The relevant research literatures, together with the issues articulated by chapter authors in this book, are used to characterize some of the conceptual and technical hurdles of collaborative GIS. The intention is to examine how collaborative GIS can consolidate and expand its reaches in research and applications. This is necessary, given the increasing complexity of environmental and societal problems. Three areas for future research explorations are synthesized. These areas encompass scale effects, system modeling, and distributive planning. While there may be other equally valid research areas, the focus is to encourage a transdisciplinary infusion to enrich collaborative GIS. With a transdisciplinary approach, integrated solutions can be developed that use the best available knowledge to narrow conceptual gaps between technical experts and the general public, towards more effective planning, problem solving, and decision-making. Game theory, ontological engineering, and agent technology are proposed as transdisciplinary means to enrich current collaborative GIS research and applications.