CBM Learners

CBM Learners

Patricia A. Young (University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-426-2.ch006
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Abstract

The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment that is supportive of the learner’s cultural frames of reference and seeks to meet the learning outcomes of the project. The design factors are adaptive to learners on multiple levels including intellectual, motivational, and educational, thereby providing opportunities for individualized instruction. Other design factors in this area focus on meeting the needs of the target audience through a variety of strategies including providing opportunities to extend learning beyond design requirements; differentiating learning opportunities; empowering and engaging learners; instilling proactive learning; identifying educational objectives; enculturating the learner; and incorporating culture-based instructional strategies.
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Cbm Learners

The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment that is supportive of the learner’s cultural frames of reference and seeks to meet the learning outcomes of the project. The design factors are adaptive to learners on multiple levels including intellectual, motivational, and educational, thereby providing opportunities for individualized instruction. Other design factors in this area focus on meeting the needs of the target audience through a variety of strategies including providing opportunities to extend learning beyond design requirements; differentiating learning opportunities; empowering and engaging learners; instilling proactive learning; identifying educational objectives; enculturating the learner; and incorporating culture-based instructional strategies.

To design instructional products for human beings means knowing how learners learn. This design process is more inquiry based. Determine what methods of learning are most appropriate for a learner. This suggests asking the learner, observing the learner, analyzing situations where the learner learns, or reviewing relevant research (Gagne & Briggs, 1974). Designing instruction without knowledge of the learner means making assumptions about the learner. This imposes upon the learner ones own values and dispositions versus allowing the learner to reveal their learning styles or ways of understanding and knowing. In terms of applying a theory of learning, this step should not be done without first knowing the learner. Once the learner is understood; then a theory of learning can be applied or applications designed based on the needs of the learner. The selection and design of instruction should be based on what is known about learners not that assumed to be known.

  • L1. Extend learning. Provide opportunities for extended learning.

  • L2. Differentiate opportunities to learn. Provide a variety of learning options.

  • L3. Empower and engage learners. Provide opportunities for empowering learners and engaging instruction.

  • L4. Teach proactive learning. Help learners to be proactive in improving their own learning.

  • L5. Identify educational objectives. Have an underlying educational and/or learning objective.

  • L6. Culture-specific instructional strategies. Consider instructional strategies that are individual or group specific.

  • L7. Enrich instructional content. Expand instructional content beyond subject matter.

  • L8. Adapt instruction to learner. Provide adaptable instruction that is not too grade level or age level specific.

  • L9. Plan for instruction. Focus on the short and long term instructional needs of the target audience.

  • L10. Enculturate the learner. Use the product to enculturate the learner into the culture.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rita C. Richey
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Patricia A. Young
If the history of the world is properly searched, the birth of innovation in learning theory as a practice and psychology as a science can be found... Sample PDF
Beginnings in Instructional Design and Culture
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Chapter 2
Patricia A. Young
There have been many definitions of culture hypothesized by theorists and scholars as a way to understand human beings, other species and entities;... Sample PDF
The Nature of Culture in Design
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Chapter 3
Patricia A. Young
The incorporation of culture in the design process is not a simple task. It is one with multiple layers of depth and complexity. But it is also not... Sample PDF
The Culture-Based Model Framework
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Chapter 4
Patricia A. Young
Inquiry (11-16) monitors development, automates the internal flow of the design process, and functions as internal sensors. This monitoring checks... Sample PDF
CBM Inquiry, Development
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Chapter 5
Patricia A. Young
Team (T1–T3) focuses on the recruitment of a culturally sensitive design team that includes a cultural expert, an educator, and other culturally... Sample PDF
CBM Team, Assessments, Brainstorming
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Chapter 6
CBM Learners  (pages 88-99)
Patricia A. Young
The Learners (L1-L10) area centers on the needs of learners and learning. These design factors assist in providing a dynamic learning environment... Sample PDF
CBM Learners
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Chapter 7
CBM Elements I  (pages 100-125)
Patricia A. Young
Elements (E1-E25) facilitate content development. These Elements are intended to be comprehensive in providing the fundamental total of which all... Sample PDF
CBM Elements I
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Chapter 8
CBM Elements II  (pages 126-141)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural communications is covered in its... Sample PDF
CBM Elements II
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Chapter 9
CBM Elements III  (pages 142-173)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural demographics and Cultural... Sample PDF
CBM Elements III
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Chapter 10
CBM Elements IV  (pages 174-214)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural history is covered in its entirety.... Sample PDF
CBM Elements IV
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Chapter 11
CBM Elements V  (pages 215-231)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the anthropology of culture. Cultural knowledge, Cultural language... Sample PDF
CBM Elements V
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Chapter 12
CBM Elements VI  (pages 232-253)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the psychology of culture. All of the design factors related to... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VI
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Chapter 13
CBM Elements VII  (pages 254-278)
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII
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Chapter 14
Patricia A. Young
This chapter continues with CBM Elements and the design factors related to the science of culture. The following design factors are covered in this... Sample PDF
CBM Elements VII & Training
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Chapter 15
Patricia A. Young
Instructional design includes the production of educational products such as software, Web-based environments, video games, videos, films, and print... Sample PDF
Case Study of an Educational Product
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Chapter 16
Case Study in Game Design  (pages 316-330)
Patricia A. Young
The global game industry expects substantial growth in the next decades. Massive multiplayer online games (MMOG) are expected to skyrocket from the... Sample PDF
Case Study in Game Design
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Chapter 17
Case Study in E-Learning  (pages 331-341)
Patricia A. Young
The future of e-learning is wide open in terms of innovations in software, hardware, instructional content, and teaching practices. Recent... Sample PDF
Case Study in E-Learning
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Chapter 18
Case Study in Research  (pages 342-358)
Patricia A. Young
Research is seen as a bad word, more work and lots more money. However, research is a good thing to do and engage in before, during and after... Sample PDF
Case Study in Research
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Chapter 19
Conclusion  (pages 359-364)
Patricia A. Young
Culture works as a design construct. It is apparent that there are many factors operating to make this happen. First, the nature of culture in... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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About the Author