On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes

On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes

Yingxu Wang (University of Calgary, Canada)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-170-4.ch004
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An interactive motivation-attitude theory is developed based on the Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB) and the Object-Attribute-Relation (OAR) model. This chapter presents a rigorous model of human perceptual processes such as emotions, motivations, and attitudes. A set of mathematical models and formally described cognitive processes are developed. The interactions and relationships between motivation and attitude are formally described in real-time process algebra (RTPA). Applications of the mathematical models of motivations and attitudes in software engineering are demonstrated. This work is the detailed description of a part of the layered reference model of the brain (LRMB) that provides a comprehensive model for explaining the fundamental cognitive processes of the brain and their interactions. This work demonstrates that the complicated human emotional and perceptual phenomena can be rigorously modeled in mathematics and be formally treated and described.
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A variety of life functions and cognitive processes has been identified in cognitive informatics (Wang, 2002a, 2003a, 2007b), cognitive science, neuropsychology, and neurophilosophy. In order to formally and rigorously describe a comprehensive and coherent set of mental processes and their relationships, a layered reference model of the brain (LRMB) developed (Wang and Wang, 2006; Wang et al., 2006) that explains the functional mechanisms and cognitive processes of the natural intelligence. LRMB encompasses 37 cognitive processes at six layers known as the sensation, memory, perception, action, meta and higher cognitive layers from the bottom up.

Definition 1.Perception is a set of internal sensational cognitive processes of the brain at the subconscious cognitive function layers that detects, relates, interprets, and searches internal cognitive information in the mind.

Perception may be considered as the sixth sense of human beings since almost all cognitive life functions rely on it. Perception is also an important cognitive function at the subconscious layers that determines personality. In other word, personality is a faculty of all subconscious life functions and experience cumulated via conscious life functions. It is recognized that a crucial component of the future generation computers known as the cognitive computers is the perceptual engine that mimic the natural intelligence (Wang, 2006, 2007c).

The main cognitive processes at the perception layer of LRMB are emotion, motivation, and attitude (Wang et al., 2006). This chapter presents a formal treatment of the three perceptual processes, their interrelationships, and interactions. It demonstrates that complicated psychological and cognitive mental processes may be formally modeled and rigorously described. Mathematical models of the psychological and cognitive processes of emotions, motivations, and attitudes are developed in the following three sections. Then, interactions and relationships between emotions, motivations, and attitudes are analyzed. Based on the integrated models of the three perception processes, the formal description of the cognitive processes of motivations and attitudes will be presented using Real-Time Process Algebra (RTPA) (Wang, 2002b, 2003c). Applications of the formal models of emotions, motivations, and attitudes will be demonstrated in a case study on maximizing strengths of individual motivations in software engineering.


The Hierarchical Model Of Emotions

Emotions are a set of states or results of perception that interprets the feelings of human beings on external stimuli or events in the binary categories of pleasant or unpleasant.

Definition 2. An emotion is a personal feeling derived from one’s current internal status, mood, circumstances, historical context, and external stimuli.

Emotions are closely related to desires and willingness. A desire is a personal feeling or willingness to possess an object, to conduct an interaction with the external world, or to prepare for an event to happen. A willingness is the faculty of conscious, deliberate, and voluntary choice of actions.

According to the study of Fischer and his colleagues (Fischer et al., 1990; Wilson and Keil, 1999), the taxonomy of emotions can be described at three levels known as the sub-category, basic, and super levels as shown in Table 1.

Table 1.
Taxonomy of emotions
Super levelPositive (pleasant)Negative (unpleasant)
Basic levelJoyLoveAngerSadnessFear
Sub-category levelBliss, pride,
Fondness, infatuationAnnoyance, hostility, contempt, jealousyAgony, grief, guilt, lonelinessHorror, worry

