Cognitive Apprenticeship Inspired Simulations

Cognitive Apprenticeship Inspired Simulations

Kay Kyeongju Seo (University of Cincinnati, USA), Aimee Byk (University of Cincinnati, USA) and Chris Collins (University of Cincinnati, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-322-7.ch020
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Abstract

How can one bring cognitive apprenticeship into the virtual world? This chapter addresses how to construct a 3D online digital environment that supports the methods of cognitive apprenticeship. As technology rapidly evolves, there has been an increased demand for more interactive and more flexible simulated learning environments that can go beyond the limits of conventional instruction. When carefully designed, a 3D online digital simulation can allow teachers and learners to share and compare their cognitive techniques. By gaining access to experts’ “hidden” skills, learners can better develop thinking and learning strategies that are applicable to real-world situations. This chapter discusses how to design cognitive apprenticeship tasks in a 3D online digital world.
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Introduction

As the information age continues to evolve, we have witnessed a dramatic shift of the education paradigm from standardization to customization, from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction, and from a focus on information dissemination through a unidirectional lecture format to an emphasis on information processing through student interaction (Reigeluth, 1999). The underlying basis of this new paradigm is learner-centered instruction that supports learners to “act as explorers of new ideas, cognitive apprentice of their mentors, instructors to their peers, and producer of products of real use to themselves and to others” (Tan, 2006, p. 92). There have been consistent efforts to integrate a variety of learner-focused methods into the teaching and learning process. One of the powerful strategies is cognitive apprenticeship.

Cognitive apprenticeship is based on the concept of traditional apprenticeship, in which the expert demonstrates how to perform the task while the apprentice observes the skilled actions (Collins, Brown, & Holum, 1991). The apprentice performs tasks under the watch of the expert and receives feedback. As the apprentice gains more and more skill, the expert gradually reduces supervision. Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989) developed the framework of cognitive apprenticeship, with the basic goal of supporting learners by providing access to expert thinking. Basically, learners observe the expert’s behaviors in solving the task as the expert “works to make thinking visible” (Collins et al., 1991, p. 38), sharing his/her cognitive techniques with learners. Learners also express their cognitive strategies, allowing the expert to better assess the nature and amount of support that is needed to improve performance. By gaining access to the hidden skills while embedded in a real activity, learners can better understand how these skills can be applied to other situations and across disciplines.

Cognitive apprenticeship focuses on fostering active learning in “a community of people who support, challenge, and guide novices as they increasingly participate in skilled, valued sociocultural activity” (Rogoff, 1990, p. 39). The roots of cognitive apprenticeship lie with Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of learning, which proposes that knowledge is created through social interactions (Woo & Reeves, 2007). Cognitive apprenticeship provides the social context for this to happen, whether face-to-face or in a virtual setting. Through collaboration, experts guide novices’ participation in the community, and perspectives are shared among all members. These experiences guide novices to gradually internalize the dialogue and construct personal meaning.

