We present an overview of the literature relating to computational intelligence (also commonly called artificial intelligence) and business applications, particularly the journal-based literature. The modern investigation into artificial intelligence started with Alan Turing who asked in 1948 if it would be possible for “machinery to show intelligent behaviour.” The computational intelligence discipline is primarily concerned with understanding the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior, and consequently embodying these mechanisms in machines. The term “artificial intelligence” first appeared in print in 1955. As this overview shows, the 50 years of research since then have produced a wide range of techniques, many of which have important implications for many business functions, including finance, economics, production, operations, marketing, and management. However, gaining access to the literature can prove difficult for both the computational intelligence researcher andthe business practitioner, as the material is contained in numerous journals and discipline areas. The chapter provides access to the vast and scattered literature by citing reviews of the main computational intelligence techniques, including expert systems, artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, rough sets, evolutionary algorithms, and multi-agent systems.