Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions

Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions

Alexander Klippel (University of Melbourne, Australia), Kai-Florian Richter (Universität Bremen, Germany) and Stefan Hansen (Spatial/Information Systems Ltd./LISAsoft, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-995-3.ch029
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Abstract

This contribution provides an overview of elements of cognitively ergonomic route directions. Cognitive ergonomics, in general, seeks to identify characteristics of cognitive information processing and to formalize these characteristics such that they can be used to improve information systems. For route directions, an increasing number of behavioral studies have, for example, pointed to the following characteristics: the use of landmarks, changing levels of granularity, the qualitative description of spatial relations. The authors detail these aspects and additionally introduce formal approaches that incorporate them to automatically provide route directions that adhere to principles of cognitive ergonomics.
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Cognitive Aspects Of Route Directions

Route directions fascinate researchers in several fields. Since the 70s linguists and cognitive scientists have used verbal route directions as a window to cognition to learn about cognitive processes that reflect structuring principles of environmental knowledge (e.g., Klein, 1978). Over the last decade, the number of publications on various aspects of route directions has increased. Next to the general aspects of how to provide route directions and how to identify principles that allow us to define what makes route directions cognitively ergonomic, technical aspects of navigation support systems have become an additional focus. The question required from the latter perspective is part of a broader approach that aims to formally characterize the meaning (semantics) of spatial relations. In other words, if we want to bridge the gap between information systems and behavioral analysis we have to answer how we perform the transition from data to knowledge.

Several key elements can be identified based on psychological and linguistic literature on route directions that are pertinent for cognitively ergonomic route directions (Denis, 1997; Lovelace, Hegarty, & Montello, 1999; Tversky & Lee, 1999). These comprise the conceptualization of directions at decision points, the spatial chunking of route direction elements to obtain hierarchies and to change the level of granularity, the role of landmarks, the communication in different modalities, the traveling in different modes, and aspects of personalization (see Table 1). Most research on routes and route directions deals with navigation in urban structures such as street networks. The results discussed in this article focus on this domain.

Table 1.
Cognitive ergonomics of route directions
Cognitively ergonomic route directions
• are qualitative, not quantitative,
• allow for different levels of granularity and organize spatial knowledge hierarchically,
• reflect cognitive conceptualizations of directions at decision points,
• chunk route direction elements into larger units to reduce cognitive load,
• use landmarks to:
° disambiguate spatial situations,
° anchor turning actions,
° and to confirm that the right actions have been taken,
• present information in multimodal communication systems allowing for an interplay of language and graphics, but respecting for the underlying conceptual structure,
    • allow for an adaptation to the user’s familiarity with an environment, as well as personal styles and different languages.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Granularity: Here, it refers to the detail in route directions; from coarse levels for general planning to finer levels to provide context-specific information, for example at decision points.

Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH): A computational model defining acquisition and representation of spatial knowledge on different levels of abstraction ranging from sensory information to topological knowledge.

Personalization: Adaptation of information presentation and interaction with a device / software to the needs and preferences of a specific, individual user.

Route Directions: A set of instructions that allow a wayfinder in known or unknown environments to follow a route from a start point to a destination.

OpenLS: Specification of an open platform for location-based services defining their core functionality (directory service, gateway service, location utility service, presentation service, route service).

Wayfinding Choremes: Mental conceptualizations of functional wayfinding and route direction elements.

Landmark: Any entity in the environment that sticks out from the background.

Wayfinding: The cognitive conceptual activity of planning and finding ones way.