According to Collins et al. (1991), students are rarely taught cognitive strategies that experts use when they solve problems in traditional academic environments. For example, students of English are expected to identify the themes of a distinguished author’s short story, but often are not given insight into how the author developed or organized those themes. Because of this lack of understanding the process, students may experience difficulty when faced with an original writing task. In addition, when learners do not have access to expert thinking, they may experience trouble solving creative problems or transferring the skills to other environments. Cognitive apprenticeship allows learners to access thinking processes in order to conceptualize the task in a meaningful manner (Collins et al., 1991). It is a powerful model to support learners in their learning endeavors. Not only does it promote learner-centered higher-order thinking skills, but peers may serve as cognitive resources for one another.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Rhonda Christensen, Gerald Knezek
Chapter 1
A Simulation Primer  (pages 1-24)
Katrin Becker, James R. Parker
This chapter provides an introduction to digital simulations for those interested in using or designing them for instructional purposes. There has... Sample PDF
A Simulation Primer
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Chapter 2
Youngkyun Baek
This chapter expands upon the definition of a simulation with two categories: experiential and symbolic. It discusses the interactive, experiential... Sample PDF
Digital Simulation in Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 3
Peter R. Albion
Interaction is fundamental to the learning process and game-like 3D online spaces present opportunities for enhancing learning through supporting a... Sample PDF
Virtual Spaces for Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 4
David Williamson Shaffer
Multiculturalism is an essential tool for democratic citizenship in a world made ever more closely interconnected by information technologies. In... Sample PDF
Computers and the End of Progressive Education
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Chapter 5
Celina Byers
The desired outcome of instructional game design is to combine the powerful attraction of games and the proven effectiveness of instructional system... Sample PDF
Combining Instructional Design and Game Design
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Chapter 6
Helyn Gould, Michael Hughes, Paul Maharg, Emma Nicol
Game-based learning and simulation is a powerful mode of learning, used by industries as diverse as aviation and health sciences. While there are... Sample PDF
The Narrative Event Diagram: A Tool for Designing Professional Simulations
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Chapter 7
David Gibson
In order for a digital simulation to provide an artificial teaching environment there needs to be a computational model of the act of teaching... Sample PDF
Modeling Classroom Behaviors in Software Agents
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Chapter 8
Sara Dexter
The new technology-enhanced conception of assessment stands in contrast to the traditional view of assessments as tests of a learner’s ability to... Sample PDF
Design Principles for Interactive Learning Environments with Embedded Formative Assessments
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Chapter 9
Penny deByl
Three-dimensional virtual learning environments provide students with pedagogic experiences beyond traditional two-dimensional textbook and Web page... Sample PDF
Hybrid 2D/3D Development of Interactive Simulations
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Chapter 10
Len Annetta, James Minogue, Shawn Holmes, Meng-Tzu Cheng, Elizabeth Folta, Marta Klesath
This chapter will provide concrete examples of how a research group at North Carolina State University is using case studies as the... Sample PDF
Using Case Studies as the Narrative to Game Design and Development
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Chapter 11
Mark Girod
Teacher education is currently facing pressures to demonstrate efficacy in preparing teachers who can affect P-12 student learning gains. Teacher... Sample PDF
Exploring Teacher Problem Solving Using Simulation
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Chapter 12
Donguk Cheong, Bokyeong Kim
A computer simulation for improving teaching is expected to remove the potential negative effects on real students while creating an environment... Sample PDF
A Simulation for Improving Teachers' Motivational Skills
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Chapter 13
Damián Piccolo, Anna Oskorus
Nearly half of all new teachers leave the field of education within the first five years (Ingersoll, 2003; Alliance for Excellent Education, 2005).... Sample PDF
Designing Commercial Simulations for Teachers
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Chapter 14
Scott J. Warren, Richard A. Stein
This chapter discusses the design and use of simulated teaching experiences contextualized through role-play in a multi-user virtual environment as... Sample PDF
Simulating Teaching Experience with Role-Play
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Chapter 15
Bokyeong Kim, Donguk Cheong
This chapter presents the theory, structure, and development process used in designing a teaching simulation. simClass was designed to help teachers... Sample PDF
simClass: Simulate Your Class Before You Teach
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Chapter 16
Karen Schrier, Charles K. Kinzer
Teacher education that emphasizes the understanding and assessment of ethics can support the creation of an ethically aware and critically engaged... Sample PDF
Using Digital Games to Develop Ethical Teachers
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Chapter 17
Shelby P. Morge
Recently adopted 21st Century goals stress the importance of preparing students for a globally competitive society by providing them with... Sample PDF
Modeling in the Classroom Using Squeak Etoys
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Chapter 18
Mary Jo Dondlinger, Scott Joseph Warren
This chapter discusses Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) as simulated experiences, and presents the conceptual framework that informed the design and... Sample PDF
Alternate Reality Games as Simulations
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Chapter 19
Caitlin Kelleher
Self-directed, open-ended projects can enable students to pursue their own interests and lead to deep learning. However, it can be difficult to... Sample PDF
Supporting Open-Ended Programming Assignments
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Chapter 20
Kay Kyeongju Seo, Aimee Byk, Chris Collins
How can one bring cognitive apprenticeship into the virtual world? This chapter addresses how to construct a 3D online digital environment that... Sample PDF
Cognitive Apprenticeship Inspired Simulations
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Chapter 21
Jae Yeob Jung, Hyung Sung Park
The purpose of this chapter is to explore how learning, by making games, can provide opportunities for higher-order thinking such as problem... Sample PDF
Learning by Doing via Game Making
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Chapter 22
Christian Sebastian Loh, Jae Hwan Byun
Game Modification, or Modding, is a unique and valuable way of learning with digital games as well as a means to earn beginners’ stripes in the game... Sample PDF
Modding Neverwinter Nights Into Serious Games
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Chapter 23
Teresa Franklin, David Chelberg, Chang Liu
Virtual environments are a topic of discussion for many in the business and commerce fields. However, K-12 school systems have been slow to embrace... Sample PDF
Changing Middle School Science through STEAM
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Chapter 24
David Gibson
This chapter discusses how a teaching simulation can embody core characteristics of a complex system. It employs examples of specific frameworks and... Sample PDF
Complex Systems Concepts in Simulations
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About the Contributors