The objectives of this chapter are as follows. First, a background in anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder complex is presented to provide a brief review of the essential functions of the shoulder. Second, important features of practical shoulder models are discussed with reference to capabilities of current computational modelling techniques. Third, techniques in computational modelling of the shoulder complex are compared and contrasted for their effectiveness in representing shoulder biomechanics in situ, with some sample calculations included. Fourth, in vivo and in vitro techniques for verifying computational models will be briefly reviewed. Finally, a summary of emerging trends will indicate the clinical impact that computational modelling can be expected to have in progressing our understanding of shoulder complex movement and its fundamental biomechanics.