A Case Study of Advanced Airborne Technology Impacting Air Traffic Management

A Case Study of Advanced Airborne Technology Impacting Air Traffic Management

Ítalo R. de Oliveira (Atech Tecnologias Críticas, Brazil), Lúcio F. Vismari (Safety Analysis Group (GAS), University of São Paulo (Poli-USP), Brazil), Paulo S. Cugnasca (Safety Analysis Group (GAS), University of São Paulo (Poli-USP), Brazil), João B. Camargo Jr. (Safety Analysis Group (GAS), University of São Paulo (Poli-USP), Brazil), Bert (G.J.) Bakker (Air Transport Safety Institute, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands) and Henk A.P. Blom (Air Transport Safety Institute, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-800-0.ch010
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Great advance is expected from the CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management) paradigm. It provides significant support of a seamless global air traffic management system. Its key technical elements are the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN), which will support digital applications such as the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) and the Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS). ADS-B will greatly increase surveillance precision and availability, and ASAS is aimed to increase traffic efficiency. This chapter provides an overview of the CNS/ATM infrastructure, the specific airborne technologies, and details of an example advanced air traffic management concept. For this example advanced concept, the chapter applies an advanced approach in dynamical safety risk modeling and Monte Carlo simulation based mid air collision risk estimation. The dynamical model covers the advanced airborne technologies and the cognitive contributions by the pilots and controllers involved. These initial results show the value of advanced airborne technologies for future air traffic management.
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The advent of ubiquitous distributed computing, communication and sensing systems has created an environment in which we have ability to access, process and communicate huge amounts of data. This environment could be mentioned as the major enabler for new applications of control for large-scale, complex systems (Murray et al, 2003). Currently, energy and water distribution and manufacturing processes are some application areas that use the integration of distributed computing and communication in supervision and control systems to optimize their processes performance and to increase their service capacity.

This phenomenon can be noticed in one of the key services upon which our global society is build: air transportation. As a way to increase the air transportation capacity, changes in the air traffic management paradigm are agreed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to critically depend on joint international improvements at many levels of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). More specifically, CNS/ATM has been defined as follows: “Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance systems, employing digital technologies, including satellite systems together with various levels of automation, applied in support of a seamless global air traffic management system” (ICAO, 2000). Compared to conventional CNS/ATM approach, the key improvements cover the following elements of CNS/ATM:

  • Communication: increasing the coverage, accessibility, capacity, integrity, performance and security of aeronautical communication systems, in accordance with future ATM requirements;

  • Navigation: increasing the coverage and capacity of air operations in any weather conditions and airspace types, including approaches and landings, while maintaining or increasing the levels of integrity, accuracy and performance, in accordance with future ATM requirements;

  • Surveillance: expansion in the effective coverage over oceans and remote areas, and the increment of situational awareness levels for pilots, in accordance with future ATM requirements.

In order to achieve these desired improvements for each of these three system elements, ICAO has developed the following evolution plan for the technologies applied to the elements of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance of the air traffic system, as shown in Figure 1, based on (Vismari, 2007).

Figure 1.

Technological Evolution Plan to CNS elements (an example). The meaning of all terms and acronyms is given at the end of the chapter.

