Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments

Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments

Leonidas G. Anthopoulos (Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Greece)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch017
OnDemand PDF Download:


E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but sufficient transformation of public services into e-Government ones. However, public agencies adapt to e-Government with difficulty, requiring holistic guidance and a detailed legal framework provided by the Government. The setting up of common Enterprise Architecture for all public agencies requires careful analysis. Moreover, common Enterprise Architecture could fail to cover the special needs of small or municipal agencies. The chapter uses data from various major e-Government strategies, together with their enterprise architectures, in order to introduce a development model of municipal Enterprise Architecture. The model is based on the experience collected from the Digital City of Trikala, central Greece, and results in “Collaborative Enterprise Architecture”.
Chapter Preview


Governments worldwide are investing heavily in e-Government, according to ambitious strategic plans aimed at friendlier and more effective public Administrations. The strategic plans define the political targets for e-Government, such as “time and cost savings for citizens and public Agencies” (Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, 2003) and “the development of a citizen-centered, results-oriented and market-based public Administration” (Federal Enterprise Architecture, 2002). Moreover, strategic plans set the technological standards that will be followed during e-Government evolution, such as “openness, usability, customization and transparency for public portals” (Gant and Gant, 2002) and “interoperability between e-Government systems” (UK Cabinet Office, Office of the e-Envoy, 2002).

Strategic plans are being implemented according to the “top-down procedure” (Anthopoulos, Siozos and Tsoukalas, 2007), meaning that Governments define the primary targets and assign their implementation to central authorities, while e-Government target groups (citizens, enterprises, civil servants) are not involved in the design procedure. Top-down strategic planning defines policies and targets, but not methods and principles for e-Government. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) vendors have provided solutions for e-Government and for digital service execution that are mainly eCommerce-based applications, transformed and parameterized to public Administration methodologies (Lawry, Albrecht, Nunamaker and Lee, 2002).

The application of the strategic plan on the public Administration is a difficult procedure, since various Authorities did not participate in the “top-down” strategic planning, they do not know planning extensions and they are not aware of the upcoming changes. Distributed and local authorities require the existence of controlling procedures and of specific legal frameworks in order to adopt changes. Central Agencies defined by Governments are assigned strategic planning implementation, change management and the application of common technical standards in separate e-Government projects.

However, central supervision lacks functions (Peristeras and Tarabanis, 2004) that could establish common standards for interoperable, usable and accessible e-Government projects. The Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a “tool” that can establish standardization in e-Government projects. EA is the “bridge” that joins strategic plans and their implementation (Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA Group), 2005). Moreover, according to (Adigun and Biyela, 2003), the EA documents the elements that make up e-Government in a form that can be understood by its stakeholders (for example politicians, political parties, councils, heads of departments etc.). EA can assist central e-Government supervisors in understanding and combining technical standards and political aspects.

Each strategic plan is now accompanied by a centrally defined EA that can supply all e-Government projects with common standards and operation principles. However, central EA has to deal with problems similar to the ones that central strategic planning faces (Anthopoulos et. al., 2007): “smooth transition” of the public Agencies from traditional procedures to e-Government, change acceptance by all target groups, and the treatment of individual, local and peripheral needs.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
John A. Zachman
Pallab Saha
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
About the Contributors