A Complex Adaptive Systems-Based Enterprise Knowledge Sharing Model

A Complex Adaptive Systems-Based Enterprise Knowledge Sharing Model

Cynthia T. Small (The MITRE Corporation, USA) and Andrew P. Sage (George Mason University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-976-2.ch015
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Abstract

This paper describes a complex adaptive systems (CAS)-based enterprise knowledge-sharing (KnS) model. The CAS-based enterprise KnS model consists of a CAS-based KnS framework and a multi-agent simulation model. Enterprise knowledge sharing is modeled as the emergent behavior of knowledge workers interacting with the KnS environment and other knowledge workers. The CAS-based enterprise KnS model is developed to aid knowledge management (KM) leadership and other KnS researchers in gaining an enhanced understanding of KnS behavior and its influences. A premise of this research is that a better understanding of KnS influences can result in enhanced decision-making of KnS interventions that can result in improvements in KnS behavior.
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Cas-Based Modeling Of Enterprise Knowledge Sharing

The enterprise KnS model developed here models enterprise knowledge sharing from a complex adaptive systems perspective. Hypothetical concepts that are fundamental to the development of this CAS-based model and to this research include:

  • 1.

    Knowledge sharing is a human behavior performed by knowledge workers;

  • 2.

    Knowledge workers are diverse and heterogeneous;

  • 3.

    Knowledge workers may choose to share knowledge; and

  • 4.

    The KnS decision is influenced by other knowledge workers and the KnS environment.

Enterprise knowledge sharing is the result of the decisions made by knowledge workers, individually and as members of teams, regarding knowledge sharing. As depicted in Figure 1, there are two major decisions (rectangles) that a knowledge worker makes: “Share Knowledge?” and “Type of Knowledge to Share?” This research models the KnS decisions as being influenced by the attributes of the individual knowledge worker, the KnS behavior of other knowledge workers, and the state of the KnS environment. Previous KnS studies and research identify factors that influence KnS behavior. However, few address the heterogeneity of knowledge workers and how the attributes of the individual knowledge worker, and knowledge worker teams, impact KnS behavior. The emergent enterprise KnS behavior, noted by the diamond shape in Figure 1, is the result of the interactions of the knowledge worker with the KnS environment and other knowledge workers. Relevant aspects of enterprise KnS behavior and the associated KnS influences are discussed in the sections that follow.

Figure 1.

Enterprise KnS influence diagram

Enterprise KnS behavior takes on many forms. It can be a conversation around a water fountain, e-mail sent to a co-worker or a group forum, a presentation to a small group, an enterprise “best-practice” forum, or documents published to a corporate repository. Murray (2003) categorizes KnS activities into technology-assisted communication (videoconferencing, databanks/intranet, e-mail, and teleconferencing), meetings (face-to-face interaction, seminars and conferences, social events, and retreats), and training and development (mentoring, instructional lectures, video tapes, and simulation games). This research combines the two types of knowledge (tacit and explicit) and the ontological dimension (individual, group, and organization) of knowledge creation presented by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) to derive the types of KnS behavior for the model. The KnS behaviors investigated and incorporated in the enterprise KnS model are as follows:

  • 1.

    Individual tacit: This behavior includes sharing tacit knowledge with an individual or individuals, such as face-to-face interactions in informal or formal meetings.

  • 2.

    Individual explicit: This behavior includes sharing explicit knowledge with an individual or individuals, such as through sending e-mail or hard copy material to select individual(s).

  • 3.

    Group tacit: This behavior includes sharing tacit knowledge with a group, such as face-to-face interactions with a community of interest, community of practice (CoP), or organizational unit.

  • 4.

    Group explicit: This behavior includes sharing explicit knowledge with a group, such as posting or contributing to a community of interest, CoP, or organizational unit repository, Web site, or mailing list server.

  • 5.

    Enterprise tacit: This behavior includes sharing tacit knowledge in an enterprise-wide forum, such as presenting at a technical exchange meeting or other forum that is open to the entire enterprise.

  • 6.