The framework of technology enhancements, pictured in Figure 1, aims to provide, in a systematic way, higher levels of automation and accuracy to the air transportation system, and minimizes the current restrictions to air capacity growth. It will contribute to the completion of the CNS/ATM main mission, which is to develop a comprehensive and unified system to Air Traffic Services (ATS) that comply with the demand growth for this modal of transportation, and with improvements in the levels of safety, efficiency and regularity of air traffic, providing the use of the routes desired by users and minimizing the differences in use of equipment currently seen different regions of the planet.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
William H.K. Lam
Li Weigang, Alexandre de Barros, Italo Romani de Oliveira
Chapter 1
Dave Young, Nadine Pilon, Lawrence Brom
The complexity and volumes of the projected future traffic require very demanding air traffic management systems and operations, and the perspective... Sample PDF
Challenges Ahead for European Air Traffic
Chapter 2
Antonio Pedro Timoszczuk, Walter Nogueira Pizzo, Giacomo Feres Staniscia, Eno Siewerdt
This chapter charts Brazil’s participation and strategy in dealing with Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM). First a review of ATFM concepts is... Sample PDF
The SYNCROMAX Solution for Air Traffic Flow Management in Brazil
Chapter 3
Bueno Borges de Souza, Li Weigang, Antonio Marcio Ferreira Crespo, Victor Rafael Rezende Celestino
This work describes a decision making support system with Graph Theory and Artificial Intelligence methodologies applied to the Brazilian Air... Sample PDF
Balance Modelling and Implementation of Flow Balance for Application in Air Traffic Management
Chapter 4
Felipe Maia Galvão França, Félix Mora-Camino
With the sustained increase in air transportation, resulting in increased operational costs, potential danger with conflictive traffic conditions... Sample PDF
Cooperative Control for Ground Traffic at Airports
Chapter 5
Matthew G. Karlaftis
Demand forecasting may be the most critical factor in the development of airports and airline networks. This chapter reviews various approaches used... Sample PDF
Critical Review and Analysis of Air-Travel Demand: Forecasting Models
Chapter 6
Becky P.Y. Loo, H.W. Ho, S.C. Wong, Peng Zhang
This chapter presents a computational method using the continuum equilibrium approach to solve airport competition problems. The mathematical... Sample PDF
Using the Continuum Equilibrium Approach to Solve Airport Competition Problems: Computational and Application Issues
Chapter 7
Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan
Nondestructive test (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterizing materials and determining structural integrity of airfield... Sample PDF
Real-Time Non-Destructive Evaluation of Airport Pavements Using Neural Network Based Models
Chapter 8
Félix Mora-Camino, Luiz Gustavo Zelaya Cruz
In this communication advances in data processing techniques applied to Airlines Revenue Management are displayed. The general introduction presents... Sample PDF
Advances in Data Processing for Airlines Revenue Management
Chapter 9
José Lourenço da Saúde, Jorge Miguel Reis Silva
The Air Transportation is the type of activity that exhibits significant complexity mainly due to the fact that to take place a great number of... Sample PDF
Commercial Aircraft: A Holistic and Integrated Model of the Flux of Information Regarding the Operational Support
Chapter 10
Ítalo R. de Oliveira, Lúcio F. Vismari, Paulo S. Cugnasca, João B. Camargo Jr., Bert (G.J.) Bakker, Henk A.P. Blom
Great advance is expected from the CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management) paradigm. It provides significant... Sample PDF
A Case Study of Advanced Airborne Technology Impacting Air Traffic Management
Chapter 11
Henrique Moniz, Alessandra Tedeschi, Nuno Ferreira Neves, Miguel Correia
This chapter introduces the reader to the benefits of distributed computing in air transportation. It presents a solution to airborne... Sample PDF
A Distributed Systems Approach to Airborne Self-Separation
Chapter 12
S.P. Wilson, M.C. Bartholomew-Biggs, S.C. Parkhurst
This chapter describes the formulation and solution of a multi-aircraft routing problem which is posed as a global optimization calculation. The... Sample PDF
A Global Optimization Approach to Solve Multi-Aircraft Routing Problems
Chapter 13
Osvandre Alves Martins, Denis Silva Loubach, Giovani Volnei Meinerz, Adilson Marques da Cunha
One of the most notable concepts related to the future cooperative Air Traffic Management (ATM) is the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM). This new... Sample PDF
Collaborative Decision Making and Information Sharing for Air Traffic Management Operations
Chapter 14
Ítalo Romani de Oliveira, Ricardo Alexandre Veiga Gimenes, Jorge Rady de Almeida Jr.
Modern aircraft heavily relies on software to fly and operate, which lessens pilot workload, increases flight stability and fuel efficiency, and... Sample PDF
Component-Based Development of Aeronautical Software
Chapter 15
Roman Gumzej, Wolfgang A. Halang
The Specification PEARL language and methodology for hardware/software co-design of embedded control systems is presented. The Specification PEARL... Sample PDF
The Language Specification PEARL for Co-Designing Embedded Systems
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