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Chapter 1
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GML as Database: Present and Future
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Chapter 2
Jose E. Córcoles, Pascual González
As a database format, XML (GML by extension) can be queried. In order to do this, we need a query language (of general use) to retrieve information... Sample PDF
Querying GML: A Pressing Need
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Chapter 3
Michael Vassilakopoulos, Antonio Corral, Boris Rachev, Irena Valova, Mariana Stoeva
Image Databases (IDBs) are a kind of Spatial Databases where a large number of images are stored and queried. In this chapter, techniques for... Sample PDF
Image Database Indexing Techniques
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Chapter 4
Patrik Skogster
Geographic information is created by manipulating geographic (or spatial) data (generally known by the abbreviation geodata) in a computerized... Sample PDF
Different Roles and Definitions of Spatial Data Fusion
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Chapter 5
Carlos Granell, Michael Gould, Miguel Ángel Manso, Miguel Ángel Bernabé
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are data-centric applications that rely on the input and constant maintenance of large quantities of basic and... Sample PDF
Spatial Data Infrastructures
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Chapter 6
Trias Aditya, Menno-Jan Kraak
The vision of “created once, used many times” has been spread out across the globe through the development of geospatial data infrastructure (GDI)... Sample PDF
Geoportals and the GDI Accessibility
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Chapter 7
Hervé Gontran
The development of road database requires the management of continuously growing road databases. Mobile mapping systems can acquire this... Sample PDF
Real-Time Extraction of the Road Geometry
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Chapter 8
Cognitive Maps  (pages 58-64)
Stephen Hirtle
Cognitive maps are the representations that individuals use to understand, process, and navigate environments. The term cognitive map should not be... Sample PDF
Cognitive Maps
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Chapter 9
Map Overlay Problem  (pages 65-72)
Maikel Garma de la Osa, Yissell Arias Sánchez
Maps usually contain data from different sources (e.g., population, natural resources, cities, roads, infant mortality rate, etc.) When all the... Sample PDF
Map Overlay Problem
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Chapter 10
Mahbubur R. Meenar, John A. Sorrentino
Three-dimensional surface modeling has become an important element in the processing and visualization of geographic information. Models are created... Sample PDF
Dealing with 3D Surface Models: Raster and TIN
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Chapter 11
Yurai Núñez-Rodríguez
Web map services, such as Google Maps and MapQuest, are among the most popular sites on the Internet. One can easily access these services through a... Sample PDF
Web Map Servers Data Formats
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Chapter 12
Eric Delmelle, Raymond Dezzani
There has been a dramatic increase in the handling of geospatial information, and also in the production of maps. However, because the Earth is... Sample PDF
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Chapter 13
José Poveda, Michael Gould
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Chapter 14
Alina Lazar, Bradley A. Shellito
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Classification in GIS Using Support Vector Machines
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Chapter 15
Network Modeling  (pages 113-121)
Kevin M. Curtin
Network models are some of the earliest and most consistently important data models in GISystems. Network modeling has a strong theoretical basis in... Sample PDF
Network Modeling
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Chapter 16
Xiaojun Yang
Artificial neural networks are increasingly being used to model complex, nonlinear phenomena. The purpose of this chapter is to review the... Sample PDF
Artificial Neural Networks
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Chapter 17
Spatial Interpolation  (pages 129-136)
Xiaojun Yang
Spatial interpolation is a core component of data processing and analysis in geoinformatics. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the concept... Sample PDF
Spatial Interpolation
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Chapter 18
Bo Huang, Magesh Chandramouli
Integrating spatial and temporal dimensions is a fundamental yet challenging issue in modeling geospatial data. This article presents the design of... Sample PDF
Spatio-Temporal Object Modeling
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Chapter 19
May Yuan
Temporal Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has been a top research subject since late the 1980s. Langran’s Time in Geographic... Sample PDF
Challenges and Critical Issues for Temporal GIS Research and Technologies
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Chapter 20
Iftikhar U. Sikder
The representation of geographic entities is characterized by inherent granularity due to scale and resolution specific observations. This article... Sample PDF
Rough Sets and Granular Computing in Geospatial Information
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Chapter 21
Matthew Perry, Amit Sheth, Ismailcem Budak Arpinar, Farshad Hakimpour
The amount of digital data available to researchers and knowledge workers has grown tremendously in recent years. This is especially true in the... Sample PDF
Geospatial and Temporal Semantic Analytics