    Enterprise explicit: This behavior includes sharing explicit knowledge in a manner that makes it available to anyone in the enterprise, such as publishing in a corporate-wide repository or enterprise-wide intranet.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Miltiadis D. Lytras, Robert D. Tennyson, Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
Chapter 1
Gianluca Elia
Many classifications and taxonomies of knowledge management tools highlight mainly specific characteristics and features of a single tool, by... Sample PDF
A Knowledge Strategy Oriented Framework for Classifying Knowledge Management Tools
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Chapter 2
Mohamed Amine Chatti
Recognizing that knowledge is a key asset for better performance and that knowledge is a human and social activity, building ecologies that foster... Sample PDF
Social Software for Bottom-Up Knowledge Networking and Community Building
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Chapter 3
Kevin R. Parker, Joseph T. Chao
This chapter introduces wikis in the context of social software, focusing on their powerful information sharing and collaboration features. It... Sample PDF
Weaving a Knowledge Web with Wikis
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Chapter 4
Marc Spaniol, Ralf Klamma, Yiwei Cao
The success of knowledge sharing heavily depends on the capabilities of an information system to reproduce the ongoing discourses within a... Sample PDF
Media Centric Knowledge Sharing on the Web 2.0
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Chapter 5
Pascal Francq
The success of the Internet has launched McLuhan’s idea of the global village. Over the years, the Internet has become a real political medium which... Sample PDF
E-Democracy: The Social Software Perspective
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Chapter 6
Mariano Corso, Antonella Martini, Alessandro Piva
This chapter focuses on the community and collaboration tools as means of creating business communities of practice (CoPs). First, the state-of-the... Sample PDF
Community and Collaboration Tools to Frame the New Working Environment: The Banking Industry Case
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Chapter 7
Seppo J. Hänninen, Pekka Stenholm, T. J. Vapola, Ilkka Kauranen
Knowledge sharing has a strong effect on the success of the born globals. The objective of the chapter is to create a better understanding of the... Sample PDF
Who Talks with Whom: Impact of Knowledge Sharing in the Value Network of Born Globals
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Chapter 8
Stefan Hrastinski
This chapter looks at the concept of sociograms that has great illustrative importance in some circumstances, especially for studying small... Sample PDF
Illustrating Knowledge Networks as Sociograms
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Chapter 9
Marianna Vivitsou, Niki Lambropoulos, Sofia Papadimitriou, Alexandros Gkikas
Social web asynchronous communication environments provide the space for content creation, idea sharing and knowledge construction within a... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 Collaborative Learning Tool Dynamics
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Chapter 10
Wendelin Kupers
Based on a phenomenological understanding of knowing and knowledge in organisation, this chapter aims to contribute to an integral perspective on... Sample PDF
Knowing in Organizations: Pheno-Practical Perspectives
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Chapter 11
Ourania Petropoulou, Georgia Lazakidou, Symeon Retalis, Charalambos Vrasidas
here is a growing need for systematic evaluations of computer-supported collaborative learning environments. The present chapter focuses on the... Sample PDF
Evaluating the Learning Effectiveness of Collaborative Problem Solving in Computer-Mediated Settings
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Chapter 12
Jeanette Lemmergaard
This chapter introduces inter-organizational knowledge acquisition and sharing as a means to facilitate benchlearning within the field of human... Sample PDF
Acquiring and Sharing Knowledge Through Inter-Organizational Benchlearning
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Chapter 13
Max Senges, Marc Alier
his chapter discusses the potential of three dimensional virtual worlds as venue for constructivist learning communities. To reach a balanced answer... Sample PDF
Virtual Worlds as Environment for Learning Communities
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Chapter 14
Bonnie F. Bryson
This chapter describes the development of a knowledge management-based website that serves a community of practice within a federal agency, the U.S.... Sample PDF
Corps of Engineers Natural Resources Management (NRM) Gateway: Communities “in” Practice
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Chapter 15
Cynthia T. Small, Andrew P. Sage
This paper describes a complex adaptive systems (CAS)-based enterprise knowledge-sharing (KnS) model. The CAS-based enterprise KnS model consists of... Sample PDF
A Complex Adaptive Systems-Based Enterprise Knowledge Sharing Model
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Chapter 16
Reinhard Bernsteiner
This article explores how social software tools can offer support for innovative learning methods and instructional design in general, and those... Sample PDF
Facilitating E-Learning with Social Software: Attitudes and Usage from the Student's Point of View
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Chapter 17
Kuldip Kaur
An important dimension in education is interaction, that is, the coming together of a number of people to discuss, debate, and deliberate about... Sample PDF
Enlivening the Promise of Education: Building Collaborative Learning Communities Through Online Discussion
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Chapter 18
Karlheinz Kautz
This article adds to the discussion on knowledge management (KM) by focusing on the process of knowledge sharing as a vital part of KM. The article... Sample PDF
Towards an Integrated Model of Knowledge Sharing in Software Development: Insights from a Case Study
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Chapter 19
Ned Kock
Virtual worlds can be defined as technology-created virtual environments that incorporate representations of real world elements such as human... Sample PDF
E-Collaboration and E-Commerce in Virtual Worlds: The Potential of Second Life and World of Warcraft
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Chapter 20
Peter H. Jones
Proponents of the resource-based view of strategic management have argued for processes that align organizational knowledge resources to business... Sample PDF
Socializing a Knowledge Strategy
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