Case Study: India - Terrorism and Terrorist Use of the Internet/Technology

Case Study: India - Terrorism and Terrorist Use of the Internet/Technology

Pauline C. Reich (Waseda University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-831-9.ch014
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The purpose of this chapter is to analyze terrorist use of technology in the Mumbai attacks of November 2008 and the use of law to prosecute terrorists availing themselves of technological measures to plan and carry out attacks. The Mumbai attacks are also placed in the context of terrorism in India, by looking at identified terrorist groups and incidents. It should be noted that India adopted amendments to its 2000 IT Act in December 2008, following the attacks, and these amendments include provisions related to cyber terrorism, which might be applied going forward if necessary. It should also be noted that Pakistan adopted similar legislation in 2007 and in 2008, and Bangladesh states that it is in the process of adopting such legislation. Both India and Pakistan have made cyber terrorism punishable by death penalties. The definitions of cyber terrorism in their legislation are provided in this chapter. The chapter also analyzes the level of technological know-how exhibited by the alleged terrorists currently on trial in India, Pakistan, and the United States for planning and executing the Mumbai attacks. Recent measures taken by the Indian government to avoid future use of technology by terrorists are also discussed in the context of a democracy needing to balance security with the privacy and liberty of its citizens.
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1. Putting The Mumbai Attacks Of November 26, 2008 (“26/11”) Into Context: Indian Terrorism 2008

The U.S. Department of State annual report on terrorism is an excellent source for presenting an overview of the situation in India around the time of the Mumbai attacks, although it does not provide details of technology used in the 26/11 attacks, which are provided elsewhere in this chapter.

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Table of Contents
Pauline C. Reich, Eduardo Gelbstein
Pauline C. Reich
Chapter 1
Eduardo Gelbstein
This chapter reviews the assumptions on which this section of the book is based, explores the irreversible dependency of society on information and... Sample PDF
The Security Practitioners’ Perspective
Chapter 2
Eduardo Gelbstein, Marcus Wuest, Stephen Fridakis
There does not appear to be a common framework for quantifying the impact of information security business disruption events resulting in the loss... Sample PDF
Economic, Political and Social Threats in the Information Age
Critical Information Infrastructure and Cyber-Terrorism
Chapter 4
Eduardo Gelbstein
Of the three groups of components of information security – tools, processes, and people- the last one should be considered as the weakest link.... Sample PDF
Attackers: Internal and External
Chapter 5
Eduardo Gelbstein
Two other matters complicate this topic: the lack of statistical data relating to cyber-attacks and the vulnerabilities inherent in hardware... Sample PDF
Threats, Vulnerability, Uncertainty and Information Risk
Chapter 6
Eduardo Gelbstein, Tom Kellermann
This chapter examines in summary form those standards and best practices that have been widely accepted as being the “right things the right way”... Sample PDF
ICT and Security Governance: Doing the Right Things the Right Way (and Well Enough)
Chapter 7
Eduardo Gelbstein
This chapter discusses vulnerabilities that should be considered by decision makers as they could be seen as the soft underbelly of a society that... Sample PDF
Concerns About What Will Happen Next: Should These Things Keep You Awake at Night?
Chapter 8
Pauline C. Reich
There have been three stages of Internet use: the happy days of e-commerce and optimistic sharing in military and academic circles; the growing... Sample PDF
To Define or Not to Define: Law and Policy Conundrums for the Cybercrime, National Security, International Law and Military Law Communities
Chapter 9
Pauline C. Reich, Stuart Weinstein, Charles Wild, Allan S. Cabanlong
Anonymity, Actual Incidents, Cyber Attacks and Digital Immobilization
Chapter 10
Pauline C. Reich
This chapter reviews fundamental U.S. constitutional law in relation to privacy; the various United States federal privacy laws in relation to... Sample PDF
Culture Clashes: Freedom, Privacy, and Government Surveillance Issues Arising in Relation to National Security and Internet Use
Chapter 11
Maura Conway
This chapter critically analyzes the academic literature on cyberterrorism produced between 1996 and 2009. It begins by detailing the origins of the... Sample PDF
What is Cyberterrorism and How Real is the Threat?: A Review of the Academic Literature, 1996 – 2009
Chapter 12
Catherine B. Lotrionte
This chapter discusses the nature of cyber threats against government and private computer systems, describing some steps the government has taken... Sample PDF
Cyber-Search and Cyber-Seizure: Policy Considerations of Cyber Operations and Fourth Amendment Implications
Chapter 13
Gilbert Ramsay
Over the last few years, it has often been suggested that use of the Internet for a variety of terrorist purposes constitutes a serious threat, and... Sample PDF
Terrorism and the Internet: Do We Need an International Solution?
Chapter 14
Pauline C. Reich
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze terrorist use of technology in the Mumbai attacks of November 2008 and the use of law to prosecute... Sample PDF
Case Study: India - Terrorism and Terrorist Use of the Internet/Technology
Chapter 15
Timothy L. Thomas
This chapter analyses how China is using cyber reconnaissance to achieve electronic shi, defined as strategic advantage. It examines China’s cyber... Sample PDF
China’s Cyber Tool: Striving to Attain Electronic Shi?
Chapter 16
Stuart Weinstein, Charles Wild
This chapter examines the effectiveness of the newly-formed CPNI in leading the United Kingdom’s response to cyber attacks on critical... Sample PDF
The United Kingdom’s Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure: An Evaluation of the UK Government’s Response Mechanism to Cyber Attacks on Critical Infrastructures
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