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Chapter 22
Yuqi Bai, Liping Di, Aijun Chen, Yang Liu, Yaxing Wei
Three public geospatial image catalog services, FGDC Clearinghouse, NASA ECHO and GMU CSISS CSW, were reviewed, considering the following aspects... Sample PDF
Geospatial Image Metadata Catalog Services
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Chapter 23
Peisheng Zhao, Liping Di, Wenli Yang, Genong Yu, Peng Yue
The Semantic Web technology provides a common interoperable framework in which information is given a well-defined meaning such that data and... Sample PDF
Geospatial Semantic Web: Critical Issues
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Chapter 24
Carlos Granell, Michael Gould, Miguel Ángel Esbrí
In the context of Geographic Information System’s evolution from monolithic systems to personal desktop GIS and then to collections of remote... Sample PDF
Geospatial Web Service Chaining
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Chapter 25
Genong Yu, Liping Di, Wenli Yang, Peisheng Zhao, Peng Yue
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Multi-Agent Systems for Distributed Geospatial Modeling, Simulation and Computing
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Chapter 26
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Towards Automatic Composition of Geospatial Web Services
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Chapter 27
Aijun Chen, Liping Di, Yuqi Bai, Yaxing Wei
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Grid Computing and its Application to Geoinformatics
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Chapter 28
Yaxing Wei, Liping Di, Guangxuan Liao, Baohua Zhao, Aijun Chen, Yuqi Bai
With the rapid accumulation of geospatial data and the advancement of geoscience, there is a critical requirement for an infrastructure that can... Sample PDF
Sharing of Distributed Geospatial Data through Grid Technology
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Chapter 29
Alexander Klippel, Kai-Florian Richter, Stefan Hansen
This contribution provides an overview of elements of cognitively ergonomic route directions. Cognitive ergonomics, in general, seeks to identify... Sample PDF
Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions
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Chapter 30
Péter Hegedüs, Mihály Orosz, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
This chapter details the potential found in combining to different technologies. The two basically different technologies, LBSs in mobile... Sample PDF
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Chapter 31
Routing  (pages 246-253)
Kevin M. Curtin
Routing is the act of selecting a course of travel. Routing problems are one of the most prominent and persistent problems in geoinformatics. This... Sample PDF
Routing
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Chapter 32
Location Privacy  (pages 254-259)
Matt Duckham
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Location Privacy
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Chapter 33
Vladimir I. Zadorozhny
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Chapter 34
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Chapter 35
Coupling GPS and GIS  (pages 277-284)
Mahbubur R. Meenar, John A. Sorrentino, Sharmin Yesmin
Since the 1990s, the integration of GPS and GIS has become more and more popular and an industry standard in the GIS community worldwide. The... Sample PDF
Coupling GPS and GIS
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Chapter 36
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With the availability and accuracy of satellite-based positioning systems and the growing computational power of mobile devices, recent research and... Sample PDF
Modern Navigation Systems and Related Spatial Query
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Chapter 37
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Chapter 38
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Chapter 39
Andrés Pazos, José Poveda, Michael Gould
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A Package-Based Architecture for Customized GIS
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Chapter 40
Magesh Chandramouli, Bo Huang
This article explores the application of virtual environments to 3D geospatial visualization and exploration. VR worlds provide powerful... Sample PDF
Virtual Environments for Geospatial Applications
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Chapter 41
Iftikhar U. Sikder
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Chapter 42
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Geographic Visual Query Languages and Ambiguities Treatment
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Chapter 43
Lionel Savary, Georges Gardarin, Karine Zeitouni
GML is a promising model for integrating geodata within data warehouses. The resulting databases are generally large and require spatial operators... Sample PDF
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Chapter 44
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This chapter describes and analyzes the effectiveness of two methodological techniques, cognitive mapping and geographical information systems... Sample PDF
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Chapter 45
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Chapter 46
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This article proposes a multi-agent based framework that allows multiple data sources and models to be semantically integrated for spatial modeling... Sample PDF
Semantic Interoperability of Geospatial Services
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Chapter 47
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Chapter 48
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