CBM Elements I

CBM Elements I

Patricia A. Young (University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-426-2.ch007
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Abstract

Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all culture is composed. Most of those things that formulate a culture are included in the 25 Elements. The tangibles and intangibles define the Elements. Tangibles have material qualities and intangibles nonmaterial qualities (see Table 7.1). The meanings of the terms culture and society can overlap, but they should be viewed separately within the space of design. A society is a group of people who share commonalities that are understood by all and collectively inhabit a particular physical area (Germain & Bloom, 1999; Segall, Dasen, Berry, & Poortinga, 1999). Every society has a culture or ways of being, doing and thinking. This culture shapes societies behavior (Ember & Ember, 1996; Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). In understanding a culture, there must also be an understanding of its past and present histories and the histories of its people (Kim & Park, 2006). The Elements are divided into three sections: the anthropology of culture, the psychology of culture, and the science of culture. These divisions are consistent with research in the disciplines of cultural anthropology, cultural psychology, and science; however, there are modifications to provide application of these concepts as design constructs. An overview of each section is provided as context for the Elements. Then each design factor is defined, described, and illustrated through relevant cross-cultural examples. A set of guiding questions for the design process are offered that are specific to the culture and the target audience.
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Cbm Elements

Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all culture is composed. Most of those things that formulate a culture are included in the 25 Elements. The tangibles and intangibles define the Elements. Tangibles have material qualities and intangibles nonmaterial qualities (see Table 1).

Table 1.
CBM elements
ElementsTangibles and Intangibles
The anthropology of culture:
E1. Cultural aestheticsThat which is considered beautiful
E2. Cultural artifactsProducts that exist or remain
E3. Cultural capitalEconomics and material wealth
E4. Cultural classificationDivisions in a culture or society
E5. Cultural communicationsThe exchange or transmission of information
E6. Cultural demographicsCharacteristics of a population
E7. Cultural environmentPhysical and social conditions in which a human being, other species or entity lives and develops
E8. Cultural historyNarrative representation of historical events
E9. Cultural knowledgeWhat is known and what one comes to know
E10. Cultural languageLanguage form, content, use and meaning
E11. Cultural physiologyThe physiological characteristics of a human being, other species or entity
E12. Cultural relationsThe relationship of one being to another being
E13. Cultural resourcesThe use and cultivation of resources
The psychology of culture:
E14. Cultural beliefs & valuesBeliefs (shared truths); values (shared ideas)
E15. Cultural experiencesThe interpretation of the world from inside and out
E16. Cultural ideasThe use and meaning of ideas and perceptions
E17. Cultural identityDistinguishing qualities of a human being, other species or entity
E18. Cultural interestsDeeply personal desires, wants, wishes
E19. Cultural misconceptionsUntruths, myths, stereotypes
E20. Cultural waysBehaviors, norms, feelings
The science of culture:
E21. Cultural anomaliesHappenings that promote, initiate, or force cultural change
E22. Cultural culturesThe scientific identification of cultures, worlds, ecosystems
E23. Cultural futuresThat which is to come
E24. Cultural infinitiesThose things without limits: time, space, distance
E25. Cultural natureIntrinsic characteristics of a human being, other species or entity

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rita C. Richey
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Patricia A. Young
If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found... Sample PDF
Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture
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Chapter 2
Patricia A. Young
There have been many definitions of culture hypothesized by theorists and scholars as a way to understand human beings, other species and entities;... Sample PDF
The Nature of Culture in Design
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Chapter 3
Patricia A. Young
The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not... Sample PDF
The Culture-Based Model Framework
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Chapter 4
Patricia A. Young
Inquiry (11-16) monitors development, automates the internal flow of the design process, and functions as internal sensors. This monitoring checks... Sample PDF
CBM Inquiry, Development
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Chapter 5
Patricia A. Young
Team (T1–T3) focuses on the recruitment of a culturally sensitive design team that includes a cultural expert, an educator, and other culturally... Sample PDF
CBM Team, Assessments, Brainstorming
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Chapter 6
CBM Learners  (pages 88-99)
Patricia A. Young
The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment... Sample PDF
CBM Learners
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Chapter 7
CBM Elements I  (pages 100-125)
Patricia A. Young
Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all... Sample PDF
CBM Elements I
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Chapter 8
CBM Elements II  (pages 126-141)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural communications is covered in its... Sample PDF
CBM Elements II
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Chapter 9
CBM Elements III  (pages 142-173)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural demographics and Cultural... Sample PDF
CBM Elements III
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Chapter 10
CBM Elements IV  (pages 174-214)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural history is covered in its entirety.... Sample PDF
CBM Elements IV
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Chapter 11
CBM Elements V  (pages 215-231)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural knowledge, Cultural language... Sample PDF
CBM Elements V
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Chapter 12
CBM Elements VI  (pages 232-253)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VI
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Chapter 13
CBM Elements VII  (pages 254-278)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII
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Chapter 14
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII & Training
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Chapter 15
Patricia A. Young
Instructional design includes the production of educational products such as software, Web-based environments, video games, videos, films, and print... Sample PDF
Case Study of an Educational Product
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Chapter 16
Case Study in Game Design  (pages 316-330)
Patricia A. Young
The global game industry expects substantial growth in the next decades. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) are expected to skyrocket from the... Sample PDF
Case Study in Game Design
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Chapter 17
Case Study in E-Learning  (pages 331-341)
Patricia A. Young
The future of e-learning is wide open in terms of innovations in software, hardware, instructional content, and teaching practices. Recent... Sample PDF
Case Study in E-Learning
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Chapter 18
Case Study in Research  (pages 342-358)
Patricia A. Young
Research is seen as a bad word, more work and lots more money. However, research is a good thing to do and engage in before, during and after... Sample PDF
Case Study in Research
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Chapter 19
Conclusion  (pages 359-364)
Patricia A. Young
Culture works as a design construct. It is apparent that there are many factors operating to make this happen. First, the nature of culture in... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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About the Author