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Table of Contents
Yingxu Wang
Chapter 1
Yingxu Wang
Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural... Sample PDF
The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics
Chapter 2
Withold Kinsner
This chapter provides a review of Shannon and other entropy measures in evaluating the quality of materials used in perception, cognition, and... Sample PDF
Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?
Chapter 3
Ismael Rodríguez, Manuel Núñez, Fernando Rubio
Finite State Machines (FSM) are formalisms that have been used for decades to describe the behavior of systems. They can also provide an intelligent... Sample PDF
Cognitive Processes by using Finite State Machines
Chapter 4
Yingxu Wang
An interactive motivation-attitude theory is developed based on the Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB) and the Object-Attribute-Relation... Sample PDF
On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes
Chapter 5
Qingyong Li, Zhiping Shi, Zhongzhi Shi
Sparse coding theory demonstrates that the neurons in the primary visual cortex form a sparse representation of natural scenes in the viewpoint of... Sample PDF
A Selective Sparse Coding Model with Embedded Attention Mechanism
Chapter 6
Yingxu Wang
Theoretical research is predominately an inductive process, while applied research is mainly a deductive process. Both inference processes are based... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Processes of Formal Inferences
Chapter 7
Douglas Griffith, Frank L. Greitzer
The purpose of this article is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a... Sample PDF
Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction
Chapter 8
Ray E. Jennings
Although linguistics may treat languages as a syntactic and/or semantic entity that regulates both language production and comprehension, this... Sample PDF
Language, Logic, and the Brain
Chapter 9
Yingxu Wang, Guenther Ruhe
Decision making is one of the basic cognitive processes of human behaviors by which a preferred option or a course of actions is chosen from among a... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Process of Decision Making
Chapter 10
Tiansi Dong
This chapter proposes a commonsense understanding of distance and orientation knowledge between extended objects, and presents a formal... Sample PDF
A Commonsense Approach to Representing Spatial Knowledge Between Extended Objects
Chapter 11
Natalia López, Manuel Núñez, Fernando L. Pelayo
In this chapter we present the formal language, stochastic process algebra (STOPA), to specify cognitive systems. In addition to the usual... Sample PDF
A Formal Specification of the Memorization Process
Chapter 12
Yingxu Wang
Autonomic computing (AC) is an intelligent computing approach that autonomously carries out robotic and interactive applications based on goal- and... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations of Autonomic Computing
Chapter 13
Witold Kinsner
Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive... Sample PDF
Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis
Chapter 14
Amar Ramdane-Cherif
Cognitive approach through the neural network (NN) paradigm is a critical discipline that will help bring about autonomic computing (AC). NN-related... Sample PDF
Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning
Chapter 15
Lee Flax
We give an approach to cognitive modelling, which allows for richer expression than the one based simply on the firing of sets of neurons. The... Sample PDF
Cognitive Modelling Applied to Aspects of Schizophrenia and Autonomic Computing
Chapter 16
Yan Zhao, Yiyu Yao
Classification is one of the main tasks in machine learning, data mining, and pattern recognition. Compared with the extensively studied automation... Sample PDF
Interactive Classification Using a Granule Network
Chapter 17
Mehdi Najjar, André Mayers
Encouraging results of last years in the field of knowledge representation within virtual learning environments confirms that artificial... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Computational Knowledge Representation Theory
Chapter 18
Du Zhang
A crucial component of an intelligent system is its knowledge base that contains knowledge about a problem domain. Knowledge base development... Sample PDF
A Fixpoint Semantics for Rule-Base Anomalies
Chapter 19
Christine W. Chan
This chapter presents a method for ontology construction and its application in developing ontology in the domain of natural gas pipeline... Sample PDF
Development of an Ontology for an Industrial Domain
Chapter 20
Václav Rajlich, Shaochun Xu
This article explores the non-monotonic nature of the programmer learning that takes place during incremental program development. It uses a... Sample PDF
Constructivist Learning During Software Development
Chapter 21
Witold Kinsner
Many scientific chapters treat the diversity of fractal dimensions as mere variations on either the same theme or a single definition. There is a... Sample PDF
A Unified Approach to Fractal Dimensions
Chapter 22
Du Zhang, Witold Kinsner, Jeffrey Tsai, Yingxu Wang, Philip Sheu, Taehyung Wang
The 2005 IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI’05) was held during August 8th to 10th 2005 on the campus of University of... Sample PDF
Cognitive Informatics: Four Years in Practice
Chapter 23
Yiyu Yao, Zhongzhi Shi, Yingxu Wang, Witold Kinsner, Yixin Zhong, Guoyin Wang
Cognitive informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary research area that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics... Sample PDF
Toward Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computers: A Report on IEEE ICCI'06
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