapter 47
Kostas Metaxiotis
E-government, driven by an ever-increasing and pervasive use of information and communication technologies, is affecting the public sector more and... Sample PDF
A Framework for Knowledge Management in E-Government
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Chapter 48
Hsiang-Jui Kung, Hui-Lien Tung
Many companies use the Web to communicate with the external world as well as within their organizations and to carry out their business processes... Sample PDF
Web Application Classification: A Maintenance/Evolution Perspective
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Chapter 49
Bruce J. Neubauer
A review of the development of information systems can help in understanding the potential significance of Web services and service-oriented... Sample PDF
Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures
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Chapter 50
Anton Joha, Marijn Janssen
Stimulated by recent advances in information and communication technology, and in their continuous pursuit for ways to reduce costs while at the... Sample PDF
The Strategic Determinants of Shared Services
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Chapter 51
John Wang, Xiaohua Hu, Dan Zhu
Data mining involves searching through databases for potentially useful information such as knowledge rules, patterns, regularities, and other... Sample PDF
Data Mining in Public Administration
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Chapter 52
Baoying Wang, Imad Rahal, Richard Leipold
Data clustering is a discovery process that partitions a data set into groups (clusters) such that data points within the same group have high... Sample PDF
Categorization of Data Clustering Techniques
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Chapter 53
Sindoni Giuseppe, Tininini Leonardo
The Web is increasingly used as a preferred medium for A2C (administration to citizens) and A2B (administration to business) service delivery. An... Sample PDF
Statistical Dissemination Systems and the Web
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Chapter 54
Text Mining  (pages 592-603)
Antonina Durfee
Massive quantities of information continue accumulating at about 1.5 billion gigabytes per year in numerous repositories held at news agencies, at... Sample PDF
Text Mining
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Chapter 55
Maria Vardaki, Haralambos Papageorgiou
Quality was defined in the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 8402-1986 standard as “the totality of features and characteristics... Sample PDF
Statistical Data and Metadata Quality Assessment
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Chapter 56
Feng Xu, Yu-Jin Zhang
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has wide applications in public life. Either from a static image database or from the Web, one can search for a... Sample PDF
Probability Association Approach in Automatic Image Annotation
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Chapter 57
Lixin Fu, Wen-Chen Hu
Since the late ’80s and early ’90s, database technologies have evolved to a new level of applications: online analytical processing (OLAP), where... Sample PDF
Online Analytical Processing and Data-Cube Technologies
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Chapter 58
Kalu N. Kalu
Information technology affects organizations and society itself as it redefines work content, reorganizes leadership styles and cultures, reshuffles... Sample PDF
Managing People and Information in Complex Organizations
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Chapter 59
Vincent E. Lasnik
This chapter examines the realm of human-factors design for public information technology in the rapidly evolving postmodern knowledge age of the... Sample PDF
Human-Factors Design for Public Information Technology
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Chapter 60
Anne C. Rouse
For the past 15 years, governments in the developed, Western world have been contracting out, or outsourcing, services as a key part of publicsector... Sample PDF
An Overview of IT Outsourcing in Public-Sector Agencies
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Chapter 61
Jeffrey Roy
The purpose of this chapter is to undertake a critical examination of the emergence of e-health in the Canadian Province of Ontario. More than... Sample PDF
E-Health, Local Governance, and Public-Private Partnering in Ontario
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Chapter 62
Stephen K. Aikins
The evolving nature of information security threats such as cybercrime, as well as the need to ensure the confidentiality and privacy of citizen... Sample PDF
Implementing a Sound Public Information Security Program
$37.50
Chapter 63
Michael Middleton
In recent times, the popularity of the Internet has led to e-government practices being widely recognized as an important option for service to the... Sample PDF
Evaluation of E-Government Web Sites
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Chapter 64
Chad Lin
Public-sector organizations are one of the top spenders in information technology (IBM, 2006). According to an IDC report, global public-sector IT... Sample PDF
IT Evaluation Issues in Australian Public-Sector Organizations
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Chapter 65
Gabriel Puron-Cid, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
An influential theoretical tradition in information systems research suggests that information and communication technology has the power to... Sample PDF
Performance and Accountability in E-Budgeting Projects
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Chapter 66
Craig P. Orgeron
For public-sector administrators burdened with the task of recruiting and retaining information technology (IT) professionals, these are difficult... Sample PDF
A Model for Reengineering IT Job Classes in State Government
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Chapter 67
Gerald Grant, Derek Chau
Electronic government (e-government) initiatives are pervasive and form a significant part of government investment portfolio in almost all... Sample PDF
Developing a Generic Framework for E-Government
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Chapter 68
Nancy Weigand, Isabel F. Cruz, Naijun Zhou, William Sunna
This paper describes a Web-based query system for semantically heterogeneous government-produced data. Geospatial Web-based information systems and... Sample PDF
A Web Query System for Heterogeneous Government Data
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Chapter 69
James Melitski, Marc Holzer, Seang-Tae Kim, Chan-Gun Kim, Seung-Yong Rho
This article evaluates the current practice of digital government in large municipalities worldwide. The study assesses 84 cities from around the... Sample PDF
Digital Government Worldwide: An E-Government Assessment of Municipal Web Sites
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Chapter 70
Genie N.L. Stowers
This article examines the user help and service navigation features in government Web sites and compares them across levels of government. These... Sample PDF
User Help and Service Navigation Features in Government Web Sites
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Chapter 71
B. Rossi, M. Scotto, A. Sillitti, G. Succi
The aim of the article is to report the results of a migration to Open Source Software (OSS) in one public administration. The migration focuses on... Sample PDF
An Empirical Study on the Migration to OpenOffice.org in a Public Administration
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Chapter 72
Francesca Andreescu
Underpinning £136 billion of economic activity in the United Kingdom, Britain’s National Mapping Agency is a commercialising public sector... Sample PDF
Organisational Challenges of Implementing E-Business in the Public Services: The Case of Britain's National Mapping Agency
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Chapter 73
Chan-Gon Kim, Marc Holzer
The Internet provides a new digital opportunity for realizing democracy in public administration, and this study raises a central question: What... Sample PDF
Public Administrators' Acceptance of the Practice of Digital Democracy: A Model Explaining the Utilization of Online Policy Forums in South Korea
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Chapter 74
Luis F. Luna-Reyes, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia, Cinthia Betiny Cruz
After six years of challenges and learning pushing forward the e-Government agenda in Mexico, the Presidential succession brought an opportunity for... Sample PDF
E-Mexico: Collaborative Structures in Mexican Public Administration
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Chapter 75
Pippa Norris
The core issue for this study concerns less the social than the political consequences of the rise of knowledge societies; in particular, the... Sample PDF
The Impact of the Internet on Political Activism: Evidence from Europe
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Chapter 76
Monideepa Tarafdar, Sanjiv D. Vaidya
This case describes challenges in the adoption and implementation of IT in two public sector enterprises in the postal and distribution businesses... Sample PDF
Adoption and Implementation of IT in Developing Nations: Experiences from Two Public Sector Enterprises in India
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